Effects of Total Resources, Resource Ratios, and Species Richness on Algal Productivity and Evenness at Both Metacommunity and Local Scales
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{"title"=>"Effects of total resources, resource ratios, and species richness on algal productivity and evenness at both metacommunity and local scales", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Lars", "last_name"=>"Gamfeldt", "scopus_author_id"=>"8402280300"}, {"first_name"=>"Helmut", "last_name"=>"Hillebrand", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003753712"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362084893", "sgr"=>"79959927389", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"21755016", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79959927389", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0021972", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"f5e7214f-4d87-3982-baf3-9409b05768eb", "abstract"=>"The study of the interrelationship between productivity and biodiversity is a major research field in ecology. Theory predicts that if essential resources are heterogeneously distributed across a metacommunity, single species may dominate productivity in individual metacommunity patches, but a mixture of species will maximize productivity across the whole metacommunity. It also predicts that a balanced supply of resources within local patches should favor species coexistence, whereas resource imbalance would favor the dominance of one species. We performed an experiment with five freshwater algal species to study the effects of total supply of resources, their ratios, and species richness on biovolume production and evenness at the scale of both local patches and metacommunities. Generally, algal biovolume increased, whereas algal resource use efficiency (RUE) and evenness decreased with increasing total supply of resources in mixed communities containing all five species. In contrast to predictions for biovolume production, the species mixtures did not outperform all monocultures at the scale of metacommunities. In other words, we observed no general transgressive overyielding. However, RUE was always higher in mixtures than predicted from monocultures, and analyses indicate that resource partitioning or facilitation in mixtures resulted in higher-than-expected productivity at high resource supply. Contrasting our predictions for the local scale, balanced supply of resources did not generally favor higher local evenness, however lowest evenness was confined to patches with the most imbalanced supply. Thus, our study provides mixed support for recent theoretical advancements to understand biodiversity-productivity relationships.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-total-resources-resource-ratios-species-richness-algal-productivity-evenness-both-metacommun", "reader_count"=>76, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>20, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>20, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>24, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>41, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>41}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>24}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Philippines"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Mexico"=>2, "Chile"=>1, "France"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Portugal"=>2, "Germany"=>4}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/381588", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/381628"], "description"=>"<div><p>The study of the interrelationship between productivity and biodiversity is a major research field in ecology. Theory predicts that if essential resources are heterogeneously distributed across a metacommunity, single species may dominate productivity in individual metacommunity patches, but a mixture of species will maximize productivity across the whole metacommunity. It also predicts that a balanced supply of resources within local patches should favor species coexistence, whereas resource imbalance would favor the dominance of one species. We performed an experiment with five freshwater algal species to study the effects of total supply of resources, their ratios, and species richness on biovolume production and evenness at the scale of both local patches and metacommunities. Generally, algal biovolume increased, whereas algal resource use efficiency (RUE) and evenness decreased with increasing total supply of resources in mixed communities containing all five species. In contrast to predictions for biovolume production, the species mixtures did not outperform all monocultures at the scale of metacommunities. In other words, we observed no general transgressive overyielding. However, RUE was always higher in mixtures than predicted from monocultures, and analyses indicate that resource partitioning or facilitation in mixtures resulted in higher-than-expected productivity at high resource supply. Contrasting our predictions for the local scale, balanced supply of resources did not generally favor higher local evenness, however lowest evenness was confined to patches with the most imbalanced supply. Thus, our study provides mixed support for recent theoretical advancements to understand biodiversity-productivity relationships.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["effects", "richness", "algal", "evenness", "metacommunity", "scales"], "article_id"=>135377, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Cell Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lars Gamfeldt", "Helmut Hillebrand"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021972.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021972.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Effects_of_Total_Resources_Resource_Ratios_and_Species_Richness_on_Algal_Productivity_and_Evenness_at_Both_Metacommunity_and_Local_Scales/135377", "title"=>"Effects of Total Resources, Resource Ratios, and Species Richness on Algal Productivity and Evenness at Both Metacommunity and Local Scales", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-07-06 01:29:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/758801"], "description"=>"<p>P<sub>sup</sub> generally increased algal biovolume (A), decreased resource use efficiency (B), and decreased evenness (C). Results are based on the mixture treatments only. For this and the following figures, all error bars are 1 standard error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phosphorus", "metacommunity"], "article_id"=>429177, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lars Gamfeldt", "Helmut Hillebrand"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021972.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_phosphorus_supply_P_sup_at_the_metacommunity_scale_/429177", "title"=>"Effects of phosphorus supply (P<sub>sup</sub>) at the metacommunity scale.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-06 02:32:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/758924"], "description"=>"<p>Algal biovolume generally increased (A) and resource use efficiency decreased (B) with increasing P<sub>sup</sub>. There were mixed effects of P<sub>sup</sub> and N∶P on evenness (C). Results are based on the mixture treatments only.