Neuronal Deletion of Caspase 8 Protects against Brain Injury in Mouse Models of Controlled Cortical Impact and Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Neuronal deletion of caspase 8 protects against brain injury in mouse models of controlled cortical impact and kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Maryla", "last_name"=>"Krajewska", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006620991"}, {"first_name"=>"Zerong", "last_name"=>"You", "scopus_author_id"=>"13403499800"}, {"first_name"=>"Juan", "last_name"=>"Rong", "scopus_author_id"=>"13410432400"}, {"first_name"=>"Christina", "last_name"=>"Kress", "scopus_author_id"=>"8413339200"}, {"first_name"=>"Xianshu", "last_name"=>"Huang", "scopus_author_id"=>"8698499200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jinsheng", "last_name"=>"Yang", "scopus_author_id"=>"8726342500"}, {"first_name"=>"Tiffany", "last_name"=>"Kyoda", "scopus_author_id"=>"53871449800"}, {"first_name"=>"Ricardo", "last_name"=>"Leyva", "scopus_author_id"=>"53871496900"}, {"first_name"=>"Steven", "last_name"=>"Banares", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508052321"}, {"first_name"=>"Yue", "last_name"=>"Hu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56163082600"}, {"first_name"=>"Chia Hung", "last_name"=>"Sze", "scopus_author_id"=>"56500188100"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael J.", "last_name"=>"Whalen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007052432"}, {"first_name"=>"Leonardo", "last_name"=>"Salemena", "scopus_author_id"=>"53872105800"}, {"first_name"=>"Razqallah", "last_name"=>"Hakem", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003317226"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian P.", "last_name"=>"Head", "scopus_author_id"=>"9276023300"}, {"first_name"=>"John C.", "last_name"=>"Reed", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403642450"}, {"first_name"=>"Stan", "last_name"=>"Krajewski", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005274127"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362568179", "sgr"=>"80052837010", "pmid"=>"21957448", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80052837010", "isbn"=>"1932-6203; 1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0024341", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"6c77a3a5-77b2-3bf0-b227-1f6419655955", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Acute brain injury is an important health problem. Given the critical position of caspase 8 at the crossroads of cell death pathways, we generated a new viable mouse line (Ncasp8(-/-)), in which the gene encoding caspase 8 was selectively deleted in neurons by cre-lox system.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Caspase 8 deletion reduced rates of neuronal cell death in primary neuronal cultures and in whole brain organotypic coronal slice cultures prepared from 4 and 8 month old mice and cultivated up to 14 days in vitro. Treatments of cultures with recombinant murine TNFα (100 ng/ml) or TRAIL (250 ng/mL) plus cyclohexamide significantly protected neurons against cell death induced by these apoptosis-inducing ligands. A protective role of caspase 8 deletion in vivo was also demonstrated using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and seizure-induced brain injury caused by kainic acid (KA). Morphometric analyses were performed using digital imaging in conjunction with image analysis algorithms. By employing virtual images of hundreds of brain sections, we were able to perform quantitative morphometry of histological and immunohistochemical staining data in an unbiased manner. In the TBI model, homozygous deletion of caspase 8 resulted in reduced lesion volumes, improved post-injury motor performance, superior learning and memory retention, decreased apoptosis, diminished proteolytic processing of caspases and caspase substrates, and less neuronal degeneration, compared to wild type, homozygous cre, and caspase 8-floxed control mice. In the KA model, Ncasp8(-/-) mice demonstrated superior survival, reduced seizure severity, less apoptosis, and reduced caspase 3 processing. Uninjured aged knockout mice showed improved learning and memory, implicating a possible role for caspase 8 in cognitive decline with aging.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Neuron-specific deletion of caspase 8 reduces brain damage and improves post-traumatic functional outcomes, suggesting an important role for this caspase in pathophysiology of acute brain trauma.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/neuronal-deletion-caspase-8-protects-against-brain-injury-mouse-models-controlled-cortical-impact-ka-2", "reader_count"=>44, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Neuroscience"=>7, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>7}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>4, "Germany"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/80052837010"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/80052837010?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=80052837010&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=80052837010&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/80052837010", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:80052837010", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-80052837010", "dc:title"=>"Neuronal deletion of caspase 8 protects against brain injury in mouse models of controlled cortical impact and kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity", "dc:creator"=>"Krajewska M.