Reverse Effect of Mammalian Hypocalcemic Cortisol in Fish: Cortisol Stimulates Ca2+ Uptake via Glucocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Vitamin D3 Metabolism
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{"title"=>"Reverse effect of mammalian hypocalcemic cortisol in fish: Cortisol stimulates Ca 2+ uptake via glucocorticoid receptor-mediated vitamin D 3 metabolism", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Chia Hao", "last_name"=>"Lin", "scopus_author_id"=>"35237783200"}, {"first_name"=>"I. Lun", "last_name"=>"Tsai", "scopus_author_id"=>"50263269300"}, {"first_name"=>"Che Hsien", "last_name"=>"Su", "scopus_author_id"=>"50262953200"}, {"first_name"=>"Deng Yu", "last_name"=>"Tseng", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005023379"}, {"first_name"=>"Pung Pung", "last_name"=>"Hwang", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103243705"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80051971314", "sgr"=>"80051971314", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0023689", "pmid"=>"21887296", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"362405423"}, "id"=>"b470a101-0961-3f5f-899b-aea5a7f98d9c", "abstract"=>"Cortisol was reported to downregulate body-fluid Ca(2+) levels in mammals but was proposed to show hypercalcemic effects in teleostean fish. Fish, unlike terrestrial vertebrates, obtain Ca(2+) from the environment mainly via the gills and skin rather than by dietary means, and have to regulate the Ca(2+) uptake functions to cope with fluctuating Ca(2+) levels in aquatic environments. Cortisol was previously found to regulate Ca(2+) uptake in fish; however, the molecular mechanism behind this is largely unclear. Zebrafish were used as a model to explore this issue. Acclimation to low-Ca(2+) fresh water stimulated Ca(2+) influx and expression of epithelial calcium channel (ecac), 11beta-hydroxylase and the glucocorticoid receptor (gr). Exogenous cortisol increased Ca(2+) influx and the expressions of ecac and hydroxysteroid 11-beta dehydrogenase 2 (hsd11b2), but downregulated 11beta-hydroxylase and the gr with no effects on other Ca(2+) transporters or the mineralocorticoid receptor (mr). Morpholino knockdown of the GR, but not the MR, was found to impair zebrafish Ca(2+) uptake function by inhibiting the ecac expression. To further explore the regulatory mechanism of cortisol in Ca(2+) uptake, the involvement of vitamin D(3) was analyzed. Cortisol stimulated expressions of vitamin D-25hydroxylase (cyp27a1), cyp27a1 like (cyp27a1l), 1alpha-OHase (cyp27b1) at 3 dpf through GR, the first time to demonstrate the relationship between cortisol and vitamin D(3) in fish. In conclusion, cortisol stimulates ecac expression to enhance Ca(2+) uptake functions, and this control pathway is suggested to be mediated by the GR. Lastly, cortisol also could mediate vitamin D(3) signaling to stimulate Ca(2+) uptake in zebrafish.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/reverse-effect-mammalian-hypocalcemic-cortisol-fish-cortisol-stimulates-ca-2-uptake-via-glucocortico", "reader_count"=>28, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/742428"], "description"=>"<p>Ca<sup>2+</sup> content (A), Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx (B) and mRNA expressions (C). mRNA expressions were analyzed by qPCR, and values were normalized to <i>β-actin</i>. <sup>abc</sup>Indicate a significant difference (<i>p</i><0.05) using Tukey's multiple-comparison test following one-way ANOVA. Value are the mean ± SEM (<i>n</i> = 6 or 7).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exogenous", "cortisol", "3-dpf", "zebrafish"], "article_id"=>412795, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Molecular Biology", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Chia-Hao Lin", "I-Lun Tsai", "Che-Hsien Su", "Deng-Yu Tseng", "Pung-Pung Hwang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023689.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_exogenous_cortisol_in_3_dpf_zebrafish_embryos_/412795", "title"=>"Effects of exogenous cortisol in 3-dpf zebrafish embryos.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-24 00:46:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/374717", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/374764", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/374816", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/374850", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/374871", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/374890"], "description"=>"<div><p>Cortisol was reported to downregulate body-fluid Ca<sup>2+</sup> levels in mammals but was proposed to show hypercalcemic effects in teleostean fish. Fish, unlike terrestrial vertebrates, obtain Ca<sup>2+</sup> from the environment mainly via the gills and skin rather than by dietary means, and have to regulate the Ca<sup>2+</sup> uptake functions to cope with fluctuating Ca<sup>2+</sup> levels in aquatic environments. Cortisol