Whispering to the Deaf: Communication by a Frog without External Vocal Sac or Tympanum in Noisy Environments
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{"title"=>"Whispering to the deaf: Communication by a frog without external vocal sac or tympanum in noisy environments", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Renaud", "last_name"=>"Boistel", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506635553"}, {"first_name"=>"Thierry", "last_name"=>"Aubin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004287554"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Cloetens", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004115610"}, {"first_name"=>"Max", "last_name"=>"Langer", "scopus_author_id"=>"57199405694"}, {"first_name"=>"Brigitte", "last_name"=>"Gillet", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003673059"}, {"first_name"=>"Patrice", "last_name"=>"Josset", "scopus_author_id"=>"57189003014"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicolas", "last_name"=>"Pollet", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603710250"}, {"first_name"=>"Anthony", "last_name"=>"Herrel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004374986"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362129030", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0022080", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79960235207", "pmid"=>"21779377", "sgr"=>"79960235207"}, "id"=>"888699ae-535d-3898-9c36-c549149073f3", "abstract"=>"Atelopus franciscus is a diurnal bufonid frog that lives in South-American tropical rain forests. As in many other frogs, males produce calls to defend their territories and attract females. However, this species is a so-called \"earless\" frog lacking an external tympanum and is thus anatomically deaf. Moreover, A. franciscus has no external vocal sac and lives in a sound constraining environment along river banks where it competes with other calling frogs. Despite these constraints, male A. franciscus reply acoustically to the calls of conspecifics in the field. To resolve this apparent paradox, we studied the vocal apparatus and middle-ear, analysed signal content of the calls, examined sound and signal content propagation in its natural habitat, and performed playback experiments. We show that A. franciscus males can produce only low intensity calls that propagate a short distance (<8 m) as a result of the lack of an external vocal sac. The species-specific coding of the signal is based on the pulse duration, providing a simple coding that is efficient as it allows discrimination from calls of sympatric frogs. Moreover, the signal is redundant and consequently adapted to noisy environments. As such a coding system can be efficient only at short-range, territory holders established themselves at short distances from each other. Finally, we show that the middle-ear of A. franciscus does not present any particular adaptations to compensate for the lack of an external tympanum, suggesting the existence of extra-tympanic pathways for sound propagation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/whispering-deaf-communication-frog-without-external-vocal-sac-tympanum-noisy-environments", "reader_count"=>77, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>61, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>61}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>4, "Denmark"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>7, "Peru"=>2, "Germany"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/757970"], "description"=>"<p>In light gray, the two species in frequency competition with <i>A. franciscus</i>. <i>A. franciscus</i> in dark gray. D, diurnal; N/D, diurnal/nocturnal activity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bandwidth", "calls", "frog", "sympatric"], "article_id"=>428333, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Renaud Boistel", "Thierry Aubin", "Peter Cloetens", "Max Langer", "Brigitte Gillet", "Patrice Josset", "Nicolas Pollet", "Anthony Herrel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022080.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_bandwidth_of_the_calls_of_9_frog_species_sympatric_with_A_franciscus_/428333", "title"=>"Frequency bandwidth of the calls of 9 frog species sympatric with <i>A. franciscus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-13 02:18:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/757861"], "description"=>"<p>Attenuation of the call propagated at different distances (2, 4, 8 m) in two natural habitats, undergrowth (UG) and riverbank (RB).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["propagated", "distances", "undergrowth", "riverbank"], "article_id"=>428222, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Renaud Boistel", "Thierry Aubin", "Peter Cloetens", "Max Langer", "Brigitte Gillet", "Patrice Josset", "Nicolas Pollet", "Anthony Herrel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022080.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Attenuation_of_the_call_propagated_at_different_distances_2_4_8_m_in_two_natural_habitats_undergrowth_UG_and_riverbank_RB_/428222", "title"=>"Attenuation of the call propagated at different distances (2, 4, 8 m) in two natural habitats, undergrowth (UG) and riverbank (RB).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-13 02:17:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/758428"], "description"=>"<p>\n <b>References</b></p><p>S1. Moffat AJM, Capranica RR (1978) Middle ear sensitivity in anurans and reptiles measured by light scattering spectroscopy. J Comp Physiol 187 [A]: 97-107.</p><p>S2. Mason MJ, Narins PM (2002) Vibrometric studies of the middle ear of the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana I, The extrastapes. J Exp Biol 205:3153-3165.</p><p>S3. Jørgensen MB, Kanneworff M (1998) Middle ear transmission in the grass frog, <i>Rana temporaria</i>. J Comp Physiol [A]. 182: 59-64.</p><p>S4. David R (2002) Signals and Perception: The Fundamentals of Human Sensation. