Effectiveness of Strict vs. Multiple Use Protected Areas in Reducing Tropical Forest Fires: A Global Analysis Using Matching Methods
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{"title"=>"Effectiveness of strict vs. multiple use protected areas in reducing tropical forest fires: A global analysis using matching methods", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Andrew", "last_name"=>"Nelson", "scopus_author_id"=>"55551880700"}, {"first_name"=>"Kenneth M.", "last_name"=>"Chomitz", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603618485"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362343940", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0022722", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80051699034", "pmid"=>"21857950", "sgr"=>"80051699034"}, "id"=>"8192523b-fb6b-3a73-bdf8-d1d715846fb6", "abstract"=>"Protected areas (PAs) cover a quarter of the tropical forest estate. Yet there is debate over the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation, especially when local people have rights to use the forest. A key analytic problem is the likely placement of PAs on marginal lands with low pressure for deforestation, biasing comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Using matching techniques to control for this bias, this paper analyzes the global tropical forest biome using forest fires as a high resolution proxy for deforestation; disaggregates impacts by remoteness, a proxy for deforestation pressure; and compares strictly protected vs. multiple use PAs vs indigenous areas. Fire activity was overlaid on a 1 km map of tropical forest extent in 2000; land use change was inferred for any point experiencing one or more fires. Sampled points in pre-2000 PAs were matched with randomly selected never-protected points in the same country. Matching criteria included distance to road network, distance to major cities, elevation and slope, and rainfall. In Latin America and Asia, strict PAs substantially reduced fire incidence, but multi-use PAs were even more effective. In Latin America, where there is data on indigenous areas, these areas reduce forest fire incidence by 16 percentage points, over two and a half times as much as naı¨ve (unmatched) comparison with unprotected areas would suggest. In Africa, more recently established strict PAs appear to be effective, but multi-use tropical forest protected areas yield few sample points, and their impacts are not robustly estimated. These results suggest that forest protection can contribute both to biodiversity conservation and CO2 mitigation goals, with particular relevance to the REDD agenda. Encouragingly, indigenous areas and multi-use protected areas can help to accomplish these goals, suggesting some compatibility between global environmental goals and support for local livelihoods. 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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/375695", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/375703", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/375717", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/375727"], "description"=>"<div><p>Protected areas (PAs) cover a quarter of the tropical forest estate. Yet there is debate over the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation, especially when local people have rights to use the forest. A key analytic problem is the likely placement of PAs on marginal lands with low pressure for deforestation, biasing comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Using matching techniques to control for this bias, this paper analyzes the global tropical forest biome using forest fires as a high resolution proxy for deforestation; disaggregates impacts by remoteness, a proxy for deforestation pressure; and compares strictly protected vs. multiple use PAs vs indigenous areas. Fire activity was overlaid on a 1 km map of tropical forest extent in 2000; land use change was inferred for any point experiencing one or more fires. Sampled points in pre-2000 PAs were matched with randomly selected never-protected points in the same country. Matching criteria included distance to road network, distance to major cities, elevation and slope, and rainfall. In Latin America and Asia, strict PAs substantially reduced fire incidence, but multi-use PAs were even more effective. In Latin America, where there is data on indigenous areas, these areas reduce forest fire incidence by 16 percentage points, over two and a half times as much as naïve (unmatched) comparison with unprotected areas would suggest. In Africa, more recently established strict PAs appear to be effective, but multi-use tropical forest protected areas yield few sample points, and their impacts are not robustly estimated. These results suggest that forest protection can contribute both to biodiversity conservation and CO2 mitigation goals, with particular relevance to the REDD agenda. Encouragingly, indigenous areas and multi-use protected areas can help to accomplish these goals, suggesting some compatibility between global environmental goals and support for local livelihoods.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["protected", "areas", "reducing", "matching", "methods"], "article_id"=>134207, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrew Nelson", "Kenneth M. Chomitz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Effectiveness_of_Strict_vs_Multiple_Use_Protected_Areas_in_Reducing_Tropical_Forest_Fires_A_Global_Analysis_Using_Matching_Methods/134207", "title"=>"Effectiveness of Strict vs. Multiple Use Protected Areas in Reducing Tropical Forest Fires: A Global Analysis Using Matching Methods", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:10:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745125"], "description"=>"<p>Gray: Tropical forest biome. Green: Standing forest, 2000.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biome", "forests"], "article_id"=>415500, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrew Nelson", "Kenneth M. Chomitz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_tropical_forest_biome_with_standing_forests_in_2000_/415500", "title"=>"The tropical forest biome with standing forests in 2000.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:31:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745174"], "description"=>"<p>Protected area category. Strict (IUCN I–IV) [green]. Multiuse (IUCN V, VI) [yellow]. Indigenous [pink].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["protected", "areas", "established"], "article_id"=>415552, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrew Nelson", "Kenneth M. Chomitz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_IUCN_designated_protected_areas_established_by_2000_/415552", "title"=>"IUCN-designated protected areas established by 2000.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:32:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745248"], "description"=>"<p>Top – Strict protection in Latin America and the Caribbean, with Mahalanobis matching (A) and Mahalanobis matching with calipers (B). Bottom – Multi-use protection in Africa, with Mahalanobis matching (C) and Mahalanobis matching with calipers (D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "forests", "latin", "america", "caribbean"], "article_id"=>415627, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrew Nelson", "Kenneth M. Chomitz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Unbiased_estimated_fire_rates_for_tropical_forests_in_Latin_America_and_the_Caribbean_with_matching_/415627", "title"=>"Unbiased estimated fire rates for tropical forests in Latin America and the Caribbean (with matching).