Accounting for Ecosystem Alteration Doubles Estimates of Conservation Risk in the Conterminous United States
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{"title"=>"Accounting for ecosystem alteration doubles estimates of conservation risk in the conterminous United States", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Randy", "last_name"=>"Swaty", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507046291"}, {"first_name"=>"Kori", "last_name"=>"Blankenship", "scopus_author_id"=>"35557909700"}, {"first_name"=>"Sarah", "last_name"=>"Hagen", "scopus_author_id"=>"49663177100"}, {"first_name"=>"Joseph", "last_name"=>"Fargione", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506206100"}, {"first_name"=>"Jim", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"57199012900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeannie", "last_name"=>"Patton", "scopus_author_id"=>"49663835200"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"362285007", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0023002", "sgr"=>"79961163275", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79961163275", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"21850248"}, "id"=>"fcc791a5-3eac-3075-b9f5-988d1d45fc51", "abstract"=>"Previous national and global conservation assessments have relied on habitat conversion data to quantify conservation risk. However, in addition to habitat conversion to crop production or urban uses, ecosystem alteration (e.g., from logging, conversion to plantations, biological invasion, or fire suppression) is a large source of conservation risk. We add data quantifying ecosystem alteration on unconverted lands to arrive at a more accurate depiction of conservation risk for the conterminous United States. We quantify ecosystem alteration using a recent national assessment based on remote sensing of current vegetation compared with modeled reference natural vegetation conditions. Highly altered (but not converted) ecosystems comprise 23% of the conterminous United States, such that the number of critically endangered ecoregions in the United States is 156% higher than when calculated using habitat conversion data alone. Increased attention to natural resource management will be essential to address widespread ecosystem alteration and reduce conservation risk.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/accounting-ecosystem-alteration-doubles-estimates-conservation-risk-conterminous-united-states", "reader_count"=>33, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>8, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>8}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Italy"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/749266"], "description"=>"<p>The area bordered by a dotted line in panel (A) is magnified in panel (B). Vegetation that is unique when compared to pre-settlement reference conditions is considered uncharacteristic. Uncharacteristic vegetation can be generated by either native or exotic vegetation; here we show the areas dominated by exotic vegetation. Grey lines indicate ecoregional boundaries.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vegetation", "united", "states", "basin"], "article_id"=>419633, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Randy Swaty", "Kori Blankenship", "Sarah Hagen", "Joseph Fargione", "Jim Smith", "Jeannie Patton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023002.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Uncharacteristic_exotic_vegetation_in_A_the_United_States_and_B_the_Great_Basin_ecoregion_/419633", "title"=>"Uncharacteristic exotic vegetation in (A) the United States and (B) the Great Basin ecoregion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-05 02:40:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/749140"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Conservation Risk Index, calculated following <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0023002#pone.0023002-Hoekstra2\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>. (B) Ecological Conservation Risk Index, which includes ecosystem alteration. (C) Increased risk measured by the Ecological Conservation Risk Index, quantified as the number of risk categories by which each ecoregion increased. Grey lines indicate ecoregional boundaries.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shows", "ecoregions", "compared"], "article_id"=>419506, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Randy Swaty", "Kori Blankenship", "Sarah Hagen", "Joseph Fargione", "Jim Smith", "Jeannie Patton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023002.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ecological_Conservation_Risk_Index_shows_increased_risk_for_ecoregions_compared_to_a_Conservation_Risk_Index_that_does_not_include_ecosystem_alteration_/419506", "title"=>"Ecological Conservation Risk Index shows increased risk for ecoregions compared to a Conservation Risk Index that does not include ecosystem alteration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-05 02:38:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/748913"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Areas converted to agricultural and urban land use, and (B) protected areas, and (C) ecosystem alteration and conversion (converted lands are considered to be 100% altered). High alteration indicates a substantial shift in vegetation structure and/or composition from reference conditions. Grey lines indicate ecoregional boundaries.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["components"], "article_id"=>419286, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Randy Swaty", "Kori Blankenship", "Sarah Hagen", "Joseph Fargione", "Jim Smith", "Jeannie Patton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023002.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mapping_components_of_the_ecological_conservation_risk_index_/419286", "title"=>"Mapping components of the ecological conservation risk index.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-05 02:34:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/749381"], "description"=>"<p>Departure from reference conditions can be caused by (A) increases in uncharacteristic vegetation, as in Great Basin Salt Desert Scrub, (B) increases in closed canopy successional classes, as in Ozark Oak Woodland, or (C) increases in early successional classes, as in Cascades Western Hemlock Forest. These vegetation changes are the expected outcomes of biological invasion, fire suppression, and logging, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["successional", "classes"], "article_id"=>419750, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Randy Swaty", "Kori Blankenship", "Sarah Hagen", "Joseph Fargione", "Jim Smith", "Jeannie Patton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023002.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Current_and_reference_successional_classes_for_three_ecosystems_/419750", "title"=>"Current and reference successional classes for three ecosystems.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-05 02:42:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/749577"], "description"=>"<p>Definitions for the succession classes in the Western Cascades Western Hemlock Forest.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Succession", "classes", "cascades", "hemlock"], "article_id"=>419942, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Randy Swaty", "Kori Blankenship", "Sarah Hagen", "Joseph Fargione", "Jim Smith", "Jeannie Patton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023002.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Definitions_for_the_succession_classes_in_the_Western_Cascades_Western_Hemlock_Forest_/419942", "title"=>"Definitions for the succession classes in the Western Cascades Western Hemlock Forest.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-05 02:45:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/377139"], "description"=>"<div><p>Previous national and global conservation assessments have relied on habitat conversion data to quantify conservation risk. However, in addition to habitat conversion to crop production or urban uses, ecosystem alteration (e.g., from logging, conversion to plantations, biological invasion, or fire suppression) is a large source of conservation risk. We add data quantifying ecosystem alteration on unconverted lands to arrive at a more accurate depiction of conservation risk for the conterminous United States. We quantify ecosystem alteration using a recent national assessment based on remote sensing of current vegetation compared with modeled reference natural vegetation conditions. Highly altered (but not converted) ecosystems comprise 23% of the conterminous United States, such that the number of critically endangered ecoregions in the United States is 156% higher than when calculated using habitat conversion data alone. Increased attention to natural resource management will be essential to address widespread ecosystem alteration and reduce conservation risk.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["alteration", "doubles", "estimates", "conterminous", "united", "states"], "article_id"=>134503, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Randy Swaty", "Kori Blankenship", "Sarah Hagen", "Joseph Fargione", "Jim Smith", "Jeannie Patton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Accounting_for_Ecosystem_Alteration_Doubles_Estimates_of_Conservation_Risk_in_the_Conterminous_United_States/134503", "title"=>"Accounting for Ecosystem Alteration Doubles Estimates of Conservation Risk in the Conterminous United States", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-05 01:15:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/749026"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The frequency distribution of the ecosystem alteration index in the conterminous United States (excluding converted and barren lands). (B) Percent highly altered by ecoregion. (C) Percent highly altered or converted by ecoregion. Grey lines indicate ecoregional boundaries.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["altered", "converted"], "article_id"=>419400, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Randy Swaty", "Kori Blankenship", "Sarah Hagen", "Joseph Fargione", "Jim Smith", "Jeannie Patton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023002.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percent_highly_altered_and_converted_by_ecoregion_/419400", "title"=>"Percent highly altered and converted by ecoregion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-05 02:36:40"}

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Relative Metric

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