Influence of Body Condition on Influenza A Virus Infection in Mallard Ducks: Experimental Infection Data
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{"title"=>"Influence of body condition on influenza a virus infection in mallard ducks: Experimental infection data", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Dustin M.", "last_name"=>"Arsnoe", "scopus_author_id"=>"47360981100"}, {"first_name"=>"Hon S.", "last_name"=>"Ip", "scopus_author_id"=>"22953304400"}, {"first_name"=>"Jennifer C.", "last_name"=>"Owen", "scopus_author_id"=>"9747623800"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80051678908", "pui"=>"362343942", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0022633", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"80051678908", "pmid"=>"21857940"}, "id"=>"8f03acd7-842a-3fc1-8ee8-ce5cca78d2a2", "abstract"=>"Migrating waterfowl are implicated in the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) are considered a particularly important IAV reservoir. Prevalence of IAV infection in waterfowl peaks during autumn pre-migration staging and then declines as birds reach wintering areas. Migration is energetically costly and birds often experience declines in body condition that may suppress immune function. We assessed how body condition affects susceptibility to infection, viral shedding and antibody production in wild-caught and captive-bred juvenile mallards challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H5N9. Wild mallards (n = 30) were separated into three experimental groups; each manipulated through food availability to a different condition level (-20%, -10%, and normal ±5% original body condition), and captive-bred mallards (n = 10) were maintained at normal condition. We found that wild mallards in normal condition were more susceptible to LPAIV infection, shed higher peak viral loads and shed viral RNA more frequently compared to birds in poor condition. Antibody production did not differ according to condition. We found that wild mallards did not differ from captive-bred mallards in viral intensity and duration of infection, but they did exhibit lower antibody titers and greater variation in viral load. Our findings suggest that reduced body condition negatively influences waterfowl host competence to LPAIV infection. This observation is contradictory to the recently proposed condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which birds in reduced condition would be more susceptible to IAV infection. The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/influence-body-condition-influenza-virus-infection-mallard-ducks-experimental-infection-data-3", "reader_count"=>55, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>35, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>6, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>35}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Reunion"=>1, "United States"=>6, "Bolivia"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745472"], "description"=>"<p>Data points represent mean condition (±1 standard error), A = start of diet manipulation, B = LPAIV H5N9 inoculation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mallard", "groups"], "article_id"=>415852, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Dustin M. Arsnoe", "Hon S. Ip", "Jennifer C. Owen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022633.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Body_condition_for_wild_mallard_treatment_groups_throughout_the_study_/415852", "title"=>"Body condition for wild mallard treatment groups throughout the study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:41:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745887"], "description"=>"<p>Mean genome load is calculated using only infected mallards (birds that seroconverted or shed detectable viral RNA≥3 dpi). Minimum and maximum values are reported for the number of birds <i>(n)</i> with detectable viral RNA on the given day.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["viral", "genome", "swab", "mallards", "inoculated", "lpaiv"], "article_id"=>416264, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Dustin M. Arsnoe", "Hon S. Ip", "Jennifer C. Owen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022633.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Group_mean_daily_1_SD_viral_genome_load_log_10_GEC_140_181_l_swab_sample_fluid_for_mallards_inoculated_with_LPAIV_H5N9_/416264", "title"=>"Group mean daily (±1 SD) viral genome load (log<sub>10</sub> GEC/140 µl swab sample fluid) for mallards inoculated with LPAIV H5N9.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:43:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745925"], "description"=>"*<p>Bold numbers indicate days after LPAIV H5N9 inoculation.</p>1<p>The ELISA scores represent the signal to noise (S/N) ratio where values ≤0.50 are considered seropositive.</p>2<p>The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) values represent the mean titer (log<sub>2</sub>) of sera samples.</p>3<p>Before LPAIV H5N9 inoculation.</p>4<p>Mean (±1 SD) test scores include all infected birds in each treatment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mallards", "lpaiv", "h5n9", "elisa"], "article_id"=>416294, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Dustin M. Arsnoe", "Hon S. Ip", "Jennifer C. Owen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022633.