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:33:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745350"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note the change in scale on y axes</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "grey", "latin", "america", "mahalanobis", "matching", "calipers"], "article_id"=>415724, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrew Nelson", "Kenneth M. Chomitz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Unbiased_estimated_fire_rates_red_never_protected_green_protected_and_grey_8211_difference_for_indigenous_protection_in_Latin_America_and_the_Caribbean_with_Mahalanobis_matching_A_and_Mahalanobis_matching_with_calipers_B_/415724", "title"=>"Unbiased estimated fire rates (red - never protected, green - protected, and grey – difference) for indigenous protection in Latin America and the Caribbean, with Mahalanobis matching (A) and Mahalanobis matching with calipers (B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:35:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745425"], "description"=>"<p>Unbiased estimated fire rates (red - never protected, green - protected, and grey – difference) for tropical forests in Africa with Mahalanobis matching (A) and Mahalanobis matching with calipers (B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "grey", "forests", "africa", "mahalanobis", "matching", "calipers"], "article_id"=>415794, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrew Nelson", "Kenneth M. Chomitz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Unbiased_estimated_fire_rates_red_never_protected_green_protected_and_grey_8211_difference_for_tropical_forests_in_Africa_with_Mahalanobis_matching_A_and_Mahalanobis_matching_with_calipers_B_/415794", "title"=>"Unbiased estimated fire rates (red - never protected, green - protected, and grey – difference) for tropical forests in Africa with Mahalanobis matching (A) and Mahalanobis matching with calipers (B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:36:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745495"], "description"=>"<p>Top – Strict protection, with Mahalanobis matching (A) and Mahalanobis matching with calipers (B). Bottom – Multi-use protection, with Mahalanobis matching (C) and Mahalanobis matching with calipers (D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "grey", "forests", "asia"], "article_id"=>415873, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrew Nelson", "Kenneth M. Chomitz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Unbiased_estimated_fire_rates_red_never_protected_green_protected_and_grey_8211_difference_for_tropical_forests_in_Asia_with_matching_/415873", "title"=>"Unbiased estimated fire rates (red - never protected, green - protected, and grey – difference) for tropical forests in Asia (with matching).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:37:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745570"], "description"=>"§<p>All estimates significant at p<0.001 except those marked with <sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722#nt105\" target=\"_blank\">§</a></sup>.</p><p>Matching criteria exclude ecoregion.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incidence", "comparing", "pre-2000", "protected", "areas"], "article_id"=>415943, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrew Nelson", "Kenneth M. Chomitz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_impact_on_fire_incidence_cumulative_over_2000_8211_08_comparing_all_pre_2000_protected_areas_against_never_protected_areas_/415943", "title"=>"Estimated impact on fire incidence (cumulative over 2000–08) comparing all pre-2000 protected areas against never protected areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:39:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745598"], "description"=>"<p>Summary statistics for variables in tropical forest areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["variables"], "article_id"=>415981, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrew Nelson", "Kenneth M. Chomitz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_statistics_for_variables_in_tropical_forest_areas_/415981", "title"=>"Summary statistics for variables in tropical forest areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:39:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745629"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note:</i> Italics indicate estimates for protected areas established between 1990 and 2000. Parentheses indicate estimated increases in forest fire incidence.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["protected", "reductions", "incidence"], "article_id"=>416007, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrew Nelson", "Kenneth M. Chomitz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722.t007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_estimated_protected_area_reductions_of_fire_incidence_percentage_points_/416007", "title"=>"Summary of estimated protected area reductions of fire incidence (percentage points).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:40:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745650"], "description"=>"<p>Matching criteria exclude ecoregion.</p><p><i>Note:</i> The full set of <i>balance</i> metrics and other outputs from these matching analyses are available on request.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incidence", "comparing", "protected", "areas"], "article_id"=>416032, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrew Nelson", "Kenneth M. Chomitz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722.t006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_impact_on_fire_incidence_cumulative_over_2000_8211_08_comparing_1990_8211_2000_protected_areas_against_never_protected_areas_/416032", "title"=>"Estimated impact on fire incidence (cumulative over 2000–08) comparing 1990–2000 protected areas against never protected areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:40:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745681"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note:</i> LAC = Latin America and the Caribbean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pixel", "biome"], "article_id"=>416065, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrew Nelson", "Kenneth M. Chomitz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_1_km_forest_and_fire_pixel_statistics_in_the_tropical_forest_biome_2000_8211_08_/416065", "title"=>"1-km forest and fire pixel statistics in the tropical forest biome (2000–08).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:41:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745712"], "description"=>"<p>*The simple proportion of forest pixels that experience one or more fires.</p><p>**fire rate for unprotected pixels less fire rate for the PA category.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates"], "article_id"=>416093, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrew Nelson", "Kenneth M. Chomitz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_and_fire_area_km_2_and_fire_rates_per_region_protection_group_/416093", "title"=>"Forest and fire area (km<sup>2</sup>) and fire rates per region/protection group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:41:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745731"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note:</i> Numbers in parentheses are percentages.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["protected"], "article_id"=>416117, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrew Nelson", "Kenneth M. Chomitz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022722.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_tropical_forest_protected_km_2_and_by_protection_class_and_region_/416117", "title"=>"Total tropical forest protected (km<sup>2</sup> and %) by protection class and region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:41:57"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"12"}
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Relative Metric

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