Change and Aging Senescence as an Adaptation
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{"title"=>"Change and aging senescence as an adaptation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"André C.R.", "last_name"=>"Martins", "scopus_author_id"=>"55851462900"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80052862461", "pmid"=>"21949706", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0024328", "pui"=>"362568181", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "arxiv"=>"1103.4649", "sgr"=>"80052862461"}, "id"=>"44ed1df7-c6f9-31a8-b725-bb1ee11eb326", "abstract"=>"Understanding why we age is a long-lived open problem in evolutionary biology. Aging is prejudicial to the individual, and evolutionary forces should prevent it, but many species show signs of senescence as individuals age. Here, I will propose a model for aging based on assumptions that are compatible with evolutionary theory: i) competition is between individuals; ii) there is some degree of locality, so quite often competition will be between parents and their progeny; iii) optimal conditions are not stationary, and mutation helps each species to keep competitive. When conditions change, a senescent species can drive immortal competitors to extinction. This counter-intuitive result arises from the pruning caused by the death of elder individuals. When there is change and mutation, each generation is slightly better adapted to the new conditions, but some older individuals survive by chance. Senescence can eliminate those from the genetic pool. Even though individual selection forces can sometimes win over group selection ones, it is not exactly the individual that is selected but its lineage. While senescence damages the individuals and has an evolutionary cost, it has a benefit of its own. It allows each lineage to adapt faster to changing conditions. We age because the world changes.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/change-aging-senescence-adaptation", "reader_count"=>72, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>20, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>20, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>35, "Computer Science"=>3, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>8, "Psychology"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>8}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>35}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>4, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734606"], "description"=>"<p>All cases started with lower initial fitness (). <i>Top Panel</i>: Distance of birth . For both simulations, mutation was always and the the value of is expressed in multiples of 0.001 for convenience. <i>Middle Panel</i>: Distance of birth . <i>Lower Panel</i>: Distance of birth .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["simulations", "ended", "ager", "victories", "senescence", "rates"], "article_id"=>404960, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["André C. R. Martins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024328.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportion_of_simulations_that_ended_with_ager_victories_as_a_function_of_the_age_of_death_by_senescence_of_the_ager_population_for_different_rates_of_diffusion_/404960", "title"=>"Proportion of simulations that ended with ager victories as a function of the age of death by senescence of the ager population, for different rates of diffusion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:41:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734248"], "description"=>"<p>The blue lines correspond to the species where there is senescence (aging) and the red lines to the species where individuals do not age. <i>Top Panel</i>: Number of individuals (agents) in each group as a function of the number of generations (time). <i>Bottom Panel</i>: Evolution of the average value of the fitness function for each species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ended", "senescent"], "article_id"=>404615, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["André C. R. Martins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024328.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_evolution_of_a_typical_run_that_ended_with_the_defeat_of_the_senescent_species_/404615", "title"=>"The evolution of a typical run that ended with the defeat of the senescent species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:39:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734484"], "description"=>"<p><i>Top Panel</i>: Larger initial fitness (), corresponding to a situation that is mostly far of equilibrium. For both simulations, mutation was always and the the value of is expressed in multiples of 0.001 for convenience. <i>Lower Panel</i>: Lower initial fitness (), corresponding to a situation that is much closer to equilibrium.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["simulations", "ended", "ager", "victories", "senescence", "diffusion"], "article_id"=>404838, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["André C. R. Martins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024328.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportion_of_simulations_that_ended_with_ager_victories_as_a_function_of_the_age_of_death_by_senescence_of_the_ager_population_for_slow_diffusion_/404838", "title"=>"Proportion of simulations that ended with ager victories as a function of the age of death by senescence of the ager population, for slow diffusion ().", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:40:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734390"], "description"=>"<p>These pictures correspond to a moment when the average fitness of the non aging species was 0.89 and that of the aging species, 1.17. <i>Left Panel</i> The division between the species is clearly shown, with red representing the non-aging species and blue, the aging species. Both for blue and red, lighter tones indicate a smaller fitness, while darker tones correspond to a higher fitness. <i>Right Panel</i> Same circumstances as in the left panel, but only fitness is shown in tones of green, with no distinction between the species, so that their fitness can be better compared.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>404753, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["André C. R. Martins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024328.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Landscape_of_fitness_values_in_the_middle_of_a_typical_one_run_/404753", "title"=>"Landscape of fitness values in the middle of a typical one run.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:40:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734168"], "description"=>"<p>The blue lines correspond to the species where there is senescence (aging) and the red lines to the species where individuals do not age. <i>Top Panel</i>: Number of individuals (agents) in each group as a function of the number of generations (time). <i>Bottom Panel</i>: Evolution of the average value of the fitness function for each species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ended", "senescent"], "article_id"=>404527, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["André C. R. Martins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024328.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_evolution_of_a_typical_run_that_ended_with_the_victory_of_the_senescent_species_/404527", "title"=>"The evolution of a typical run that ended with the victory of the senescent species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:38:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/733998"], "description"=>"<p>Blue squares correspond to a presence of an ager agent and red to the presence of a non-ager in that location. The figures show the same realization of the problem at different times, from the beginning (top left), evolving from left to right and then from top to bottom. Both for blue and red, lighter tones indicate a smaller fitness, while darker tones correspond to a higher fitness. Green spots correspond to places where no living agent is present.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spatial"], "article_id"=>404362, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["André C. R. Martins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024328.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_spatial_evolution_of_a_typical_run_/404362", "title"=>"The spatial evolution of a typical run.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:38:02"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2011-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2011-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences", "average_usage"=>[331, 535, 647, 744, 844, 946, 1026, 1107, 1176, 1235, 1292, 1362, 1432, 1501, 1565, 1632, 1688, 1764, 1827, 1880, 1949, 2007, 2080, 2146, 2214, 2260, 2337, 2405, 2464, 2520, 2575, 2661, 2717, 2785, 2835, 2892, 2961]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Conservation science", "average_usage"=>[444, 660, 811, 919, 1016, 1152, 1232, 1366, 1413, 1500, 1570, 1638, 1678, 1780, 1851, 1925, 1962, 2118, 2245, 2292, 2320, 2503, 2592, 2667, 2737, 2874, 2999, 3043, 3099, 3159, 3190, 3249, 3293, 3329, 3401, 3456, 3546]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Species extinction", "average_usage"=>[400, 611, 717, 803, 904, 981, 1034, 1080, 1132, 1165, 1220, 1284, 1356, 1405, 1449, 1505, 1562, 1635, 1694, 1749, 1789, 1841, 1880, 1969, 2111]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[303, 571, 709, 823, 937, 1038, 1133, 1216, 1298, 1370, 1447, 1518, 1588, 1656, 1725, 1790, 1856, 1926, 1992, 2054, 2118, 2182, 2242, 2301, 2363, 2425, 2484, 2544, 2602, 2662, 2716, 2776, 2841, 2901, 2960, 3016, 3071]}]}
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