An Institutional Mechanism for Assortment in an Ecology of Games
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{"title"=>"An institutional mechanism for assortment in an ecology of games", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Paul E.", "last_name"=>"Smaldino", "scopus_author_id"=>"45861773400"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark", "last_name"=>"Lubell", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005637546"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362285006", "sgr"=>"79961158100", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"21850249", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79961158100", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0023019", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"1a4ce4e6-eab3-3506-8127-9abdfa2a1dd5", "abstract"=>"Recent research has revived Long's \"ecology of games\" model to analyze how social actors cooperate in the context of multiple political and social games. However, there is still a paucity of theoretical work that considers the mechanisms by which large-scale cooperation can be promoted in a dynamic institutional landscape, in which actors can join new games and leave old ones. This paper develops an agent-based model of an ecology of games where agents participate in multiple public goods games. In addition to contribution decisions, the agents can leave and join different games, and these processes are de-coupled. We show that the payoff for cooperation is greater than for defection when limits to the number of actors per game (\"capacity constraints\") structure the population in ways that allow cooperators to cluster, independent of any complex individual-level mechanisms such as reputation or punishment. Our model suggests that capacity constraints are one effective mechanism for producing positive assortment and increasing cooperation in an ecology of games. The results suggest an important trade-off between the inclusiveness of policy processes and cooperation: Fully inclusive policy processes reduce the chances of cooperation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/institutional-mechanism-assortment-ecology-games", "reader_count"=>32, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>7, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Design"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>7, "Computer Science"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>7}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/748059"], "description"=>"<p>Only capacity constraints allow cooperators to outperform defectors, the threshold for which is indicated by the blue line at unity. The red line indicates the single game attractor for the unconstrained model. Here, , , . Values are averaged from 100 runs, error bars are 95% confidence intervals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cooperator", "payoff", "equilibrium", "constraints", "varying"], "article_id"=>418432, "categories"=>["Mathematics"], "users"=>["Paul E. Smaldino", "Mark Lubell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023019.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_cooperator_payoff_at_equilibrium_under_capacity_constraints_for_varying_values_of_and_budget_constraints_for_inset_/418432", "title"=>"Relative cooperator payoff at equilibrium under capacity constraints for varying values of , and budget constraints for (inset).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-05 02:20:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/748468"], "description"=>"<p>Cooperators tend to leave games where they are in the minority. Overall cooperator success, where the relative cooperator payoff is greater than one, is a balancing act in which the games in which they are exploited by defectors are countered by their success in cooperator-only games as well as the loss incurred by defectors in defector-only games.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["courses", "constraints", "within-game", "cooperator", "frequencies"], "article_id"=>418843, "categories"=>["Mathematics"], "users"=>["Paul E. Smaldino", "Mark Lubell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023019.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_time_courses_under_capacity_constraints_showing_the_frequency_of_within_game_cooperator_frequencies_for_several_values_of_/418843", "title"=>"Example time courses under capacity constraints () showing the frequency of within-game cooperator frequencies for several values of .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-05 02:27:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/748531"], "description"=>"<p>This scatterplot relates the averages from across all tested cooperator frequencies, for a range of capacity constraint conditions (). Both excess assortment and relative cooperator payoff increase with cooperator frequency up to about and then decrease. Coupling between excess assortment and relative cooperator payoff is basically linear both above and below this threshold frequency, but at different rates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cooperator", "payoff", "correlated", "agents", "assort"], "article_id"=>418906, "categories"=>["Mathematics"], "users"=>["Paul E. Smaldino", "Mark Lubell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023019.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_cooperator_payoff_is_highly_correlated_with_the_ability_of_agents_to_assort_by_type_/418906", "title"=>"Relative cooperator payoff is highly correlated with the ability of agents to assort by type.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-05 02:28:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/748222"], "description"=>"<p>Here, , , . Values are averaged from 100 runs, error bars are 95% confidence intervals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cooperator", "payoff", "equilibrium", "constraints"], "article_id"=>418596, "categories"=>["Mathematics"], "users"=>["Paul E. Smaldino", "Mark Lubell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023019.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_cooperator_payoff_at_equilibrium_under_capacity_constraints_for_several_values_of_the_game_production_/418596", "title"=>"Relative cooperator payoff at equilibrium under capacity constraints for several values of the game production .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-05 02:23:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/748298"], "description"=>"<p>For , most games are full to capacity. For larger values of , defectors are better able to infiltrate games, making fewer games desirable for cooperators.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["players", "equilibrium"], "article_id"=>418681, "categories"=>["Mathematics"], "users"=>["Paul E. Smaldino", "Mark Lubell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023019.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_number_of_players_per_active_game_at_equilibrium_under_capacity_constraints_/418681", "title"=>"Average number of players per active game at equilibrium under capacity constraints.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-05 02:24:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/747987"], "description"=>"<p>Player contributions (cooperators only) to each game are indicated in blue at the end of the links connecting players to games, with . Each public goods game (green pentagons) pays out to each of its players, as indicated in white. Players may then attempt to join or leave games. Cooperator-heavy games are much more stable. For illustrative convenience, in this example none of the agents shown join a new game, and all agents are allowed to leave the games which are shown. For the individuals playing games not shown in the figure (grey links), it is assumed that either those agents were not chosen to attempt to join or leave this turn, or that they were unable to join any new games and that their offscreen games all yielded payouts greater than their contributions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mathematics"], "article_id"=>418360, "categories"=>["Mathematics"], "users"=>["Paul E. Smaldino", "Mark Lubell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023019.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_model_dynamics_/418360", "title"=>"Example model dynamics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-05 02:19:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/377121", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/377155", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/377171", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/377196", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/377228"], "description"=>"<div><p>Recent research has revived Long's “ecology of games” model to analyze how social actors cooperate in the context of multiple political and social games. However, there is still a paucity of theoretical work that considers the mechanisms by which large-scale cooperation can be promoted in a dynamic institutional landscape, in which actors can join new games and leave old ones. This paper develops an agent-based model of an ecology of games where agents participate in multiple public goods games. In addition to contribution decisions, the agents can leave and join different games, and these processes are de-coupled. We show that the payoff for cooperation is greater than for defection when limits to the number of actors per game (“capacity constraints”) structure the population in ways that allow cooperators to cluster, independent of any complex individual-level mechanisms such as reputation or punishment. Our model suggests that capacity constraints are one effective mechanism for producing positive assortment and increasing cooperation in an ecology of games. The results suggest an important trade-off between the inclusiveness of policy processes and cooperation: Fully inclusive policy processes reduce the chances of cooperation.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["assortment", "ecology", "games"], "article_id"=>134500, "categories"=>["Mathematics"], "users"=>["Paul E. Smaldino", "Mark Lubell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023019.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023019.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023019.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023019.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023019.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/An_Institutional_Mechanism_for_Assortment_in_an_Ecology_of_Games/134500", "title"=>"An Institutional Mechanism for Assortment in an Ecology of Games", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-08-05 01:15:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/748359"], "description"=>"<p>Cooperator success is highly correlated with the ability of cooperators to assort at a level beyond that predicted by chance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cooperator", "payoff", "excess", "assortment", "equilibrium"], "article_id"=>418738, "categories"=>["Mathematics"], "users"=>["Paul E. Smaldino", "Mark Lubell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023019.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_relative_cooperator_payoff_A_and_excess_assortment_B_at_equilibrium_as_a_function_of_the_global_cooperator_frequency_/418738", "title"=>"Average relative cooperator payoff (A) and excess assortment (B) at equilibrium as a function of the global cooperator frequency.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-05 02:25:38"}

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Relative Metric

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