Serological Evidence of Discrete Spatial Clusters of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites
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{"title"=>"Serological evidence of discrete spatial clusters of plasmodium falciparum parasites", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Philip", "last_name"=>"Bejon", "scopus_author_id"=>"8728878000"}, {"first_name"=>"Louise", "last_name"=>"Turner", "scopus_author_id"=>"8515489200"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Lavstsen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801653459"}, {"first_name"=>"Gerald", "last_name"=>"Cham", "scopus_author_id"=>"35077510900"}, {"first_name"=>"Ally", "last_name"=>"Olotu", "scopus_author_id"=>"24830855600"}, {"first_name"=>"Chris J.", "last_name"=>"Drakeley", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003491251"}, {"first_name"=>"Marc", "last_name"=>"Lievens", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603879458"}, {"first_name"=>"Johan", "last_name"=>"Vekemans", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003555847"}, {"first_name"=>"Barbara", "last_name"=>"Savarese", "scopus_author_id"=>"57188780167"}, {"first_name"=>"John", "last_name"=>"Lusingu", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506419869"}, {"first_name"=>"Lorenz", "last_name"=>"von Seidlein", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003391764"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter C.", "last_name"=>"Bull", "scopus_author_id"=>"35304702600"}, {"first_name"=>"Kevin", "last_name"=>"Marsh", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201684011"}, {"first_name"=>"Thor G.", "last_name"=>"Theander", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006373193"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79959661952", "pmid"=>"21747921", "sgr"=>"79959661952", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0021711", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"362031225"}, "id"=>"08a66239-12a9-3450-8c3c-a482e085fa7c", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission may be considered to be homogenous with well-mixed parasite populations (as in the classic Ross/Macdonald models). Marked fine-scale heterogeneity of transmission has been observed in the field (i.e., over a few kilometres), but there are relatively few data on the degree of mixing. Since the Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) is highly polymorphic, the host's serological responses may be used to infer exposure to parasite sub-populations.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured the antibody responses to 46 individual PfEMP1 domains at four time points among 450 children in Kenya, and identified distinct spatial clusters of antibody responses to individual domains. 35 domains showed strongly significant sero-clusters at p = 0.001. Individuals within the high transmission hotspot showed the greatest diversity of anti-PfEMP1 responses. Individuals outside the hotspot had a less diverse range of responses, even if as individuals they were at relatively intense exposure.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: We infer that antigenically distinct sub-populations of parasites exist on a fine spatial scale in a study area of rural Kenya. Further studies should examine antigenic variation over longer periods of time and in different study areas.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/serological-evidence-discrete-spatial-clusters-plasmodium-falciparum-parasites", "reader_count"=>47, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>3, "Unspecified"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>5, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>5}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Pakistan"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Tanzania"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Kenya"=>1, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382416", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382462", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382516", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382571", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382639", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382688", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382743", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382804", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382846"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Malaria transmission may be considered to be homogenous with well-mixed parasite populations (as in the classic Ross/Macdonald models). Marked fine-scale heterogeneity of transmission has been observed in the field (i.e., over a few kilometres), but there are relatively few data on the degree of mixing. Since the <em>Plasmodium falciparum</em> Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) is highly polymorphic, the host's serological responses may be used to infer exposure to parasite sub-populations.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>We measured the antibody responses to 46 individual PfEMP1 domains at four time points among 450 children in Kenya, and identified distinct spatial clusters of antibody responses to individual domains. 35 domains showed strongly significant sero-clusters at p = 0.001. Individuals within the high transmission hotspot showed the greatest diversity of anti-PfEMP1 responses. Individuals outside the hotspot had a less diverse range of responses, even if as individuals they were at relatively intense exposure.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>We infer that antigenically distinct sub-populations of parasites exist on a fine spatial scale in a study area of rural Kenya. Further studies should examine antigenic variation over longer periods of time and in different study areas.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["serological", "discrete", "spatial", "clusters", "parasites"], "article_id"=>135539, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Cancer", "Immunology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Philip Bejon", "Louise Turner", "Thomas Lavstsen", "Gerald Cham", "Ally Olotu", "Chris J. Drakeley", "Marc Lievens", "Johan Vekemans", "Barbara Savarese", "John Lusingu", "Lorenz von Seidlein", "Peter C. Bull", "Kevin Marsh", "Thor G. Theander"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021711.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021711.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021711.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021711.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021711.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021711.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021711.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021711.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021711.