The Later Stone Age Calvaria from Iwo Eleru, Nigeria: Morphology and Chronology
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{"title"=>"The later stone age calvaria from Iwo Eleru, Nigeria: Morphology and chronology", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Katerina", "last_name"=>"Harvati", "scopus_author_id"=>"15843691500"}, {"first_name"=>"Chris", "last_name"=>"Stringer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005875885"}, {"first_name"=>"Rainer", "last_name"=>"Grün", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005143323"}, {"first_name"=>"Maxime", "last_name"=>"Aubert", "scopus_author_id"=>"16028043000"}, {"first_name"=>"Philip", "last_name"=>"Allsworth-Jones", "scopus_author_id"=>"6504720114"}, {"first_name"=>"Caleb Adebayo", "last_name"=>"Folorunso", "scopus_author_id"=>"23569174900"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80052844069", "pmid"=>"21949689", "sgr"=>"80052844069", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0024024", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"362567489"}, "id"=>"f8e5eb45-9a30-3f56-bd62-fa6071f97966", "abstract"=>"Background In recent years the Later Stone Age has been redated to a much deeper time depth than previously thought. At the same time, human remains from this time period are scarce in Africa, and even rarer in West Africa. The Iwo Eleru burial is one of the few ...", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/later-stone-age-calvaria-iwo-eleru-nigeria-morphology-chronology", "reader_count"=>85, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>42, "Arts and Humanities"=>13, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>13, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>13}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>13}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>42}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>4, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734416"], "description"=>"<p>Top: Principal components analysis, PC1 and 2. Cranial shape differences along PC 1 are shown below the graph. The top graph shows a Minimum Spanning Tree of the Inter-individual Procrustes distances for the fossil specimens (black lines connecting specimens). Specimen labels as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0024024#pone-0024024-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>. Bottom: Canonical variates analysis, CV 1 and 2. Symbols: Grey diamonds. Modern humans; Black up triangles: Upper Paleolithic modern humans; Purple up triangles: Late Pleistocene African and Near Eastern hominins; Red stars: <i>H. neanderthalensis</i>; Red squares: <i>H. heidelbergensis</i> (<i>s.l</i>.); Black squares: <i>H. erectus</i> (<i>s.l</i>.). Ellipses indicate 95% confidence ellipses for Neanderthals (red) and modern humans (gray).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "Physical anthropology", "multivariate", "landmarks"], "article_id"=>404769, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Katerina Harvati", "Chris Stringer", "Rainer Grün", "Maxime Aubert", "Philip Allsworth-Jones", "Caleb Adebayo Folorunso"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024024.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_multivariate_statistical_analysis_of_landmarks_and_semilandmarks_/404769", "title"=>"Results of the multivariate statistical analysis of landmarks and semilandmarks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-15 01:19:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734237"], "description"=>"<p>Clockwise from top left: Lateral, frontal, ventral and superior views.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "Physical anthropology", "geographic", "iwo", "eleru"], "article_id"=>404578, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Katerina Harvati", "Chris Stringer", "Rainer Grün", "Maxime Aubert", "Philip Allsworth-Jones", "Caleb Adebayo Folorunso"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024024.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>262, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_Nigeria_showing_the_geographic_location_of_the_Iwo_Eleru_rockshelter_and_the_Iwo_Eleru_calvaria_/404578", "title"=>"Map of Nigeria, showing the geographic location of the Iwo Eleru rockshelter, and the Iwo Eleru calvaria.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-15 01:16:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/370917", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/370966", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/371021", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/371060", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/371111"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>In recent years the Later Stone Age has been redated to a much deeper time depth than previously thought. At the same time, human remains from this time period are scarce in Africa, and even rarer in West Africa. The Iwo Eleru burial is one of the few human skeletal remains associated with Later Stone Age artifacts in that region with a proposed Pleistocene date. We undertook a morphometric reanalysis of this cranium in order to better assess its affinities. We also conducted Uranium-series dating to re-evaluate its chronology.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>A 3-D geometric morphometric analysis of cranial landmarks and semilandmarks was conducted using a large comparative fossil and modern human sample. The measurements were collected in the form of three dimensional coordinates and processed using Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Principal components, canonical variates, Mahalanobis D<sup>2</sup> and Procrustes distance analyses were performed. The results were further visualized by comparing specimen and mean configurations. Results point to a morphological similarity with late archaic African specimens dating to the Late Pleistocene. A long bone cortical fragment was made available for U-series analysis in order to re-date the specimen. The results (∼11.7–16.3 ka) support a terminal Pleistocene chronology for the Iwo Eleru burial as was also suggested by the original radiocarbon dating results and by stratigraphic evidence.