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"6", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"9", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2011-09-16", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"16 September 2011", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0024341", "citedby-count"=>"37", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute", "affiliation-city"=>"San Diego CA", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"21957448", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e24341", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0024341", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"166"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"56", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"122"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"16", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"54", "xml_views"=>"41", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"16", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"12", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"13", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"67"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"156"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"131"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"160"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"208"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"189"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"329"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"268"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"330"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"280"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"123"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"114"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"86"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/736391"], "description"=>"<p>Statistical analyses of control <b>CRE3</b><i>vs</i><b>N</b><b><i>casp8</i></b><b><sup>−/−</sup></b> mouse specimens were performed using Student's t-test. The resulting average percentages of positive/immunopositive cells and standard error of mean (SEM) values are provided. <i>P</i> values<0.05 are reported as statistically significant. “NS” stands for nonsignificant (<i>p</i>≥0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tunel", "assay", "biomarkers", "cortical", "basal", "ganglia", "regions", "untreated", "14-day-old", "organotypic", "cultures"], "article_id"=>406718, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Maryla Krajewska", "Zerong You", "Juan Rong", "Christina Kress", "Xianshu Huang", "Jinsheng Yang", "Tiffany Kyoda", "Ricardo Leyva", "Steven Banares", "Yue Hu", "Chia-Hung Sze", "Michael J. Whalen", "Leonardo Salmena", "Razqallah Hakem", "Brian P. Head", "John C. Reed", "Stan Krajewski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024341.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_TUNEL_assay_and_protein_biomarkers_in_cortical_and_basal_ganglia_regions_of_untreated_14_day_old_organotypic_brain_slice_cultures_BOCSC_/406718", "title"=>"Analysis of TUNEL assay and protein biomarkers in cortical and basal ganglia regions of untreated 14-day-old organotypic brain slice cultures (BOCSC).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:51:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/736326"], "description"=>"<p>Statistical analyses of control (<b>CRE3</b>, <b><i>casp8<sup>fl/fl</sup></i></b>) <i>vs</i><b>N</b><b><i>casp8</i></b><b><sup>−/−</sup></b> mouse specimens were performed using Student's t-test. The resulting average percentages of positive/immunopositive cells and standard error of mean (SEM) values are provided. <i>P</i> values<0.05 are reported as statistically significant. “NS” stands for nonsignificant (<i>p</i>≥0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tunel", "assay", "biomarkers", "cortical", "basal", "ganglia", "regions", "untreated", "trail-treated", "coronal", "slices"], "article_id"=>406650, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Maryla Krajewska", "Zerong You", "Juan Rong", "Christina Kress", "Xianshu Huang", "Jinsheng Yang", "Tiffany Kyoda", "Ricardo Leyva", "Steven Banares", "Yue Hu", "Chia-Hung Sze", "Michael J. Whalen", "Leonardo Salmena", "Razqallah Hakem", "Brian P. Head", "John C. Reed", "Stan Krajewski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024341.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_TUNEL_assay_and_protein_biomarkers_in_cortical_and_basal_ganglia_regions_of_untreated_and_TRAIL_treated_coronal_brain_slices_3_day_old_BOCSC_/406650", "title"=>"Analysis of TUNEL assay and protein biomarkers in cortical and basal ganglia regions of untreated and TRAIL-treated coronal brain slices (3-day-old BOCSC).