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phosphorus"], "article_id"=>429309, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lars Gamfeldt", "Helmut Hillebrand"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021972.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_phosphorus_supply_P_sup_and_nitrogen_8758_phosphorus_N_8758_P_ratio_at_the_local_scale_/429309", "title"=>"Effects of phosphorus supply (P<sub>sup</sub>) and nitrogen∶phosphorus (N∶P) ratio at the local scale.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-06 02:35:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759042"], "description"=>"<p>Algal biovolume for the six different algal compositions, five monocultures and the mixture, under different levels of P<sub>sup</sub>. (A) The metacommunity scale, and (B–D) local patch scale for the three levels of N∶P. AN = <i>Ankistrodesmus</i>, CL = <i>Chlamydomonas</i>, CY = <i>Cylindrospermum</i>, FR = <i>Fragilaria</i>, and GY = <i>Gymnodinium</i>. Solid line indicates the mixture.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plant biology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>429422, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lars Gamfeldt", "Helmut Hillebrand"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021972.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Algal_composition_and_biovolume_/429422", "title"=>"Algal composition and biovolume.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-06 02:37:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759145"], "description"=>"<p>Net diversity, complementarity, and selection effects for algal biovolume (A). Net diversity effects for resource use efficiency, Δ<sub>RUE</sub> (B). The difference between evenness (Δ<sub>Evenness</sub>) in mixture and in monocultures (C).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["observed", "metacommunity"], "article_id"=>429524, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lars Gamfeldt", "Helmut Hillebrand"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021972.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparing_observed_and_expected_results_for_the_mixture_diversity_effects_at_metacommunity_scale_/429524", "title"=>"Comparing observed and expected results for the mixture (diversity effects) at metacommunity scale.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-06 02:38:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759262"], "description"=>"<p>Net diversity effects for algal biovolume (A). Net diversity effects for resource use efficiency, Δ<sub>RUE</sub> (B). The difference between evenness (Δ<sub>Evenness</sub>) in mixture and in monocultures (C).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["observed"], "article_id"=>429641, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lars Gamfeldt", "Helmut Hillebrand"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021972.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparing_observed_and_expected_results_for_the_mixture_diversity_effects_at_local_scale_/429641", "title"=>"Comparing observed and expected results for the mixture (diversity effects) at local scale.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-06 02:40:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759426"], "description"=>"<p>At the regional (A,B) and local (C,D) scale. A and C are raw observed data, B and D residuals after analyzing the response of both resource use efficiency and evenness to the resource supply treatments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algal", "evenness"], "article_id"=>429811, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lars Gamfeldt", "Helmut Hillebrand"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021972.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_of_algal_evenness_and_resource_use_efficiency_/429811", "title"=>"Correlation of algal evenness and resource use efficiency.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759566"], "description"=>"<p>Results as analyzed with ANOVA with adjusted (adj) number of degrees of freedom in the error term (see text for details). Significant results are shown in bold.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phosphorus", "algal", "evenness", "metacomunnity"], "article_id"=>429941, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lars Gamfeldt", "Helmut Hillebrand"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021972.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_total_phosphorus_P_sup_and_nitrogen_8758_phosphorus_ratio_N_8758_P_on_algal_biovolume_resource_use_efficiency_RUE_and_algal_evenness_on_A_metacomunnity_and_B_local_scales_/429941", "title"=>"Effects of total phosphorus (P<sub>sup</sub>) and nitrogen∶phosphorus ratio (N∶P) on algal biovolume, resource use efficiency (RUE), and algal evenness on (A) metacomunnity and (B) local scales.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-06 02:45:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759601"], "description"=>"<p>3 levels of total phosphorus (P<sub>sup</sub>) and 3 levels of N∶P ratio (shown after comma sign as 2, 16 or 128). Δ<sub>RUE</sub> and Δ<sub>Even</sub> are observed resource use and observed evenness compared to expected values in monocultures. Significant results are shown in bold.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["complementarity", "zero", "metacomunnity"], "article_id"=>429979, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lars Gamfeldt", "Helmut Hillebrand"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021972.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_t_tests_to_analyze_if_net_diversity_effects_complementarity_effects_selection_effects_RUE_and_916_Even_are_different_from_zero_on_A_metacomunnity_and_B_local_scales_/429979", "title"=>"Results of t tests to analyze if net diversity effects, complementarity effects, selection effects, Δ<sub>RUE</sub>, and Δ<sub>Even</sub> are different from zero on (A) metacomunnity and (B) local scales.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-06 02:46:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759636"], "description"=>"<p>Details as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021972#pone-0021972-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sp", "algal", "biovolume", "rue", "metacommunity"], "article_id"=>430012, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lars Gamfeldt", "Helmut Hillebrand"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021972.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_P_sup_N_8758_P_and_Sp_species_composition_individual_species_and_mixture_on_algal_biovolume_and_RUE_on_A_metacommunity_and_B_local_scales_/430012", "title"=>"Effects of P<sub>sup</sub>, N∶P, and Sp (species composition: individual species and mixture) on algal biovolume and RUE on (A) metacommunity and (B) local scales.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-06 00:00:12"}

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Relative Metric

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