Man and the Last Great Wilderness: Human Impact on the Deep Sea
Publication Date
August 01, 2011
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Eva Ramirez Llodra, Paul A. Tyler, Maria C. Baker, Odd Aksel Bergstad, et al
Volume
6
Issue
8
Pages
e22588
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022588
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0022588
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21829635
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3148232
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21829635
Web of Science
000293511200013
Scopus
79960961537
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/man-last-great-wilderness-human-impact-deep-sea
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Man and the last great wilderness: Human impact on the deep sea", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Eva", "last_name"=>"Ramirez-Llodra", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506434915"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul A.", "last_name"=>"Tyler", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102921991"}, {"first_name"=>"Maria C.", "last_name"=>"Baker", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403075121"}, {"first_name"=>"Odd Aksel", "last_name"=>"Bergstad", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603868616"}, {"first_name"=>"Malcolm R.", "last_name"=>"Clark", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404528797"}, {"first_name"=>"Elva", "last_name"=>"Escobar", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005846680"}, {"first_name"=>"Lisa A.", "last_name"=>"Levin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202247083"}, {"first_name"=>"Lenaick", "last_name"=>"Menot", "scopus_author_id"=>"8646716300"}, {"first_name"=>"Ashley A.", "last_name"=>"Rowden", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004209869"}, {"first_name"=>"Craig R.", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"7501648696"}, {"first_name"=>"Cindy L.", "last_name"=>"van Dover", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005034079"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"21829635", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"79960961537", "pui"=>"362247194", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79960961537", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0022588"}, "id"=>"ce120390-f905-3016-8a3a-614e05e6fed5", "abstract"=>"The deep sea, the largest ecosystem on Earth and one of the least studied, harbours high biodiversity and provides a wealth of resources. Although humans have used the oceans for millennia, technological developments now allow exploitation of fisheries resources, hydrocarbons and minerals below 2000 m depth. The remoteness of the deep seafloor has promoted the disposal of residues and litter. Ocean acidification and climate change now bring a new dimension of global effects. Thus the challenges facing the deep sea are large and accelerating, providing a new imperative for the science community, industry and national and international organizations to work together to develop successful exploitation management and conservation of the deep-sea ecosystem. This paper provides scientific expert judgement and a semi-quantitative analysis of past, present and future impacts of human-related activities on global deep-sea habitats within three categories: disposal, exploitation and climate change. The analysis is the result of a Census of Marine Life--SYNDEEP workshop (September 2008). A detailed review of known impacts and their effects is provided. The analysis shows how, in recent decades, the most significant anthropogenic activities that affect the deep sea have evolved from mainly disposal (past) to exploitation (present). We predict that from now and into the future, increases in atmospheric CO(2) and facets and consequences of climate change will have the most impact on deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Synergies between different anthropogenic pressures and associated effects are discussed, indicating that most synergies are related to increased atmospheric CO(2) and climate change effects. We identify deep-sea ecosystems we believe are at higher risk from human impacts in the near future: benthic communities on sedimentary upper slopes, cold-water corals, canyon benthic communities and seamount pelagic and benthic communities. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/751239"], "description"=>"<p>CFCs, Chlorofluorocarbons; PAHs, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropogenic", "impacts", "considered", "semi-quantitative", "grouped"], "article_id"=>421598, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Eva Ramirez-Llodra", "Paul A. Tyler", "Maria C. Baker", "Odd Aksel Bergstad", "Malcolm R. Clark", "Elva Escobar", "Lisa A. Levin", "Lenaick Menot", "Ashley A. Rowden", "Craig R. Smith", "Cindy L. Van Dover"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022588.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Main_anthropogenic_impacts_considered_in_the_semi_quantitative_analysis_see_Tables_S1_S2_and_S3_grouped_under_three_main_categories_/421598", "title"=>"Main anthropogenic impacts considered in the semi-quantitative analysis (see Tables S1, S2 and S3) grouped under three main categories.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-01 00:26:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/750322"], "description"=>"<p>Image courtesy of Gilbert Rowe, MMS contract 30991, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0022588#pone-0022588-g008\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 8.7.1</a> of the DGoMB report (from Rowe and Kennicutt, 2009).