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Serological_Evidence_of_Discrete_Spatial_Clusters_of_Plasmodium_falciparum_Parasites/135539", "title"=>"Serological Evidence of Discrete Spatial Clusters of <em>Plasmodium falciparum</em> Parasites", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 01:32:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760315"], "description"=>"<p>The shaded area indicates 95% confidence intervals, and the dots indicate individual raw data points.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lines", "components", "anti-pfemp1", "antibody", "responses", "korogwe", "kilifi"], "article_id"=>430661, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Physiology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Philip Bejon", "Louise Turner", "Thomas Lavstsen", "Gerald Cham", "Ally Olotu", "Chris J. Drakeley", "Marc Lievens", "Johan Vekemans", "Barbara Savarese", "John Lusingu", "Lorenz von Seidlein", "Peter C. Bull", "Kevin Marsh", "Thor G. Theander"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021711.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_best_fit_lines_for_age_vs_principal_components_panels_a_8211_c_and_overall_mean_anti_PfEMP1_antibody_responses_panel_d_for_Korogwe_and_Kilifi_adjusted_by_calendar_date_/430661", "title"=>"The best fit lines for age vs principal components (panels a–c) and overall mean anti-PfEMP1 antibody responses (panel d) for Korogwe and Kilifi (adjusted by calendar date).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:11:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760471"], "description"=>"<p>The PfEMP1 category and domain category are shown by a colour code in the first two rows (see key at bottom of figure). The third row shows the intensity of mean antibody responses. The positive control (tetanus toxoid) and negative control (BSA) antigens gave geometric mean ELISA scores of 32.4 (95%CI 29.3–35.9) and 0.120 (95%CI 0.115–0.123), respectively. Individual PfEMP1 domains had a wide range of geometric mean response from 0.171 (95%CI 0.163–0.179) for domain 43 (a CIDR domain from a type C PfEMP1) to 16.3 (95%CI 15.4–17.2) for domain 36 (a DBL domain from a type BA PfEMP1). The 4<sup>th</sup>–6<sup>th</sup> rows show each domains contribution to a principal component analysis. The effect size and significance of the following independent variables is shown; Age, Date, Vaccination with control vaccine vs RTS,S/AS01<sub>E</sub>, ITN use, episodes of malaria and site (Korogwe vs Kilifi). Green shading indicates a positive effect on antibody responses, red shading indicates a negative effect. The thick black boxing indicates p<0.001, thin black boxing indicated p<0.05. The effect size for continuous variables (age and date) is scaled so that the inter-quartile range is comparable to a single category.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["antibody", "responses", "46", "pfemp1"], "article_id"=>430824, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Physiology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Philip Bejon", "Louise Turner", "Thomas Lavstsen", "Gerald Cham", "Ally Olotu", "Chris J. Drakeley", "Marc Lievens", "Johan Vekemans", "Barbara Savarese", "John Lusingu", "Lorenz von Seidlein", "Peter C. Bull", "Kevin Marsh", "Thor G. Theander"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021711.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Heatmap_of_variation_in_antibody_responses_to_46_different_PfEMP1_domains_/430824", "title"=>"Heatmap of variation in antibody responses to 46 different PfEMP1 domains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:13:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760686"], "description"=>"<p>The mean responses and 95% confidence intervals inside and outside the hotspot are shown on a log scale to the left of each scatter plot. Red or green shading shows location inside or outside the hotspot, respectively. For example, domain number 1 (top left panel) is from a group A PfEMP1 (1, orange), is a CIDR domain (2, blue), and shows statistically significant clustering at the p = 0.001 level (3, red), antibody responses within the cluster are well above the 95% CI for responses outside (boxed plot of two points with confidence intervals), and on an aerial view the hotspot is in the North-east of the study area (indicated by the red spots).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plots", "anti-pfemp1", "sero-clusters", "shown", "homestead", "kilifi"], "article_id"=>431032, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Physiology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Philip Bejon", "Louise Turner", "Thomas Lavstsen", "Gerald Cham", "Ally Olotu", "Chris J. Drakeley", "Marc Lievens", "Johan Vekemans", "Barbara Savarese", "John Lusingu", "Lorenz von Seidlein", "Peter C. Bull", "Kevin Marsh", "Thor G. Theander"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021711.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scatter_plots_of_anti_PfEMP1_domain_specific_sero_clusters_are_shown_by_homestead_residence_in_Kilifi_only_longitude_vs_latitude_/431032", "title"=>"Scatter plots of anti-PfEMP1 domain specific sero-clusters are shown by homestead residence in Kilifi only (longitude vs latitude).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:17:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760894"], "description"=>"<p>The intensity of the red or green spots indicates the range of the principal component, but red or green shading depends on being inside or outside the hotspot, respectively. The time period during which each sero-cluster was present and the statistical significance of the scan statistic is indicated above each panel.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["malaria", "anti-ama-1", "antibodies", "components", "antibody", "responses", "46", "pfemp1", "domains", "shown"], "article_id"=>431237, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Physiology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Philip Bejon", "Louise Turner", "Thomas Lavstsen", "Gerald Cham", "Ally Olotu", "Chris J. Drakeley", "Marc Lievens", "Johan Vekemans", "Barbara Savarese", "John Lusingu", "Lorenz von Seidlein", "Peter C. Bull", "Kevin Marsh", "Thor G. Theander"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021711.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hotspots_for_clinical_malaria_episodes_anti_AMA_1_antibodies_and_for_the_first_3_principal_components_of_antibody_responses_to_46_different_PfEMP1_domains_are_shown_in_Kilifi_/431237", "title"=>"Hotspots for clinical malaria episodes, anti-AMA-1 antibodies and for the first 3 principal components of antibody responses to 46 different PfEMP1 domains are shown in Kilifi.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-29 00:20:37"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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