The Ecological Conditions That Favor Tool Use and Innovation in Wild Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops sp.)
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{"title"=>"The ecological conditions that favor tool use and innovation in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Eric M.", "last_name"=>"Patterson", "scopus_author_id"=>"35991682300"}, {"first_name"=>"Janet", "last_name"=>"Mann", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402735648"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0022243", "pmid"=>"21799801", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"79960572875", "pui"=>"362184603", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79960572875"}, "id"=>"0588d36f-f491-37d0-8bfe-2c3ec5bdcfb6", "abstract"=>"Dolphins are well known for their exquisite echolocation abilities, which enable them to detect and discriminate prey species and even locate buried prey. While these skills are widely used during foraging, some dolphins use tools to locate and extract prey. In the only known case of tool use in free-ranging cetaceans, a subset of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia habitually employs marine basket sponge tools to locate and ferret prey from the seafloor. While it is clear that sponges protect dolphins' rostra while searching for prey, it is still not known why dolphins probe the substrate at all instead of merely echolocating for buried prey as documented at other sites. By 'sponge foraging' ourselves, we show that these dolphins target prey that both lack swimbladders and burrow in a rubble-littered substrate. Delphinid echolocation and vision are critical for hunting but less effective on such prey. Consequently, if dolphins are to access this burrowing, swimbladderless prey, they must probe the seafloor and in turn benefit from using protective sponges. We suggest that these tools have allowed sponge foraging dolphins to exploit an empty niche inaccessible to their non-tool-using counterparts. Our study identifies the underlying ecological basis of dolphin tool use and strengthens our understanding of the conditions that favor tool use and innovation in the wild.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ecological-conditions-favor-tool-innovation-wild-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-sp", "reader_count"=>146, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>30, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Other"=>9, "Student > Master"=>27, "Student > Bachelor"=>22, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>30, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Other"=>9, "Student > Master"=>27, "Student > Bachelor"=>22, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>92, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>17, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>14, "Social Sciences"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>14}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>17}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>92}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Cuba"=>1, "Colombia"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Uruguay"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/380046", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/380085"], "description"=>"<div><p>Dolphins are well known for their exquisite echolocation abilities, which enable them to detect and discriminate prey species and even locate buried prey. While these skills are widely used during foraging, some dolphins use tools to locate and extract prey. In the only known case of tool use in free-ranging cetaceans, a subset of bottlenose dolphins (<em>Tursiops</em> sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia habitually employs marine basket sponge tools to locate and ferret prey from the seafloor. While it is clear that sponges protect dolphins' rostra while searching for prey, it is still not known <em>why</em> dolphins probe the substrate at all instead of merely echolocating for buried prey as documented at other sites. By ‘sponge foraging’ ourselves, we show that these dolphins target prey that both lack swimbladders and burrow in a rubble-littered substrate. Delphinid echolocation and vision are critical for hunting but less effective on such prey. Consequently, if dolphins are to access this burrowing, swimbladderless prey, they must probe the seafloor and in turn benefit from using protective sponges. We suggest that these tools have allowed sponge foraging dolphins to exploit an empty niche inaccessible to their non-tool-using counterparts. Our study identifies the underlying ecological basis of dolphin tool use and strengthens our understanding of the conditions that favor tool use and innovation in the wild.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["conditions", "bottlenose", "dolphins"], "article_id"=>135098, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Eric M. Patterson", "Janet Mann"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022243.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022243.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Ecological_Conditions_That_Favor_Tool_Use_and_Innovation_in_Wild_Bottlenose_Dolphins_Tursiops_sp_/135098", "title"=>"The Ecological Conditions That Favor Tool Use and Innovation in Wild Bottlenose Dolphins (<em>Tursiops</em> sp.)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:24:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/754881"], "description"=>"<p>Boat launch site (Monkey Mia), dolphin sponge foraging sightings, transects, and verification dive sites in Shark Bay, Western Australia.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["marine and aquatic sciences", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>425255, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Eric M. Patterson", "Janet Mann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022243.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sponging_Map_/425255", "title"=>"Sponging Map.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:27:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/754637"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) marine basket sponge (<i>Echinodyctium mesenterinum</i>), (<b>B</b>) dolphin wearing a sponge on its rostrum, (<b>C</b>) substrate littered with rock, shell, and debris, (<b>D</b>) hiding prey, barred sandperch (<i>Parapercis nebulosa</i>). All photographs taken by Eric M. Patterson.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["marine and aquatic sciences", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>425013, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Eric M. Patterson", "Janet Mann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022243.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sponging_in_Shark_Bay_/425013", "title"=>"Sponging in Shark Bay.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:23:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/755063"], "description"=>"<p>Data were transformed (+1) before ratios were calculated to correct for undefined ratios in samples with zero individuals in either group. Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test W = 28, *P = 0.016.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prey", "swimbladders"], "article_id"=>425442, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Eric M. Patterson", "Janet Mann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022243.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ratio_of_prey_without_swimbladders_SB_to_prey_with_swimbladders_during_both_Sponging_and_Non_Sponging_on_transects_/425442", "title"=>"Ratio of prey without swimbladders (SB) to prey with swimbladders during both <i>Sponging</i> and <i>Non-Sponging</i> on transects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:30:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/755176"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers represent reference(s) used to determine swimbladder status.</p><p>*Dissected in this study, +Swimbladder well known to be absent in entire family,</p>#<p>Additional family encountered on verification dives.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["abundance", "pooled", "transects", "verification"], "article_id"=>425550, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Eric M. Patterson", "Janet Mann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022243.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prey_abundance_from_Sponging_and_Non_Sponging_pooled_from_both_transects_and_verification_dives_/425550", "title"=>"Prey abundance from <i>Sponging</i> and <i>Non</i>-<i>Sponging</i>, pooled from both transects and verification dives.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:32:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/755122"], "description"=>"<p>Wilcoxon sign-rank test W = 28, *P = 0.016.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prey", "extracted", "abundance"], "article_id"=>425500, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Eric M. Patterson", "Janet Mann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022243.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Abundance_of_prey_species_extracted_during_Sponging_and_abundance_of_these_same_families_during_Non_Sponging_on_transects_/425500", "title"=>"Abundance of prey species extracted during <i>Sponging</i> and abundance of these same families during <i>Non-Sponging</i> on transects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-20 01:31:40"}

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Relative Metric

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