Is Chytridiomycosis an Emerging Infectious Disease in Asia?
Publication Date
August 16, 2011
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Andrea Swei, Jodi J. L. Rowley, Dennis Rödder, Mae L. L. Diesmos, et al
Volume
6
Issue
8
Pages
e23179
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023179
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0023179
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21887238
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3156717
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21887238
Web of Science
000294125500018
Scopus
80051694972
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/chytridiomycosis-emerging-infectious-disease-asia
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Bd is associated with >200 species extinctions of amphibians, but not all species that become infected are susceptible to the disease. Specifically, Bd has rapidly emerged in some areas of the world, such as in Australia, USA, and throughout Central and South America, causing population and species collapse. The mechanism behind the rapid global emergence of the disease is poorly understood, in part due to an incomplete picture of the global distribution of Bd. At present, there is a considerable amount of geographic bias in survey effort for Bd, with Asia being the most neglected continent. To date, Bd surveys have been published for few Asian countries, and infected amphibians have been reported only from Indonesia, South Korea, China and Japan. Thus far, there have been no substantiated reports of enigmatic or suspected disease-caused population declines of the kind that has been attributed to Bd in other areas. In order to gain a more detailed picture of the distribution of Bd in Asia, we undertook a widespread, opportunistic survey of over 3,000 amphibians for Bd throughout Asia and adjoining Papua New Guinea. Survey sites spanned 15 countries, approximately 36 latitude, 111 longitude, and over 2000 m in elevation. Bd prevalence was very low throughout our survey area (2.35% overall) and infected animals were not clumped as would be expected in epizootic events. This suggests that Bd is either newly emerging in Asia, endemic at low prevalence, or that some other ecological factor is preventing Bd from fully invading Asian amphibians. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/375833", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/375929"], "description"=>"<div><p>The disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus <em>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</em> (Bd), has caused dramatic amphibian population declines and extinctions in Australia, Central and North America, and Europe. Bd is associated with >200 species extinctions of amphibians, but not all species that become infected are susceptible to the disease. Specifically, Bd has rapidly emerged in some areas of the world, such as in Australia, USA, and throughout Central and South America, causing population and species collapse. The mechanism behind the rapid global emergence of the disease is poorly understood, in part due to an incomplete picture of the global distribution of Bd. At present, there is a considerable amount of geographic bias in survey effort for Bd, with Asia being the most neglected continent. To date, Bd surveys have been published for few Asian countries, and infected amphibians have been reported only from Indonesia, South Korea, China and Japan. Thus far, there have been no substantiated reports of enigmatic or suspected disease-caused population declines of the kind that has been attributed to Bd in other areas. In order to gain a more detailed picture of the distribution of Bd in Asia, we undertook a widespread, opportunistic survey of over 3,000 amphibians for Bd throughout Asia and adjoining Papua New Guinea. Survey sites spanned 15 countries, approximately 36° latitude, 111° longitude, and over 2000 m in elevation. Bd prevalence was very low throughout our survey area (2.35% overall) and infected animals were not clumped as would be expected in epizootic events. This suggests that Bd is either newly emerging in Asia, endemic at low prevalence, or that some other ecological factor is preventing Bd from fully invading Asian amphibians. The current observed pattern in Asia differs from that in many other parts of the world.