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Serological_status_mean_177_SD_of_mallards_before_and_after_LPAIV_H5N9_challenge_using_ELISA_and_HI_tests_/416294", "title"=>"Serological status (mean ± SD) of mallards before and after LPAIV H5N9 challenge using ELISA and HI tests.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:43:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745682"], "description"=>"<p>A: captive-bred (n = 9), B: wild normal (n = 10), C: wild lean (n = 10), D: wild poor (n = 6).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shedding", "profiles", "swab", "infected", "mallards", "detectable", "viral", "rna", "matrix"], "article_id"=>416049, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Dustin M. Arsnoe", "Hon S. Ip", "Jennifer C. Owen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022633.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Viral_shedding_profiles_log_10_GEC_140_181_l_of_swab_sample_fluid_for_all_infected_mallards_with_detectable_viral_RNA_using_matrix_gene_RRT_PCR_/416049", "title"=>"Viral shedding profiles (log<sub>10</sub> GEC/140 µl of swab sample fluid) for all infected mallards with detectable viral RNA using matrix gene RRT-PCR.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:42:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745810"], "description"=>"<p>Bars represent mean condition score ±1 standard error (n = 10), asterisks represent significant within group differences (paired t-test, alpha = 0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mallard", "groups", "lpaiv", "h5n9"], "article_id"=>416185, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Dustin M. Arsnoe", "Hon S. Ip", "Jennifer C. Owen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022633.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Breast_condition_score_for_wild_mallard_treatment_groups_at_capture_vs_LPAIV_H5N9_challenge_/416185", "title"=>"Breast condition score for wild mallard treatment groups at capture vs. LPAIV H5N9 challenge.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:42:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745385"], "description"=>"<p>The standard curve was generated using a log<sub>10</sub> dilution series of quantified RNA runoff transcripts or known concentrations of LPAI H5N9 stock virus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["calibration", "iav", "matrix", "copies", "plaque", "forming", "units"], "article_id"=>415754, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Dustin M. Arsnoe", "Hon S. Ip", "Jennifer C. Owen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022633.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regression_analysis_for_the_calibration_of_the_number_of_IAV_matrix_gene_copies_circles_and_plaque_forming_units_triangles_/415754", "title"=>"Regression analysis for the calibration of the number of IAV matrix gene copies (circles) and plaque forming units (triangles).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:40:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745591"], "description"=>"<p>Data points represent mean genome load (log<sub>10</sub> GEC/140 µl of swab sample fluid) for each day sampled.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["viral", "shedding", "captive-bred", "mallard"], "article_id"=>415961, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Dustin M. Arsnoe", "Hon S. Ip", "Jennifer C. Owen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022633.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_viral_shedding_for_captive_bred_and_wild_mallard_treatment_groups_/415961", "title"=>"Average viral shedding for captive-bred and wild mallard treatment groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:41:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745751"], "description"=>"<p>Bars represent means ±1 standard error, letters identify significant differences among wild mallard treatment groups (Mann-Whitney rank sum, alpha = 0.05). The mean number of positive samples was calculated from the 4 sampling days between 1–5 dpi.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["viral", "shedding", "samples", "captive-bred", "mallard"], "article_id"=>416127, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Dustin M. Arsnoe", "Hon S. Ip", "Jennifer C. Owen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022633.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Duration_of_viral_shedding_A_and_mean_number_of_positive_samples_B_for_captive_bred_and_wild_mallard_treatment_groups_/416127", "title"=>"Duration of viral shedding (A) and mean number of positive samples (B) for captive-bred and wild mallard treatment groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:42:32"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2011-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2011-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Genetics", "average_usage"=>[308, 576, 718, 839, 960, 1061, 1156, 1249, 1331, 1408, 1484, 1558, 1625, 1698, 1767, 1842, 1912, 1990, 2058, 2128, 2183, 2259, 2317, 2378, 2436, 2488, 2552, 2627, 2692, 2759, 2820, 2881, 2940, 3001, 3061, 3117, 3164]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[324, 535, 647, 742, 830, 933, 1003, 1085, 1147, 1194, 1266, 1323, 1378, 1433, 1492, 1557, 1621, 1684, 1752, 1812, 1870, 1923, 1985, 2037, 2101, 2158, 2216, 2267, 2335, 2391, 2455, 2529, 2595, 2658, 2710, 2756, 2813]}]}
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