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["occurrence", "bathyal", "abyssal", "depths", "gulf"], "article_id"=>420681, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Eva Ramirez-Llodra", "Paul A. Tyler", "Maria C. Baker", "Odd Aksel Bergstad", "Malcolm R. Clark", "Elva Escobar", "Lisa A. Levin", "Lenaick Menot", "Ashley A. Rowden", "Craig R. Smith", "Cindy L. Van Dover"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022588.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Litter_occurrence_at_bathyal_and_abyssal_depths_in_the_Gulf_of_Mexico_/420681", "title"=>"Litter occurrence at bathyal and abyssal depths in the Gulf of Mexico.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-01 00:11:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/750142"], "description"=>"<p>A–C, litter collected from the Western Mediterranean at 1200 m (A), 2000 m (B) and 3000 m (C) (Photos courtesy of E. Ramirez-Llodra, ICM-CSIC); D, oil drum, tyre and longline collected from the Central Mediterranean at 1200 m depth (Photos courtesy of E. Ramirez-Llodra, ICM-CSIC); E, litter observed with the ROV Isis in the Lisbon canyon (Photo courtesy of P. Tyler, Uni. Southampton/NOCS); F, litter observed with a submersible on the southern California margin at 1240 m depth (Photo courtesy of C. Smith, Uni. Hawaii).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["observed", "bathyal", "abyssal"], "article_id"=>420506, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Eva Ramirez-Llodra", "Paul A. Tyler", "Maria C. Baker", "Odd Aksel Bergstad", "Malcolm R. Clark", "Elva Escobar", "Lisa A. Levin", "Lenaick Menot", "Ashley A. Rowden", "Craig R. Smith", "Cindy L. Van Dover"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022588.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Litter_observed_and_collected_from_bathyal_and_abyssal_depths_/420506", "title"=>"Litter observed and collected from bathyal and abyssal depths.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-01 00:08:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/750442"], "description"=>"<p>A, Part of a trawl lost on the seafloor and evidence of trawl disturbance and coral rubble on Zombie seamount, Chatham Rise, New Zealand EEZ (Photo courtesy of A. Rowden and M. Clark, NIWA); B, ghost fishing of <i>Geryon</i> crabs by a discarded/lost net recovered from 1200 m depth in the Western Mediterranean (Photo courtesy of E. Ramirez-Llodra, ICM-CSIC).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deep-sea"], "article_id"=>420808, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Eva Ramirez-Llodra", "Paul A. Tyler", "Maria C. Baker", "Odd Aksel Bergstad", "Malcolm R. Clark", "Elva Escobar", "Lisa A. Levin", "Lenaick Menot", "Ashley A. Rowden", "Craig R. Smith", "Cindy L. Van Dover"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022588.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fishing_impact_on_deep_sea_ecosystems_/420808", "title"=>"Fishing impact on deep-sea ecosystems.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-01 00:13:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/751167"], "description"=>"<p>Mean levels of estimated impact for disposal (red bars), exploitation (green bars) and climate change (blue bars) in past (A), present (B) and future (C) scenarios. Levels of impact estimated from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0022588#pone-0022588-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>. MOR, mid-ocean ridge; SL, sediment slope; CA, canyons; CO, corals; SEEP, cold seeps; VENT, hydrothermal vents; SM, seamounts; OMZ, oxygen minimum zones; AP, abyssal plains; Mn AP, manganese nodule abyssal plains; BP, bathypelagic; HT, hadal trenches.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["impacts", "deep-sea"], "article_id"=>421525, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Eva Ramirez-Llodra", "Paul A. Tyler", "Maria C. Baker", "Odd Aksel Bergstad", "Malcolm R. Clark", "Elva Escobar", "Lisa A. Levin", "Lenaick Menot", "Ashley A. Rowden", "Craig R. Smith", "Cindy L. Van Dover"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022588.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Evolution_of_the_dominant_impacts_on_deep_sea_habitats_/421525", "title"=>"Evolution of the dominant impacts on deep-sea habitats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-01 00:25:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/750793"], "description"=>"<p>A, photo of the oil being discharged in the water column (open source image); B, a coral in the deep Gulf of Mexico, with attached ophiuroid, covered with oil (Photo courtesy of Lophelia II 2010, NOAA OER and BOEMRE).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["slick", "gulf"], "article_id"=>421154, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Eva Ramirez-Llodra", "Paul A. Tyler", "Maria C. Baker", "Odd Aksel Bergstad", "Malcolm R. Clark", "Elva Escobar", "Lisa A. Levin", "Lenaick Menot", "Ashley A. Rowden", "Craig R. Smith", "Cindy L. Van Dover"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022588.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Deepwater_Horizon_oil_slick_in_the_Gulf_of_Mexico_2010_/421154", "title"=>"Deepwater Horizon oil slick in the Gulf of Mexico, 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-01 00:19:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/750615"], "description"=>"<p>A, the holothurian <i>Psychropotes semperiana</i> over manganese nodules on the Kaplan abyssal plain in the Pacific Ocean (Photo courtesy of Ifremer - Nautile/Nodinaut, 2004); B, sampling a vent chimney off Papua New Guinea during the environmental assessment conducted by Nautilus Minerals before exploitation of massive sulphides (Photo courtesy of Nautilus Minerals).