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chytridiomycosis", "infectious"], "article_id"=>134224, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrea Swei", "Jodi J. L. Rowley", "Dennis Rödder", "Mae L. L. Diesmos", "Arvin C. Diesmos", "Cheryl J. Briggs", "Rafe Brown", "Trung Tien Cao", "Tina L. Cheng", "Rebecca A. Chong", "Ben Han", "Jean-Marc Hero", "Huy Duc Hoang", "Mirza D. Kusrini", "Duong Thi Thuy Le", "Jimmy A. McGuire", "Madhava Meegaskumbura", "Mi-Sook Min", "Daniel G. Mulcahy", "Thy Neang", "Somphouthone Phimmachak", "Ding-Qi Rao", "Natalie M. Reeder", "Sean D. Schoville", "Niane Sivongxay", "Narin Srei", "Matthias Stöck", "Bryan L. Stuart", "Lilia S. Torres", "Dao Thi Anh Tran", "Tate S. Tunstall", "David Vieites", "Vance T. Vredenburg"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023179.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023179.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Is_Chytridiomycosis_an_Emerging_Infectious_Disease_in_Asia_/134224", "title"=>"Is Chytridiomycosis an Emerging Infectious Disease in Asia?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:10:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745273"], "description"=>"<p>Map of Asia and Papua New Guinea showing Maxent predicted probability of <i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i> (Bd) from low to high environmental suitability <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0023179#pone.0023179-Kusrini1\" target=\"_blank\">[28]</a>. Sample localities from field surveys are shown as black and white, red with black dot, and red circles indicating the highest level of Bd infection found. A high-resolution image is available in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0023179#s5\" target=\"_blank\">Supporting Information</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["observed"], "article_id"=>415598, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrea Swei", "Jodi J. L. Rowley", "Dennis Rödder", "Mae L. L. Diesmos", "Arvin C. Diesmos", "Cheryl J. Briggs", "Rafe Brown", "Trung Tien Cao", "Tina L. Cheng", "Rebecca A. Chong", "Ben Han", "Jean-Marc Hero", "Huy Duc Hoang", "Mirza D. Kusrini", "Duong Thi Thuy Le", "Jimmy A. McGuire", "Madhava Meegaskumbura", "Mi-Sook Min", "Daniel G. Mulcahy", "Thy Neang", "Somphouthone Phimmachak", "Ding-Qi Rao", "Natalie M. Reeder", "Sean D. Schoville", "Niane Sivongxay", "Narin Srei", "Matthias Stöck", "Bryan L. Stuart", "Lilia S. Torres", "Dao Thi Anh Tran", "Tate S. Tunstall", "David Vieites", "Vance T. Vredenburg"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023179.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_predicted_and_observed_Batrachochytrium_dendrobatidis_distribution_in_Asia_/415598", "title"=>"Map of predicted and observed <i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i> distribution in Asia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:33:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745417"], "description"=>"<p>Mean corrected genomic equivalents (Z<sub>swab</sub>) scores and standard errors for countries with samples that tested positive for <i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i> by qPCR. Low infection positives were defined as samples with corrected genomic equivalents less than 1 or by ambiguous histology results. Sample size of positives from each country are given in parentheses.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pathogen", "loads"], "article_id"=>415753, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrea Swei", "Jodi J. L. Rowley", "Dennis Rödder", "Mae L. L. Diesmos", "Arvin C. Diesmos", "Cheryl J. Briggs", "Rafe Brown", "Trung Tien Cao", "Tina L. Cheng", "Rebecca A. Chong", "Ben Han", "Jean-Marc Hero", "Huy Duc Hoang", "Mirza D. Kusrini", "Duong Thi Thuy Le", "Jimmy A. McGuire", "Madhava Meegaskumbura", "Mi-Sook Min", "Daniel G. Mulcahy", "Thy Neang", "Somphouthone Phimmachak", "Ding-Qi Rao", "Natalie M. Reeder", "Sean D. Schoville", "Niane Sivongxay", "Narin Srei", "Matthias Stöck", "Bryan L. Stuart", "Lilia S. Torres", "Dao Thi Anh Tran", "Tate S. Tunstall", "David Vieites", "Vance T. Vredenburg"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023179.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantitative_pathogen_loads_on_positive_samples_/415753", "title"=>"Quantitative pathogen loads on positive samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:35:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745486"], "description"=>"<p><i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i> positive samples by locality and species including the number of infected samples and sample size. Conservation status is provided as International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) status except for species with unresolved taxonomic status.