was previously found to regulate Ca<sup>2+</sup> uptake in fish; however, the molecular mechanism behind this is largely unclear. Zebrafish were used as a model to explore this issue. Acclimation to low-Ca<sup>2+</sup> fresh water stimulated Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx and expression of <em>epithelial calcium channel</em> (<em>ecac</em>), <em>11β-hydroxylase</em> and the <em>glucocorticoid receptor</em> (<em>gr</em>). Exogenous cortisol increased Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx and the expressions of <em>ecac</em> and <em>hydroxysteroid 11-beta dehydrogenase 2 (hsd11b2)</em>, but downregulated <em>11β-hydroxylase</em> and the <em>gr</em> with no effects on other Ca<sup>2+</sup> transporters or the <em>mineralocorticoid receptor</em> (<em>mr</em>). Morpholino knockdown of the GR, but not the MR, was found to impair zebrafish Ca<sup>2+</sup> uptake function by inhibiting the <em>ecac</em> expression. To further explore the regulatory mechanism of cortisol in Ca<sup>2+</sup> uptake, the involvement of vitamin D<sub>3</sub> was analyzed. Cortisol stimulated expressions of <em>vitamin D-25hydroxylase</em> (<em>cyp27a1</em>), <em>cyp27a1 like</em> (<em>cyp27a1l</em>), <em>1α-OHase</em> (<em>cyp27b1</em>) at 3 dpf through GR, the first time to demonstrate the relationship between cortisol and vitamin D<sub>3</sub> in fish. In conclusion, cortisol stimulates <em>ecac</em> expression to enhance Ca<sup>2+</sup> uptake functions, and this control pathway is suggested to be mediated by the GR. Lastly, cortisol also could mediate vitamin D<sub>3</sub> signaling to stimulate Ca<sup>2+</sup> uptake in zebrafish.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mammalian", "hypocalcemic", "cortisol", "stimulates", "uptake", "glucocorticoid", "receptor-mediated", "metabolism"], "article_id"=>133996, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Molecular Biology", "Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Chia-Hao Lin", "I-Lun Tsai", "Che-Hsien Su", "Deng-Yu Tseng", "Pung-Pung Hwang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023689.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023689.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023689.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023689.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023689.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023689.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>15, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Reverse_Effect_of_Mammalian_Hypocalcemic_Cortisol_in_Fish_Cortisol_Stimulates_Ca_2_Uptake_via_Glucocorticoid_Receptor_Mediated_Vitamin_D_3_Metabolism/133996", "title"=>"Reverse Effect of Mammalian Hypocalcemic Cortisol in Fish: Cortisol Stimulates Ca<sup>2+</sup> Uptake via Glucocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Vitamin D<sub>3</sub> Metabolism", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-08-24 01:06:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/742889"], "description"=>"<p>Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx (A) and <i>ecac</i> mRNA expression (B) were analyzed in 3-dpf zebrafish embryos injected with GR MO or MR MO with cortisol treatment. mRNA expressions were analyzed by qPCR, and values were normalized to <i>β-actin</i>. <sup>abc</sup>Indicate a significant difference (<i>p</i><0.05) using Tukey's multiple-comparison test following one-way ANOVA. Values are the mean ± SEM. (<i>n</i> = 6∼8).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mr", "mo", "gr", "zebrafish", "embryos", "cortisol"], "article_id"=>413257, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Molecular Biology", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Chia-Hao Lin", "I-Lun Tsai", "Che-Hsien Su", "Deng-Yu Tseng", "Pung-Pung Hwang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023689.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_MR_MO_and_GR_MO_on_zebrafish_embryos_with_cortisol_treatment_/413257", "title"=>"Effects of MR MO and GR MO on zebrafish embryos with cortisol treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-24 00:54:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/743207"], "description"=>"<p>qPCR was used to analyze mRNA expression and values were normalized to <i>β-actin</i>. (A) mRNA expressions in 1-dpf zebrafish embryos. (B) mRNA expressions in 3-dpf zebrafish embryos. <sup>abc</sup>Indicate a significant difference (<i>p</i><0.05) using Tukey's multiple-comparison test following one-way ANOVA. Values are the mean ± SEM (<i>n</i> = 6).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exogenous", "cortisol", "mrna", "expressions"], "article_id"=>413576, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Molecular Biology", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Chia-Hao Lin", "I-Lun Tsai", "Che-Hsien Su", "Deng-Yu Tseng", "Pung-Pung Hwang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023689.