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Open University. 407.</p><p>S5. Coleman MN, Ross CF (2004) Primate auditory diversity and its influence on hearing performance. Anat Rec 281A: 1123-1137.</p><p>S6. Iskandar HG, IH,Mounir M (1982) The ossicular system of cats. J Laryngol Otol 96: 195-204.</p><p>S7. Thomassen HA, Gea S, Maas S, Bout RG, Dirckx JJJ, Decraemer WF, Povel GDE (2007) Do Swiftlets have an ear for echolocation? The functional morphology of Swiftlets middle ears. Hear Res 225: 25-37.</p><p>S8. Schwartzkopff J (1955) On the hearing of birds. Auk 72: 340-347.</p><p>S9. Gummer AW, Smolders JWTh, Klinke R (1989) Mechanics of a single-ossicle ear: I. The extra-stapedius of the pigeon. Hear Res 39: 1-13.</p><p>S10. Saunders JC, Duncan RK, Doan DE, Werner YL (2000) The middle ear of reptiles and birds. In: Comparative Hearing: Dooling RJ, Fay RR, Popper AN, editors. Birds and Reptiles, New York: Springer-Verlag. 13-69.</p><p>S11. Payne RS (1971) Acoustic Location of Prey by Barn Owls (<i>Tyto Alba</i>). J Exp Biol 54: 535-573.</p><p>S12. WernerYL, Igić PG (2002) The middle ear of gekkonoid lizards: interspecific variation of structure in relation to body size and to auditory sensitivity. Hear Res 167:33-45.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lever", "itr"], "article_id"=>428795, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Renaud Boistel", "Thierry Aubin", "Peter Cloetens", "Max Langer", "Brigitte Gillet", "Patrice Josset", "Nicolas Pollet", "Anthony Herrel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022080.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_the_lever_ratio_ITR_and_transmission_of_the_middle_ear_in_tetrapods_/428795", "title"=>"Comparison of the lever ratio, ITR and transmission of the middle ear in tetrapods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-13 02:26:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/381005", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/381017", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/381028", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/381040"], "description"=>"<div><p><em>Atelopus franciscus</em> is a diurnal bufonid frog that lives in South-American tropical rain forests. As in many other frogs, males produce calls to defend their territories and attract females. However, this species is a so-called “earless” frog lacking an external tympanum and is thus anatomically deaf. Moreover, <em>A. franciscus</em> has no external vocal sac and lives in a sound constraining environment along river banks where it competes with other calling frogs. Despite these constraints, male <em>A. franciscus</em> reply acoustically to the calls of conspecifics in the field. To resolve this apparent paradox, we studied the vocal apparatus and middle-ear, analysed signal content of the calls, examined sound and signal content propagation in its natural habitat, and performed playback experiments. We show that <em>A. franciscus</em> males can produce only low intensity calls that propagate a short distance (<8 m) as a result of the lack of an external vocal sac. The species-specific coding of the signal is based on the pulse duration, providing a simple coding that is efficient as it allows discrimination from calls of sympatric frogs. Moreover, the signal is redundant and consequently adapted to noisy environments. As such a coding system can be efficient only at short-range, territory holders established themselves at short distances from each other. Finally, we show that the middle-ear of <em>A. franciscus</em> does not present any particular adaptations to compensate for the lack of an external tympanum, suggesting the existence of extra-tympanic pathways for sound propagation.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["whispering", "frog", "sac", "tympanum", "noisy", "environments"], "article_id"=>135271, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Renaud Boistel", "Thierry Aubin", "Peter Cloetens", "Max Langer", "Brigitte Gillet", "Patrice Josset", "Nicolas Pollet", "Anthony Herrel"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022080.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022080.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022080.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022080.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Whispering_to_the_Deaf_Communication_by_a_Frog_without_External_Vocal_Sac_or_Tympanum_in_Noisy_Environments/135271", "title"=>"Whispering to the Deaf: Communication by a Frog without External Vocal Sac or Tympanum in Noisy Environments", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-07-13 01:27:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/757591"], "description"=>"<p>(a) View of the pseudo-tympanum (note that the slices are windowed to obtain the best contrast in soft tissues) consisting of the extra-columella and middle ear cavity on a virtual medial slice of the left ear obtained with holotomography (7.46 µm). (b) A virtual coronal slice at the level of pseudo-tympanum showing the connection of the middle ear with the buccal cavity obtained with holotomography (7.46 µm). (c) and (d) 3D visualisation of inner ear (green) and middle ear cavity connected to the buccal cavity (blue) with the skin rendered transparent. (e) and (f) Views of the connection between the opercular muscle, the suprascapula, and the operculum. The virtual slices are obtained by MRI in the saggital and frontal plane. (g) Histological section of the left ear in the frontal plane illustrating the fibrous connection between the middle ear ossicle and the otic capsule. (h) and (i) Volume rendering of middle ear anatomy inside the skull obtained with holotomography (10 µm). (h) lateral view, (i) postero-lateral view. Scale bars represent 1 mm. Abbreviations: Asc Anterior semi-circular canal, Br Brain, Co columella, Di diploe, Ec extracolumella, Et Eustachian tubes, IE inner ear, Ip interna plectri, Mec middle ear cavity, Mo muscle opercular, Oc otic capsule, Op operculum, Pr prootic, Sk Skin, Sq squamosal and Ss suprascapula.