</p>†<p>Exact locality unknown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["infected"], "article_id"=>415822, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrea Swei", "Jodi J. L. Rowley", "Dennis Rödder", "Mae L. L. Diesmos", "Arvin C. Diesmos", "Cheryl J. Briggs", "Rafe Brown", "Trung Tien Cao", "Tina L. Cheng", "Rebecca A. Chong", "Ben Han", "Jean-Marc Hero", "Huy Duc Hoang", "Mirza D. Kusrini", "Duong Thi Thuy Le", "Jimmy A. McGuire", "Madhava Meegaskumbura", "Mi-Sook Min", "Daniel G. Mulcahy", "Thy Neang", "Somphouthone Phimmachak", "Ding-Qi Rao", "Natalie M. Reeder", "Sean D. Schoville", "Niane Sivongxay", "Narin Srei", "Matthias Stöck", "Bryan L. Stuart", "Lilia S. Torres", "Dao Thi Anh Tran", "Tate S. Tunstall", "David Vieites", "Vance T. Vredenburg"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023179.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_species_infected_with_Batrachochytrium_dendrobatidis_/415822", "title"=>"Location of species infected with <i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:37:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745554"], "description"=>"<p>Samples designated as “low infection” positives for <i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i> by site and species including number of low infected positive samples and total sample size. Conservation status is provided as International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) status.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["infections"], "article_id"=>415892, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrea Swei", "Jodi J. L. Rowley", "Dennis Rödder", "Mae L. L. Diesmos", "Arvin C. Diesmos", "Cheryl J. Briggs", "Rafe Brown", "Trung Tien Cao", "Tina L. Cheng", "Rebecca A. Chong", "Ben Han", "Jean-Marc Hero", "Huy Duc Hoang", "Mirza D. Kusrini", "Duong Thi Thuy Le", "Jimmy A. McGuire", "Madhava Meegaskumbura", "Mi-Sook Min", "Daniel G. Mulcahy", "Thy Neang", "Somphouthone Phimmachak", "Ding-Qi Rao", "Natalie M. Reeder", "Sean D. Schoville", "Niane Sivongxay", "Narin Srei", "Matthias Stöck", "Bryan L. Stuart", "Lilia S. Torres", "Dao Thi Anh Tran", "Tate S. Tunstall", "David Vieites", "Vance T. Vredenburg"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023179.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Samples_with_low_infections_of_Batrachochytrium_dendrobatidis_/415892", "title"=>"Samples with “low” infections of <i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:38:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/745631"], "description"=>"<p>All countries sampled in this study and status of amphibian infection with <i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i>. Positive samples were divided into “low infecion” and “high infection” positives with low infection defined as samples with corrected genomic equivalent (Z<sub>swab</sub>) values <1 but >0. Percent positives are given in the columns along with the 95% Bayesian credible intervals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology"], "article_id"=>415957, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrea Swei", "Jodi J. L. Rowley", "Dennis Rödder", "Mae L. L. Diesmos", "Arvin C. Diesmos", "Cheryl J. Briggs", "Rafe Brown", "Trung Tien Cao", "Tina L. Cheng", "Rebecca A. Chong", "Ben Han", "Jean-Marc Hero", "Huy Duc Hoang", "Mirza D. Kusrini", "Duong Thi Thuy Le", "Jimmy A. McGuire", "Madhava Meegaskumbura", "Mi-Sook Min", "Daniel G. Mulcahy", "Thy Neang", "Somphouthone Phimmachak", "Ding-Qi Rao", "Natalie M. Reeder", "Sean D. Schoville", "Niane Sivongxay", "Narin Srei", "Matthias Stöck", "Bryan L. Stuart", "Lilia S. Torres", "Dao Thi Anh Tran", "Tate S. Tunstall", "David Vieites", "Vance T. Vredenburg"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023179.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Infection_status_with_Batrachochytrium_dendrobatidis_by_country_/415957", "title"=>"Infection status with <i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i> by country.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-16 01:39:17"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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