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_exogenous_cortisol_on_mRNA_expressions_of_the_vitamin_D_3_related_genes_/413576", "title"=>"Effects of exogenous cortisol on mRNA expressions of the vitamin D<sub>3</sub>-related genes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-24 00:59:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/742548"], "description"=>"<p>In situ hybridization analysis indicated <i>ecac</i> signals (A) and density of <i>ecac</i>-expressing cells (B). <sup>abc</sup>Indicate a significant difference (<i>p</i><0.05) using Tukey's multiple-comparison test following one-way ANOVA. Value are the mean ± SEM (<i>n</i> = 6 or 7). <i>Scale bar</i> 100 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exogenous", "cortisol", "cells", "3-dpf", "zebrafish"], "article_id"=>412917, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Molecular Biology", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Chia-Hao Lin", "I-Lun Tsai", "Che-Hsien Su", "Deng-Yu Tseng", "Pung-Pung Hwang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023689.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_exogenous_cortisol_on_ecac_expressing_cells_in_3_dpf_zebrafish_embryos_/412917", "title"=>"Effects of exogenous cortisol on <i>ecac</i>-expressing cells in 3-dpf zebrafish embryos.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-24 00:48:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/743011"], "description"=>"<p>Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx (A) and <i>ecac</i> mRNA expression (B) were also analyzed in 3-dpf zebrafish embryos injected with GR-SB MO or GR-SB MO with GR cRNA. mRNA expressions were analyzed by qPCR, and values were normalized to <i>β-actin</i>. <sup>abc</sup>Indicate a significant difference (<i>p</i><0.05) using Tukey's multiple-comparison test following one-way ANOVA. Values are the mean ± SEM. (<i>n</i> = 6∼8).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gr", "crna", "gr-sb", "mo-injected", "zebrafish"], "article_id"=>413379, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Molecular Biology", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Chia-Hao Lin", "I-Lun Tsai", "Che-Hsien Su", "Deng-Yu Tseng", "Pung-Pung Hwang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023689.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_GR_cRNA_on_GR_SB_MO_injected_zebrafish_embryos_/413379", "title"=>"Effects of GR cRNA on GR-SB MO-injected zebrafish embryos.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-24 00:56:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/742705"], "description"=>"<p>Ca<sup>2+</sup>content (A), Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx (B), and mRNA expressions (C). mRNA expressions were analyzed by qPCR and values were normalized to <i>β-actin</i>. <sup>abc</sup>Indicate a significant difference (<i>p</i><0.05) using Tukey's multiple-comparison test following one-way ANOVA. Values are the mean ± SEM (<i>n</i> = 6 or 7).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mr", "mo", "gr", "3-dpf", "zebrafish"], "article_id"=>413076, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Molecular Biology", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Chia-Hao Lin", "I-Lun Tsai", "Che-Hsien Su", "Deng-Yu Tseng", "Pung-Pung Hwang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023689.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_MR_MO_and_GR_MO_in_3_dpf_zebrafish_embryos_/413076", "title"=>"Effects of MR MO and GR MO in 3-dpf zebrafish embryos.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-24 00:51:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/743329"], "description"=>"<p>(A) mRNA expressions in 1-dpf zebrafish embryos. (B) mRNA expressions in 3-dpf zebrafish embryos. mRNA expression was analyze by qPCR and values were normalized to <i>β-actin</i>. <sup>abc</sup>Indicate a significant difference (<i>p</i><0.05) using Tukey's multiple-comparison test following one-way ANOVA. Values are the mean ± SEM (<i>n</i> = 6).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mr", "mo", "gr", "mrna"], "article_id"=>413698, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Molecular Biology", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Chia-Hao Lin", "I-Lun Tsai", "Che-Hsien Su", "Deng-Yu Tseng", "Pung-Pung Hwang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023689.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_MR_MO_and_GR_MO_on_mRNA_expression_of_the_vitamin_D_3_related_genes_/413698", "title"=>"Effects of MR MO and GR MO on mRNA expression of the vitamin D<sub>3</sub>-related genes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-24 01:01:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/742310"], "description"=>"<p>Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx (A) and mRNA expression (B) of 3-dpf zebrafish embryos acclimated to low- (0.02 mM Ca<sup>2+</sup>) or high-Ca<sup>2+</sup> (2.00 mM Ca<sup>2+</sup>) artificial fresh water. mRNA expression analyzed by qPCR and values were normalized to <i>β-actin</i>. Values are the mean ± SEM (<i>n</i> = 4∼6). *Significant difference (Student's <i>t-test</i>, <i>p</i><0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["influx", "expressions", "regulation-related"], "article_id"=>412680, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Molecular Biology", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Chia-Hao Lin", "I-Lun Tsai", "Che-Hsien Su", "Deng-Yu Tseng", "Pung-Pung Hwang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023689.