Variation, Variability, and the Origin of the Avian Endocranium: Insights from the Anatomy of Alioramus altai (Theropoda: Tyrannosauroidea)
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{"title"=>"Variation, variability, and the origin of the avian endocranium: Insights from the anatomy of alioramus altai (theropoda: Tyrannosauroidea)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Gabe S.", "last_name"=>"Bever", "scopus_author_id"=>"8726172700"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen L.", "last_name"=>"Brusatte", "scopus_author_id"=>"18233445200"}, {"first_name"=>"Amy M.", "last_name"=>"Balanoff", "scopus_author_id"=>"8726172600"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark A.", "last_name"=>"Norell", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004672166"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"362315642", "sgr"=>"80051493336", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80051493336", "pmid"=>"21853125", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0023393", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"12710f20-4bf0-3abc-96c4-9033d1278e91", "abstract"=>"The internal braincase anatomy of the holotype of Alioramus altai, a relatively small-bodied tyrannosauroid from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia, was studied using high-resolution computed tomography. A number of derived characters strengthen the diagnosis of this taxon as both a tyrannosauroid and a unique, new species (e.g., endocranial position of the gasserian ganglion, internal ramification of the facial nerve). Also present are features intermediate between the basal theropod and avialan conditions that optimize as the ancestral condition for Coelurosauria-a diverse group of derived theropods that includes modern birds. The expression of several primitive theropod features as derived character states within Tyrannosauroidea establishes previously unrecognized evolutionary complexity and morphological plasticity at the base of Coelurosauria. It also demonstrates the critical role heterochrony may have played in driving patterns of endocranial variability within the group and potentially reveals stages in the evolution of neuroanatomical development that could not be inferred based solely on developmental observations of the major archosaurian crown clades. We discuss the integration of paleontology with variability studies, especially as applied to the nature of morphological transformations along the phylogenetically long branches that tend to separate the crown clades of major vertebrate groups.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/variation-variability-origin-avian-endocranium-insights-anatomy-alioramus-altai-theropoda-tyrannosau", "reader_count"=>55, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>25, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>24}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>24}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>25}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "Panama"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/748983"], "description"=>"<p>The renderings are in lateral (A), medial (B), rostral (C), caudal (D), dorsal (E), and ventral (F) views. Reconstruction of the facial canal (purple), cavum metoticum (blue), and the independent medial path of the glossopharyngeal nerve (orange) are included in the medial and lateral views. VII, facial canals; VIII vestibulocochlear canals; IX, glossopharyngeal canal; ccr, common crus; chc, cochlear canal; csc, caudal semicircular canal; fpr, fenestra pseudorotunda; fv, fenestra vestibuli; jc, vagal canal; lsc, lateral semicircular canal; rsc, rostral semicircular canal.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["osseous", "labyrinth"], "article_id"=>419363, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Gabe S. Bever", "Stephen L. Brusatte", "Amy M. Balanoff", "Mark A. Norell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023393.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stereopairs_of_the_right_osseous_labyrinth_of_Alioramus_altai_IGM_100_1844_/419363", "title"=>"Stereopairs of the right osseous labyrinth of <i>Alioramus altai</i> (IGM 100/1844).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:00:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/747909"], "description"=>"<p>Dorsal (A), left lateral (B), ventral (C), and occipital (D) views. bo, basioccipital; bs, basisphenoid; ls, laterosphenoid; os, orbitosphenoid; ot, otoccipital; pa, parietal; pf, prefrontal; pr, prootic; so, supraoccipital.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["braincase"], "article_id"=>418278, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Gabe S. Bever", "Stephen L. Brusatte", "Amy M. Balanoff", "Mark A. Norell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023393.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_braincase_of_Alioramus_altai_IGM_100_1844_modified_from_fig_2_of_22_/418278", "title"=>"The braincase of <i>Alioramus altai</i> (IGM 100/1844) (modified from fig. 2 of [<b>22</b>]).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:54:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/748392"], "description"=>"<p>These casts include the endocranial cavity, cranial nerve roots, selected vasculature, and inner ear. II, optic canal; III, oculomotor canal; IV, trochlear canal; V, trigeminal canals; VI, abducens canal; VII, facial canals; XII, hypoglossal canal; cm, cavum metoticum, includes lateral paths of glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves; cmv, caudal middle cerebral vein canal; ch, cerebral hemisphere; dp, dorsal peak (dural sinus); ie, inner ear; ob, olfactory bulb; ocs, occipital sinus; ocv, orbitocerebral vein; ol, optic lobe; ptf, pituitary fossa; rmv, rostral middle cerebral vein canal.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lateral", "labeled", "endocranial", "casts"], "article_id"=>418759, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Gabe S. Bever", "Stephen L. Brusatte", "Amy M. Balanoff", "Mark A. Norell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023393.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Right_lateral_view_of_labeled_endocranial_casts_of_Alioramus_altai_IGM_100_1844_/418759", "title"=>"Right lateral view of labeled endocranial casts of <i>Alioramus altai</i> (IGM 100/1844).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:57:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/748065"], "description"=>"<p>Dorsal (A), right lateral (B), and ventral (C) views. The images are reconstructed from the CT data with the bones rendered transparent to show the internal structures examined in this study. atr, anterior tympanic recess; bsr, basisphenoid recess; ctr, caudal tympanic recess; ec, endocranial cavity; scr, subcondylar recess; ssr, subsellar recess.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["articulated", "braincase"], "article_id"=>418440, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Gabe S. Bever", "Stephen L. Brusatte", "Amy M. Balanoff", "Mark A. Norell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023393.