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deep-sea"], "article_id"=>420976, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Eva Ramirez-Llodra", "Paul A. Tyler", "Maria C. Baker", "Odd Aksel Bergstad", "Malcolm R. Clark", "Elva Escobar", "Lisa A. Levin", "Lenaick Menot", "Ashley A. Rowden", "Craig R. Smith", "Cindy L. Van Dover"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022588.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Exploitation_of_deep_sea_mineral_resources_/420976", "title"=>"Exploitation of deep-sea mineral resources.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-01 00:16:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/750974"], "description"=>"<p>The lines link impacts that, when found together, have a synergistic effect on habitats or faunal communities. The lines are colour coded, indicating the direction of the synergy. LLRW, low-level radioactive waste; CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons; PAHs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amongst", "anthropogenic", "impacts", "deep-sea"], "article_id"=>421333, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Eva Ramirez-Llodra", "Paul A. Tyler", "Maria C. Baker", "Odd Aksel Bergstad", "Malcolm R. Clark", "Elva Escobar", "Lisa A. Levin", "Lenaick Menot", "Ashley A. Rowden", "Craig R. Smith", "Cindy L. Van Dover"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022588.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Synergies_amongst_anthropogenic_impacts_on_deep_sea_habitats_/421333", "title"=>"Synergies amongst anthropogenic impacts on deep-sea habitats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-01 00:22:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/378023", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/378039", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/378049"], "description"=>"<div><p>The deep sea, the largest ecosystem on Earth and one of the least studied, harbours high biodiversity and provides a wealth of resources. Although humans have used the oceans for millennia, technological developments now allow exploitation of fisheries resources, hydrocarbons and minerals below 2000 m depth. The remoteness of the deep seafloor has promoted the disposal of residues and litter. Ocean acidification and climate change now bring a new dimension of global effects. Thus the challenges facing the deep sea are large and accelerating, providing a new imperative for the science community, industry and national and international organizations to work together to develop successful exploitation management and conservation of the deep-sea ecosystem. This paper provides scientific expert judgement and a semi-quantitative analysis of past, present and future impacts of human-related activities on global deep-sea habitats within three categories: disposal, exploitation and climate change. The analysis is the result of a Census of Marine Life – SYNDEEP workshop (September 2008). A detailed review of known impacts and their effects is provided. The analysis shows how, in recent decades, the most significant anthropogenic activities that affect the deep sea have evolved from mainly disposal (past) to exploitation (present). We predict that from now and into the future, increases in atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> and facets and consequences of climate change will have the most impact on deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Synergies between different anthropogenic pressures and associated effects are discussed, indicating that most synergies are related to increased atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> and climate change effects. We identify deep-sea ecosystems we believe are at higher risk from human impacts in the near future: benthic communities on sedimentary upper slopes, cold-water corals, canyon benthic communities and seamount pelagic and benthic communities. We finalise this review with a short discussion on protection and management methods.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>134710, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Eva Ramirez-Llodra", "Paul A. Tyler", "Maria C. Baker", "Odd Aksel Bergstad", "Malcolm R. Clark", "Elva Escobar", "Lisa A. Levin", "Lenaick Menot", "Ashley A. Rowden", "Craig R. Smith", "Cindy L. Van Dover"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022588.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022588.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022588.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>19, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Man_and_the_Last_Great_Wilderness_Human_Impact_on_the_Deep_Sea/134710", "title"=>"Man and the Last Great Wilderness: Human Impact on the Deep Sea", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-08-01 01:18:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/749979"], "description"=>"<p>A, the anemone <i>Phelliactis robusta</i>, from 2311 m in the Eastern Whittard Canyon, SW Ireland, taken during cruise JC10, Dive 65, of the HERMES project (Photo courtesy of P. Tyler, Uni. Southampton, and D. Masson, NOCS/NERC); B, the brachiopod <i>Gryphus vitreus</i> attached to clinker and to a scaphopod shell (Photo courtesy of Ariadna Mechò, ICM-CSIC).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fauna", "attached"], "article_id"=>420342, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Eva Ramirez-Llodra", "Paul A. Tyler", "Maria C. Baker", "Odd Aksel Bergstad", "Malcolm R. Clark", "Elva Escobar", "Lisa A. Levin", "Lenaick Menot", "Ashley A. Rowden", "Craig R. Smith", "Cindy L. Van Dover"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022588.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Deep_water_fauna_attached_to_clinker_/420342", "title"=>"Deep-water fauna attached to clinker.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-01 00:05:42"}

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