Cyanobacterial Diversity and a New Acaryochloris-Like Symbiont from Bahamian Sea-Squirts
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{"title"=>"Cyanobacterial diversity and a new Acaryochloris-like symbiont from bahamian sea-squirts", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Susanna", "last_name"=>"López-Legentil", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506198549"}, {"first_name"=>"Bongkeun", "last_name"=>"Song", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402560375"}, {"first_name"=>"Manel", "last_name"=>"Bosch", "scopus_author_id"=>"8277174800"}, {"first_name"=>"Joseph R.", "last_name"=>"Pawlik", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005422573"}, {"first_name"=>"Xavier", "last_name"=>"Turon", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003981764"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"362390101", "sgr"=>"80051948754", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0023938", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80051948754", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"21915246"}, "id"=>"8243ea6c-9466-3a9a-a522-bab7ce56082e", "abstract"=>"Symbiotic interactions between ascidians (sea-squirts) and microbes are poorly understood. Here we characterized the cyanobacteria in the tissues of 8 distinct didemnid taxa from shallow-water marine habitats in the Bahamas Islands by sequencing a fragment of the cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene and the entire 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and by examining symbiont morphology with transmission electron (TEM) and confocal microscopy (CM). As described previously for other species, Trididemnum spp. mostly contained symbionts associated with the Prochloron-Synechocystis group. However, sequence analysis of the symbionts in Lissoclinum revealed two unique clades. The first contained a novel cyanobacterial clade, while the second clade was closely associated with Acaryochloris marina. CM revealed the presence of chlorophyll d (chl d) and phycobiliproteins (PBPs) within these symbiont cells, as is characteristic of Acaryochloris species. The presence of symbionts was also observed by TEM inside the tunic of both the adult and larvae of L. fragile, indicating vertical transmission to progeny. Based on molecular phylogenetic and microscopic analyses, Candidatus Acaryochloris bahamiensis nov. sp. is proposed for this symbiotic cyanobacterium. Our results support the hypothesis that photosymbiont communities in ascidians are structured by host phylogeny, but in some cases, also by sampling location.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/cyanobacterial-diversity-new-acaryochlorislike-symbiont-bahamian-seasquirts", "reader_count"=>49, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34, "Chemistry"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/744026"], "description"=>"<p>Sequences obtained in this study are highlighted (bold lettering). Labels on terminal nodes of sequences include sample name and clone sequenced (in parenthesis). Labels on terminal nodes of sequences from this study include sample name, clone sequenced (in parenthesis), and sample location (underlined: SC: Sweeting's Cay, LSS: Little San Salvador; WPC: West Plana Cay, and EPC: East Plana Cay). Bars as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0023938#pone-0023938-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>. Tree topology corresponds to the consensus obtained from neighbor-joining (NJ) analysis. Individual bootstrap values from NJ, maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses and posterior probabilities (PP) from Bayesian inference are located in the upper-left box and correspond to circle numbers on tree nodes. Solid lines indicate bootstrap support greater than 50% from at least 2 of the 4 phylogenetic criteria, and dashed lines indicate weakly supported branches. Scale bar represents 0.05 substitutions per site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sequences", "cyanobacteria", "bahamian"], "article_id"=>414398, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Susanna López-Legentil", "Bongkeun Song", "Manel Bosch", "Joseph R. Pawlik", "Xavier Turon"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023938.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogeny_of_16S_8211_23S_ITS_gene_sequences_from_cyanobacteria_isolated_from_Bahamian_ascidians_/414398", "title"=>"Phylogeny of 16S–23S ITS gene sequences from cyanobacteria isolated from Bahamian ascidians.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:33:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/744355"], "description"=>"<p>Cells were excited with a 635 nm red laser and fluorescence was detected between 700–750 nm for chlorophyll <i>d</i> (a) and 640–670 nm for phycobiliproteins (b). (c) Composite image from combining the chlorophyll <i>d</i> (red) and the phycobiliproteins (green) channels. (d) 3D surface rendering after image deconvolution showing the emplacement of chlorophyll <i>d</i> and phycobiliproteins within the <i>Acaryochloris</i>-like cells. Scale bar = 2 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microscopical", "images", "reconstruction", "cells"], "article_id"=>414727, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Susanna López-Legentil", "Bongkeun Song", "Manel Bosch", "Joseph R. Pawlik", "Xavier Turon"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023938.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Confocal_microscopical_images_and_model_reconstruction_of_Acaryochloris_like_cells_in_Lissoclinum_aff_fragile_/414727", "title"=>"Confocal microscopical images and model reconstruction of <i>Acaryochloris</i>-like cells in <i>Lissoclinum</i> aff. <i>fragile</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:34:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/744455"], "description"=>"<p>Species name, sampling date, code, location within Bahamas, GPS position, and GenBank accession numbers for the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "ecology", "marine and aquatic sciences"], "article_id"=>414823, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Susanna López-Legentil", "Bongkeun Song", "Manel Bosch", "Joseph R. Pawlik", "Xavier Turon"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023938.