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Our findings are in accordance with suggestions of deep population substructure in Africa and a complex evolutionary process for the origin of modern humans. They further highlight the dearth of hominin finds from West Africa, and underscore our real lack of knowledge of human evolution in that region.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "Physical anthropology", "calvaria", "iwo", "morphology", "chronology"], "article_id"=>133284, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Katerina Harvati", "Chris Stringer", "Rainer Grün", "Maxime Aubert", "Philip Allsworth-Jones", "Caleb Adebayo Folorunso"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024024.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024024.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024024.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024024.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024024.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>35, "page_views"=>49, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Later_Stone_Age_Calvaria_from_Iwo_Eleru_Nigeria_Morphology_and_Chronology/133284", "title"=>"The Later Stone Age Calvaria from Iwo Eleru, Nigeria: Morphology and Chronology", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-09-15 00:54:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734550"], "description"=>"<p>*Indicates specimens for which high-quality casts or stereolithographs were measured. The symbols for each specimen used in the Figures are indicated in parentheses. One of the authors (Stringer) regards Sima de los Huesos 5 as an early Neanderthal rather than a <i>H. heidelbergensis</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "Physical anthropology", "comparative", "samples"], "article_id"=>404910, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Katerina Harvati", "Chris Stringer", "Rainer Grün", "Maxime Aubert", "Philip Allsworth-Jones", "Caleb Adebayo Folorunso"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024024.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fossil_comparative_samples_used_in_the_analysis_/404910", "title"=>"Fossil comparative samples used in the analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-09-15 01:21:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734596"], "description"=>"<p>Museum abbreviations: AMNH: American Museum of Natural History, New York; IAL: Institute of Anatomy, Leipzig; IPH: Institut de Paléontologie Humaine, Paris; IZCT: Iziko Museums of Cape Town; MH: Musée de l′Homme, Paris; NHM: Natural History Museum, London; UCT: University of Cape Town; WITS: University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.</p><p>The population labels used in the Figures, the geographic and temporal provenience of the samples, and the museums where these samples are housed are indicated in parenthesis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "Physical anthropology", "comparative"], "article_id"=>404946, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Katerina Harvati", "Chris Stringer", "Rainer Grün", "Maxime Aubert", "Philip Allsworth-Jones", "Caleb Adebayo Folorunso"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024024.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Recent_human_comparative_samples_/404946", "title"=>"Recent human comparative samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-09-15 01:22:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734494"], "description"=>"<p>Iwo Eleru (black) compared to the modern human mean configuration (A, gray), to the Late-Middle Pleistocene African mean configuration (B, gray), and to its closest modern human neighbor in overall shape (C, gray).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "Physical anthropology", "comparisons", "iwo"], "article_id"=>404846, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Katerina Harvati", "Chris Stringer", "Rainer Grün", "Maxime Aubert", "Philip Allsworth-Jones", "Caleb Adebayo Folorunso"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024024.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Shape_comparisons_of_Iwo_Eleru_/404846", "title"=>"Shape comparisons of Iwo Eleru.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-15 01:20:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734321"], "description"=>"<p>Mutually close specimens are joined by lines, but an arrowed line indicates where the proximity is not mutual. For example Saccopastore is a nearest neighbour to Petralona, but Petralona is not a near neighbour of Saccopastore. Redrawn with permission from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0024024#pone.0024024-Stringer1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "Physical anthropology", "multivariate", "analyses", "iwo", "eleru"], "article_id"=>404669, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Katerina Harvati", "Chris Stringer", "Rainer Grün", "Maxime Aubert", "Philip Allsworth-Jones", "Caleb Adebayo Folorunso"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024024.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Visualization_of_the_results_of_Stringer_s_multivariate_analyses_2_3_showing_the_position_of_the_Iwo_Eleru_calvaria_/404669", "title"=>"Visualization of the results of Stringer's multivariate analyses [<b>2]</b>, [3<b> </b>], showing the position of the Iwo Eleru calvaria.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-15 01:17:49"}

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Relative Metric

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