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy"], "article_id"=>427959, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Renaud Boistel", "Thierry Aubin", "Peter Cloetens", "Max Langer", "Brigitte Gillet", "Patrice Josset", "Nicolas Pollet", "Anthony Herrel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022080.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ear_anatomy_of_Atelopus_franciscus_/427959", "title"=>"Ear anatomy of <i>Atelopus franciscus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-13 02:12:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/758155"], "description"=>"<p>Histogram representations correspond to the associated responses expressed as a proportion of the theoretically maximal response score.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["oscillographic", "representations", "signals", "playback", "experiments", "corresponding", "parameters"], "article_id"=>428510, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Renaud Boistel", "Thierry Aubin", "Peter Cloetens", "Max Langer", "Brigitte Gillet", "Patrice Josset", "Nicolas Pollet", "Anthony Herrel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022080.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sonographic_and_oscillographic_representations_of_test_signals_used_for_playback_experiments_signals_corresponding_to_tests_of_frequency_parameters_are_not_shown_/428510", "title"=>"Sonographic and oscillographic representations of test signals used for playback experiments (signals corresponding to tests of frequency parameters are not shown).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-13 02:21:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/757427"], "description"=>"<p>(a) <i>Atelopus franciscus</i>, which has an internal vocal sac, and (b) <i>Eleutherodactylus martinicensis</i>, which has an external vocal sac. The emission intensity (c, d) and the resonant frequency and Q factor (e, f) are shown for both species. Note how the two species have differences in the relative resonator bandwidth. In <i>A. franciscus</i> the bandwidth is wider and the call is of low intensity as a consequence of its internal vocal sac.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anurans", "emitting", "calls"], "article_id"=>427787, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Renaud Boistel", "Thierry Aubin", "Peter Cloetens", "Max Langer", "Brigitte Gillet", "Patrice Josset", "Nicolas Pollet", "Anthony Herrel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022080.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_the_vocal_performance_of_two_anurans_emitting_calls_at_a_similar_frequency_/427787", "title"=>"Comparison of the vocal performance of two anurans emitting calls at a similar frequency.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-13 02:09:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/758475"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: Avg Average, aCVi average Coefficient of Variation individual, CVP Coefficient of Variation of Population, Max Maximum, Min Minimum, N Number.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parameters", "coefficients", "advertisement", "calls", "14", "individuals", "10"], "article_id"=>428835, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Renaud Boistel", "Thierry Aubin", "Peter Cloetens", "Max Langer", "Brigitte Gillet", "Patrice Josset", "Nicolas Pollet", "Anthony Herrel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022080.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Acoustic_parameters_and_coefficients_of_variation_C_V_measured_on_the_advertisement_calls_of_14_individuals_with_a_mean_number_of_10_calls_per_individual_/428835", "title"=>"Acoustic parameters and coefficients of variation (C.V.) measured on the advertisement calls of 14 individuals (with a mean number of 10 calls per individual).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-13 02:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/757725"], "description"=>"<p>(a) sonographic and oscillographic representations of a natural call, (b) envelope representation of three successive pulses corresponding to the part highlighted in (a), c) oscillographic (left) and spectrographic (right) representation of a single pulse. Abbreviations refer to temporal and frequency measures.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "ecology", "biophysics", "neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>428087, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Renaud Boistel", "Thierry Aubin", "Peter Cloetens", "Max Langer", "Brigitte Gillet", "Patrice Josset", "Nicolas Pollet", "Anthony Herrel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022080.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Advertisement_call_of_Atelopus_francisus_/428087", "title"=>"Advertisement call of <i>Atelopus francisus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-13 02:14:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/758284"], "description"=>"<p>Histogram representations correspond to the associated responses expressed as a proportion of the theoretically maximal response (*  =  p<0.05, **  =  p<0.01).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["representations", "signals", "playback", "experiments", "pulses", "stretched", "compressed"], "article_id"=>428641, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Renaud Boistel", "Thierry Aubin", "Peter Cloetens", "Max Langer", "Brigitte Gillet", "Patrice Josset", "Nicolas Pollet", "Anthony Herrel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022080.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Oscillographic_representations_of_test_signals_used_during_playback_experiments_with_natural_pulses_stretched_or_compressed_expressed_in_/428641", "title"=>"Oscillographic representations of test signals used during playback experiments with natural pulses stretched or compressed (expressed in %).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-13 02:24:01"}

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