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ascidian_species_analyzed_in_this_study_/414823", "title"=>"Ascidian species analyzed in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:35:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/743744"], "description"=>"<p>Sequences obtained in this study are highlighted (bold lettering). The Stolidobranchia species <i>Botryllus schlosseri</i> was used as an outgroup taxa. Labels on terminal nodes of reference sequences indicate the ascidian species and GenBank accession number or code in the Barcode of Life database. Labels on terminal nodes of sequences from this study include species name and sample code as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0023938#pone-0023938-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> (underlined: SC: Sweeting's Cay; LSS: Little San Salvador; WPC: West Plana Cay, and EPC: East Plana Cay). Bars and labels highlight the two clades of interest (I and II). Samples corresponding to <i>Lissoclinum</i> aff. <i>fragile</i> and <i>L. fragile</i> are further highlighted with a grey bar (IIA and IIB, respectively). Tree topology was obtained from neighbor-joining (NJ) analysis. Individual bootstrap values from NJ, maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses and posterior probabilities (PP) from Bayesian inference are located in the upper-left box and correspond to circle numbers on tree nodes. Solid lines indicate bootstrap support greater than 50% from at least 2 of the 4 phylogenetic criteria, and dashed lines indicate weakly supported branches. The <i>Didemnum vexillum</i> cluster includes GenBank sequences: EU419439, -57, EU742661, -68, -69, -75. Scale bar represents 0.05 substitutions per site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogeny", "coi"], "article_id"=>414115, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Susanna López-Legentil", "Bongkeun Song", "Manel Bosch", "Joseph R. Pawlik", "Xavier Turon"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023938.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Host_phylogeny_with_partial_COI_gene_sequences_/414115", "title"=>"Host phylogeny with partial COI gene sequences.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:31:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/744241"], "description"=>"<p>(A) <i>Synechocystis</i> sp. symbiont in <i>Trididemnum cyanophorum</i>; (B) Polyedric bodies located in the periphery of the <i>Synechocystis</i> cell; (C) <i>Acaryochloris bahamiensis</i> nv. sp. after division in the tunic of <i>Lissoclinum fragile</i>; (D) Detail showing the peptoglycan layer between two cells of <i>Acaryochloris bahamiensis</i> nv. sp. during the final stage of division; (E) Other cyanobacterial symbionts observed in the tunic of <i>L. fragile</i>; (F) Spicules and cyanobacteria distribution inside the tunic of <i>L. fragile</i> (asterisks indicate spicule location). The inset shows cyanobacteria in the tunic of the larvae (C: Cuticle; IT: Inner tunic; OT: Outer tunic).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["electron", "microscopical", "images", "photosymbionts"], "article_id"=>414612, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Susanna López-Legentil", "Bongkeun Song", "Manel Bosch", "Joseph R. Pawlik", "Xavier Turon"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023938.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>44, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Transmission_electron_microscopical_images_of_photosymbionts_from_Trididemnum_cyanophorum_and_Lissoclinum_aff_fragile_/414612", "title"=>"Transmission electron microscopical images of photosymbionts from <i>Trididemnum cyanophorum</i> and <i>Lissoclinum</i> aff. <i>fragile</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:34:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/743921"], "description"=>"<p>Sequences obtained in this study are highlighted (bold lettering). Labels on terminal nodes of reference sequences indicate other cyanobacteria species and GenBank accession numbers. Labels on terminal nodes of sequences from this study include sample name, clone sequenced (in parenthesis), and sample code for the <i>Lissoclinum</i> species (underlined: LSS: Little San Salvador; WPC: West Plana Cay, and EPC: East Plana Cay). Tree topology was obtained from neighbor-joining (NJ) analysis. Individual bootstrap values from NJ, maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses and posterior probabilities (PP) from Bayesian inference are located in the upper-left box and correspond to circle numbers on tree nodes. Solid lines indicate bootstrap support greater than 50% from at least 2 of the 4 phylogenetic criteria, and dashed lines indicate weakly supported branches. Bars and labels highlight the 11 major cyanobacterial groups detected in this study (A to K). Samples corresponding to <i>Lissoclinum</i> aff. <i>fragile</i> and <i>L. fragile</i> are further highlighted with a grey bar (IIA and IIB, respectively). The <i>Prochloron</i> spp. clade includes GenBank sequences: DQ357949, -50, -53, -57, -62, -66, -67, DQ385852, and X63141. The sponge symbiont clade includes GenBank sequences: AY701287, -1288, -1290, -1296, -1299, -1301, -1302, -1304, -1306, -1311, EU307448, -455, -458, -477, -488, -489, -492, -509, EF121775, -89, -98. Scale bar represents 0.02 substitutions per site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["16s", "rrna", "sequences", "cyanobacteria", "bahamian"], "article_id"=>414289, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Susanna López-Legentil", "Bongkeun Song", "Manel Bosch", "Joseph R. Pawlik", "Xavier Turon"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023938.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogeny_of_partial_16S_rRNA_gene_sequences_from_cyanobacteria_isolated_from_Bahamian_ascidians_/414289", "title"=>"Phylogeny of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences from cyanobacteria isolated from Bahamian ascidians.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:32:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/743612"], "description"=>"<p>(A) <i>Trididemnum cyanophorum</i> from Sweeting's Cay (SC 2-1); (B) <i>Lissoclinum</i> aff. <i>fragile</i> from Little San Salvador (LSS 1-7); (C) <i>Lissoclinum fragile</i> from West Plana Cay (WPC 1-1); (D) <i>Lissoclinum fragile</i> from West Plana Cay (WPC 3-6); (E) <i>Lissoclinum fragile</i> from East Plana Cay (EPC 1-2); (F) <i>Lissoclinum fragile</i> from East Plana Cay (EPC 1-5); (G) <i>Lissoclinum</i> aff. <i>fragile</i> from Little San Salvador (LSS 1-2); and (H) <i>Trididemnum solidum</i> from Little San Salvador (LSS 2-1). Scale bar on ascidian photos = 2 cm. Scale bar on spicule photos = 50 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bahamian", "ascidians", "spicule"], "article_id"=>413977, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Susanna López-Legentil", "Bongkeun Song", "Manel Bosch", "Joseph R. Pawlik", "Xavier Turon"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023938.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Images_of_Bahamian_ascidians_and_their_spicule_types_/413977", "title"=>"Images of Bahamian ascidians and their spicule types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 15:30:43"}

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