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ca_2_influx_and_gene_expressions_of_Ca_2_regulation_related_genes_/412680", "title"=>"Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx and gene expressions of Ca<sup>2+</sup> regulation-related genes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-24 00:44:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/742803"], "description"=>"<p>In situ hybridization analysis indicated <i>ecac</i> signals (A) and density of <i>ecac</i>-expressing cells (B). <sup>abc</sup>Indicate a significant difference (<i>p</i><0.05) using Tukey's multiple-comparison test following one-way ANOVA. Value are the mean ± SEM (<i>n</i> = 6 or 7). <i>Scale bar</i> 100 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mr", "mo", "gr", "cells", "3-dpf", "zebrafish"], "article_id"=>413166, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Molecular Biology", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Chia-Hao Lin", "I-Lun Tsai", "Che-Hsien Su", "Deng-Yu Tseng", "Pung-Pung Hwang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023689.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_MR_MO_and_GR_MO_on_ecac_expressing_cells_in_3_dpf_zebrafish_embryos_/413166", "title"=>"Effects of MR MO and GR MO on <i>ecac</i>-expressing cells in 3-dpf zebrafish embryos.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-24 00:52:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/742614"], "description"=>"<p>MR and GR cRNA (with GFP fusion) were injected into embryos respectively (A, B), and embryos coinjection of MR/GR MO with cRNA (C, D). Western blot were used to detect GR and MR protein expressions in wild type (WT) and the MO-injected embryos at 3 dpf (E).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mr", "mo", "gr"], "article_id"=>412985, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Molecular Biology", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Chia-Hao Lin", "I-Lun Tsai", "Che-Hsien Su", "Deng-Yu Tseng", "Pung-Pung Hwang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023689.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Specificity_and_effectiveness_of_MR_MO_and_GR_MO_/412985", "title"=>"Specificity and effectiveness of MR MO and GR MO.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-24 00:49:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/742229"], "description"=>"<p>Determined by RT-PCR, <i>mr</i> and <i>gr</i> mRNA in various tissues of adults (A), and during developmental stages of embryos (B). <i>β-actin</i> was used as the internal control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["molecular biology", "plant biology", "physiology", "ecology"], "article_id"=>412599, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Molecular Biology", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Chia-Hao Lin", "I-Lun Tsai", "Che-Hsien Su", "Deng-Yu Tseng", "Pung-Pung Hwang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023689.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Zebrafish_mr_and_gr_expression_profiles_/412599", "title"=>"Zebrafish <i>mr</i> and <i>gr</i> expression profiles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-24 00:43:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/743121"], "description"=>"<p><i>ecac</i> mRNA expression were analyzed in 3-dpf zebrafish embryos injected with GR MO or MR MO with low Ca<sup>2+</sup> (0.02 mM; LCa) treatment. mRNA expressions were analyzed by qPCR, and values were normalized to <i>β-actin</i>. <sup>abc</sup>Indicate a significant difference (<i>p</i><0.05) using Tukey's multiple-comparison test following one-way ANOVA. Values are the mean ± SEM. (<i>n</i> = 6∼8).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mr", "mo", "gr", "mrna"], "article_id"=>413491, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Molecular Biology", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Chia-Hao Lin", "I-Lun Tsai", "Che-Hsien Su", "Deng-Yu Tseng", "Pung-Pung Hwang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023689.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_MR_MO_and_GR_MO_on_ecac_mRNA_expression_with_low_Ca_2_treatment_/413491", "title"=>"Effect of MR MO and GR MO on <i>ecac</i> mRNA expression with low Ca<sup>2+</sup> treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-24 00:58:11"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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