Swearing, Euphemisms, and Linguistic Relativity
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{"title"=>"Swearing, euphemisms, and linguistic relativity", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jeffrey S.", "last_name"=>"Bowers", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402759967"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher W.", "last_name"=>"Pleydell-Pearce", "scopus_author_id"=>"6505954932"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362184591", "sgr"=>"79960571428", "pmid"=>"21799832", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79960571428", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0022341", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"4018978e-7e38-32d7-bf95-f32f3fb87e7d", "abstract"=>"Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form) by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/swearing-euphemisms-linguistic-relativity", "reader_count"=>85, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>21, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>21, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>4, "Philosophy"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>24, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Computer Science"=>1, "Linguistics"=>39}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>24}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>39}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>4}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "India"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/754828"], "description"=>"<p>Mean electrodermal activity (EDA) invoked by stimulus onset across the four conditions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["electrodermal", "invoked", "onset"], "article_id"=>425200, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Jeffrey S. Bowers", "Christopher W. Pleydell-Pearce"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022341.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_electrodermal_activity_EDA_invoked_by_stimulus_onset_across_the_four_conditions_/425200", "title"=>"Mean electrodermal activity (EDA) invoked by stimulus onset across the four conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:35:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/754736"], "description"=>"<p>According to an approach that rejects relatively claims, the (implicit) assumption must be that word forms only influence our emotions via semantics, as in 1a. On this view, euphemisms and swear words mean different things—as indicated by their large separation in semantic space—and as a consequence, they evoke different reactions. By contrast, linguistic relativity would be supported if the structural features of a language can influence our thoughts via verbal conditioning, as in 1b. On this view, direct links develop between word forms and negative affect in response to past events in which the two stimuli co-occur. On this view, euphemisms are useful even when their meaning is very similar (or the same) to the swear word—as indicated by their small separation in semantic space—because they replace the surface form of the swear word that directly evokes negative affect.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hypothetical", "ways", "words", "euphemisms"], "article_id"=>425109, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Jeffrey S. Bowers", "Christopher W. Pleydell-Pearce"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022341.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_a_b_Two_hypothetical_ways_in_which_swear_words_and_euphemisms_are_associated_with_emotions_/425109", "title"=>"a-b. Two hypothetical ways in which swear words and euphemisms are associated with emotions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:34:45"}

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Relative Metric

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