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stereopairs_of_the_articulated_braincase_of_Alioramus_altai_IGM_100_1844_/418440", "title"=>"Stereopairs of the articulated braincase of <i>Alioramus altai</i> (IGM 100/1844).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:55:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/748487"], "description"=>"<p>The slices sample the upper (A) and middle (B) regions of this space. The glossopharyngeal nerve (cn XI) enters the recessus scalae tympani through a foramen that is independent of the medial aperture of the cavum metoticum. Rostral is to the left.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["horizontal", "slices", "cavum", "metoticum"], "article_id"=>418858, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Gabe S. Bever", "Stephen L. Brusatte", "Amy M. Balanoff", "Mark A. Norell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023393.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Two_horizontal_slices_through_the_left_cavum_metoticum_of_Alioramus_altai_IGM_100_1844_/418858", "title"=>"Two horizontal slices through the left cavum metoticum of <i>Alioramus altai</i> (IGM 100/1844).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:58:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/748242"], "description"=>"<p>This rendering reveals casts of the endocranial cavity, cranial nerve roots, selected vasculature, and the inner ear in dorsal (A), right lateral (B), and ventral (C) views, and the endocast with labeled structures in right lateral view (D). The upper right scale bar refers to A–C.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["braincase", "rendered"], "article_id"=>418621, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Gabe S. Bever", "Stephen L. Brusatte", "Amy M. Balanoff", "Mark A. Norell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023393.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>74, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stereopairs_of_the_braincase_of_Alioramus_altai_IGM_100_1844_rendered_transparent_/418621", "title"=>"Stereopairs of the braincase of <i>Alioramus altai</i> (IGM 100/1844) rendered transparent.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:56:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/748808"], "description"=>"<p>The braincase is rendered in right anteroventrolateral view shows the position of the sinus cavernosus. The red arrow shows the point at which the abducens nerve enters the pituitary fossa. Dotted line delimits the sinus cavernosus as expressed on the external surface of the braincase. II, optic canal; III oculomotor canal, III<sub>B</sub>, position of external opening of oculomotor canal within sinus cavernosus; IV, trochlear canal; VI, abducens canal; VI<sub>B</sub>, position of external opening of oculomotor canal within sinus cavernosus; ptf, pituitary fossa.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diencephalic", "braincase", "endocranial"], "article_id"=>419176, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Gabe S. Bever", "Stephen L. Brusatte", "Amy M. Balanoff", "Mark A. Norell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023393.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_diencephalic_region_of_the_braincase_and_endocranial_cast_of_Alioramus_altai_IGM_100_1844_/419176", "title"=>"The diencephalic region of the braincase and endocranial cast of <i>Alioramus altai</i> (IGM 100/1844).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:59:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/749106"], "description"=>"<p>The sinus is invariably present in non-coelurosaurian theropods and invariably lost (1) in non-tyrannosaur coelurosaurs. The secondary loss of the sinus in <i>Alioramus altai</i> and possibly CMNH 7541 is interpreted as reflecting a period in theropod evolution in which the developmental pathways responsible for patterning the diencephalic region exhibited relative high levels of variability. This variability is retained in Tyrannosauroidea and might be expected to characterize at least the early history of its sister taxon. The variability in this case may be driven in part by heterochrony in which the original loss of the sinus occurred as a terminal addition to the ontogenetic sequence and was subsequently eliminated from postnatal ontogeny. Tree topology reflects generally accepted relationships with Theropoda <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0023393#pone.0023393-Brusatte1\" target=\"_blank\">[6]</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0023393#pone.0023393-Csiki1\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plesiomorphic", "sinus", "cavernosus"], "article_id"=>419479, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Gabe S. Bever", "Stephen L. Brusatte", "Amy M. Balanoff", "Mark A. Norell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023393.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>260, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_tree_showing_the_distribution_of_the_plesiomorphic_sinus_cavernosus_0_in_Theropoda_/419479", "title"=>"Phylogenetic tree showing the distribution of the plesiomorphic sinus cavernosus (0) in Theropoda.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:01:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/748607"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Digital reconstruction of the cranial nerve roots in right dorsolateral view. (B) Horizontal CT slice showing the position of the gasserian ganglion and the split paths of the ophthalmic and maxillomandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve through the braincase. C) External view of the left lateral surface of the braincase showing the position of the prootic fossa, which accepts the lateral opening of the maxillomandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve and the palatine branch of the facial nerve. II, optic canal; III, oculomotor canal; IV, trochlear canal; V<sub>1</sub>, ophthalmic ramus of the trigeminal canal; V<sub>2/3</sub>, maxillomandibular ramus of the trigeminal canal; VI, abducens canal; VII<sub>1</sub>, palatine ramus of facial canal; VII<sub>2</sub>, hypoglossal ramus of facial canal; X, vagal canal; XII, hypoglossal canal; atr, anterior tympanic recess; chc, cochlear canal; csc, caudal semicircular canal; cts, caudal tympanic sinus; dhv, dorsal head vein canal; fl, floccular canal; fm, foramen magnum; gg, fossa housing gasserian ganglion; lsc, lateral semicircular canal; or, otic recess; ptf, pituitary fossa; rsc, rostral semicircular canal; rmv, rostral middle cerebral vein canal; rst, recessus scalae tympani.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cranial", "roots"], "article_id"=>418986, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Gabe S. Bever", "Stephen L. Brusatte", "Amy M. Balanoff", "Mark A. Norell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023393.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphology_of_the_cranial_nerve_roots_in_Alioramus_altai_IGM_100_1844_/418986", "title"=>"Morphology of the cranial nerve roots in <i>Alioramus altai</i> (IGM 100/1844).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:58:51"}

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Relative Metric

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