Why Don't You Try Harder? An Investigation of Effort Production in Major Depression
Publication Date
August 10, 2011
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Marie Laure Cléry Melin, Liane Schmidt, Gilles Lafargue, Nicolas Baup, et al
Volume
6
Issue
8
Pages
e23178
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023178
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0023178
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21853083
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3154289
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21853083
Web of Science
000295454200049
Scopus
84856560712
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/dont-try-harder-investigation-effort-production-major-depression
Events
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Why don't you try harder? an investigation of effort production in major depression", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Marie Laure", "last_name"=>"Cléry-Melin", "scopus_author_id"=>"57200103548"}, {"first_name"=>"Liane", "last_name"=>"Schmidt", "scopus_author_id"=>"16310384700"}, {"first_name"=>"Gilles", "last_name"=>"Lafargue", "scopus_author_id"=>"56040213900"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicolas", "last_name"=>"Baup", "scopus_author_id"=>"15838726400"}, {"first_name"=>"Philippe", "last_name"=>"Fossati", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102550725"}, {"first_name"=>"Mathias", "last_name"=>"Pessiglione", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508326297"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84856560712", "sgr"=>"84856560712", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0023178", "pmid"=>"21853083", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"362315526"}, "id"=>"cefd8573-83b1-3a69-bb84-b0c2b26df35f", "abstract"=>"Depression is mainly characterized as an emotional disorder, associated with reduced approach behavior. It remains unclear whether the difficulty in energising behavior relates to abnormal emotional states or to a flattened response to potential rewards, as suggested by several neuroimaging studies. Here, we aimed to demonstrate a specific incentive motivation deficit in major depression, independent of patients' emotional state. We employed a behavioral paradigm designed to measure physical effort in response to both emotional modulation and incentive motivation. Patients did exert more effort following emotionally arousing pictures (whether positive or negative) but not for higher monetary incentives, contrary to healthy controls. These results show that emotional and motivational sources of effort production are dissociable in pathological conditions. In addition, patients' ratings of perceived effort increased for high incentives, whereas controls' ratings were decreased. Thus, depressed patients objectively behave as if they do not want to gain larger rewards, but subjectively feel that they try harder. We suggest that incentive motivation impairment is a core deficit of major depression, which may render everyday tasks abnormally effortful for patients.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/dont-try-harder-investigation-effort-production-major-depression", "reader_count"=>105, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>26, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>26, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Philosophy"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Decision Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Neuroscience"=>15, "Sports and Recreations"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>43, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>43}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>10}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>15}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>6, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/746823"], "description"=>"<p>Successive screenshots displayed in one trial are shown from left to right, with durations in ms. Neutral or arousing pictures (with positive or negative valence) were shown prior to physical effort exertion. Effort was cued by simultaneously showing the amount of money at stake, materialized as coin images (1 cent, 10 cents or 1 euro), and a graduated scale in which a cursor represented the force exerted on the handgrip. Subjects knew that the top of the scale corresponded to the monetary incentive, such that the more they squeezed the handgrip, the more money they would win. After force production, subjects rated the extent of their effort by positioning a cursor on an analog scale. The final screen informed subjects about the cumulative total of monetary earnings.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>417192, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Marie-Laure Cléry-Melin", "Liane Schmidt", "Gilles Lafargue", "Nicolas Baup", "Philippe Fossati", "Mathias Pessiglione"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023178.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Behavioral_task_/417192", "title"=>"Behavioral task.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:48:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/747000"], "description"=>"<p>Each point is a healthy subject (empty circle) or a depressed patient (filled circle). Graphs show difference scores for incentive (1€ - 0.01€) versus arousal (emotional - neutral) effects on force production and effort rating. Grip force and skin conductance is expressed as a percentage of the highest measure. Effort ratings were divided by the actual force produced on a trial-by-trial basis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>417372, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Marie-Laure Cléry-Melin", "Liane Schmidt", "Gilles Lafargue", "Nicolas Baup", "Philippe Fossati", "Mathias Pessiglione"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023178.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Individual_results_/417372", "title"=>"Individual results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:49:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/747104"], "description"=>"<p>Significant t-tests (<i>P</i><0.05) appear in BOLD. Intra-group tests are comparisons with null effects. Inter-group tests are comparisons between depressed patients and healthy controls. Data are given as means ± inter-subjects standard errors. Behavioral data are expressed as percentages of the highest measure. Incentive effects are calculated as the difference between 1€ and 0.01€ trials. Arousal effects correspond to the difference between emotional (pooling positive and negative) and neutral pictures.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>417481, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Marie-Laure Cléry-Melin", "Liane Schmidt", "Gilles Lafargue", "Nicolas Baup", "Philippe Fossati", "Mathias Pessiglione"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023178.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demographic_and_behavioral_data_/417481", "title"=>"Demographic and behavioral data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:50:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/747079"], "description"=>"<p>Data are means ± inter-subjects standard errors. MADRS  =  Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0023178#pone.0023178-Montgomery1\" target=\"_blank\">[1]</a>; HAD  =  Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0023178#pone.0023178-Zigmond1\" target=\"_blank\">[2]</a>. Starkstein's scale is a questionnaire that was designed to detect apathy (score > 14) in Parkinson's disease <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0023178#pone.0023178-Starkstein1\" target=\"_blank\">[39]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>417450, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Marie-Laure Cléry-Melin", "Liane Schmidt", "Gilles Lafargue", "Nicolas Baup", "Philippe Fossati", "Mathias Pessiglione"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023178.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clinical_data_/417450", "title"=>"Clinical data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:49:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/746906"], "description"=>"<p>Histograms show the effects of the main independent factors (incentive and arousal levels) on the main dependent variables (grip force, effort rating). Grip force is expressed as a percentage of the highest measure. Effort ratings were divided by the actual force produced on a trial-by-trial basis. Error bars are ± inter-subjects standard errors of the mean. * Significant difference (paired t-test, <i>P</i><0.05), between negative and neutral picture and between 0.01€ and 1€ in the task. NS = non significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>417279, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Marie-Laure Cléry-Melin", "Liane Schmidt", "Gilles Lafargue", "Nicolas Baup", "Philippe Fossati", "Mathias Pessiglione"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023178.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Group_level_results_/417279", "title"=>"Group-level results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:49:00"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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