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:50:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/735564"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A1–A4</b>) Masson's trichrome–stained brain sections were digitalized using the Aperio scanning system. Digitized virtual slides were annotated by encircling the brain tissue loss (cavity) and lesion edges (penumbra) between intact and pathologically changed brain tissue of the control (<b>A1, A3</b>) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> (<b>A2, A4</b>) mice. Scale bar = ∼1000 µm on low and ∼100 µm on high magnification images. Examples of nuclear NeuN (<b>B–E</b>) and the perikaryonal and dendritic MAP2 (<b>F1–F4</b>) immunostaining are presented in the coronal brain sections (<b>F1, F2</b>), cortical lesions and adjacent structures (<b>B–E, F3, F4</b>) of the control (<b>B, C, F1, F3</b>) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> (<b>D, E, F2, F4</b>) mice after CCI. Scale bar = ∼1000 µm on low (<b>F1, F2</b>) and ∼100 µm on higher magnification images (<b>B–E, F3, F4</b>). Examples of phospho-tau immunostaining in control (<b>G, H</b>) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> (<b>I, J</b>) brains are provided at low and high-power magnifications (scale bar = ∼100 µm). Using Aperio software, percentage (<b>K1, L1</b>) and density (n/mm<sup>2</sup>) (<b>K2, L2</b>) of degenerating (<b>K1,2</b>) and apoptotic (<b>L1,2</b>) neurons was identified by Masson's trichrome stain and cleaved caspase 3 immunostaining, respectively (mean±SEM; n = 8–10 per group and per time point) in lesion areas of brains from CRE3 (white bar) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> (black bar) mice at 2 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 3 weeks after trauma (<b>K1</b>: *<i>p</i> = <.0001; **<i>p</i> = 0.003; ***<i>p</i> = 0.02, <b>K2</b>: *<i>p</i> = 0.0001; **<i>p</i><.0001; ***<i>p</i> = 0.05; ****<i>p</i> = 0.01; <b>L1</b>: *<i>p</i> = 0.02; L2: *<i>p</i> = 0.02; **<i>p</i> = 0.03). (<b>M</b>) SDS-PAGE immunoblot analysis of caspase 3 and cleaved PARP protein levels in mouse brain tissues. Brain samples from impact lesion and corresponding region in the contralateral hemisphere (CLH) of N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice (lanes 3, 6) were compared with those from CRE3 (lanes 1, 4) and <i>casp8<sup>fl/fl</sup></i> (lanes 2, 5) animals. Lysates were normalized for total protein content (30 µg/lane) and analyzed by SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting using antibodies specific for caspase 3, cleaved PARP, or β-actin, using a multiple antigen detection method <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0024341#pone.0024341-Krajewski1\" target=\"_blank\">[39]</a>. (<b>N–X</b>) Examples are provided of phospho-c-Jun immunostaining in ipsilateral semi-hemispheres of brains from the control (<b>N–R</b>) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> (<b>S–X</b>) mice (magnification scale bar = ∼100 µm). Antibody detection was accomplished using polymer-based EnVision-HRP-enzyme conjugate (DakoCytomation) and diaminobenzidine (DAB) chromogen (brown); nuclei were counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Percentage (<b>Y</b>) and density (<b>Z</b>) of phospho-c-Jun immunopositive nuclei were determined in impact lesions from control (white bar; Ctrl) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> (black bar) animals at 6, 24, 48 h, and 21 days post CCI (mean±SEM; n = 8–10 mice per group and per time point) (<b>Y</b>: *<i>p</i> = 0.03; <b>Z</b>: *<i>p</i> = 0.02; **<i>p</i> = 0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lesion", "immunoreactivity", "phospho-tau", "brains"], "article_id"=>405895, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Maryla Krajewska", "Zerong You", "Juan Rong", "Christina Kress", "Xianshu Huang", "Jinsheng Yang", "Tiffany Kyoda", "Ricardo Leyva", "Steven Banares", "Yue Hu", "Chia-Hung Sze", "Michael J. Whalen", "Leonardo Salmena", "Razqallah Hakem", "Brian P. Head", "John C. Reed", "Stan Krajewski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024341.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>33, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Assessment_of_lesion_volume_cell_death_and_immunoreactivity_for_MAP2_NeuN_and_phospho_tau_in_control_and_Ncasp8_8722_8722_brains_after_CCI_/405895", "title"=>"Assessment of lesion volume, cell death and immunoreactivity for MAP2, NeuN, and phospho-tau in control and Ncasp8<sup>−/−</sup> brains after CCI.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:46:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734530"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A–B</b>) 3-day-old PNC derived from embryos (E16.5) of CRE3 (<b>A</b>) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> homozygous mice (<b>B</b>) were treated with recombinant murine TNFα and cycloheximide (CHX), then fixed and stained with Hoechst dye and immunostained with an antibody to NeuN followed by application of Alexa Fluor 594 conjugated anti-mouse antibody. (<b>C1–J4</b>). Untreated (UNT <b>C1–F4</b>), STS-treated, (<b>G1–H4</b>) and recombinant murine TNFα and CHX-treated (<b>I1–J4</b>) 14-day-old neuronal cultures derived from CRE3 and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice were preincubated with pSIVA reagent (green) for 15 min prior to Z-fix fixation, then immunostained for MAP2 (red) and stained with DAPI (blue). To assess neuronal phenotype, the transmission light, single (<b>C1, D1, E4, G1, H1, H3, I1, I2, I4, J1</b>), double (<b>C2, D2, E1, E2, F1, F3, G4, H2, H4, I3, J2</b>), and triple (<b>E3, F2, F4, G2, G3, J3, J4</b>) channel images are provided. Colocalization of neuronal marker MAP2 (red) with pSIVA signal (green) resulted in yellow color denoting degenerating neurons whose number was counted and plotted as ratio to the total number of neurons (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0024341#pone-0024341-g002\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Figure 2B</b></a>). Single and multichannel panels confirm specificity of the double labeling. PSIVA was visualized from the early (membranous staining) to later stages (staining in the cell body and nucleus, the latter in cells with loss of plasma cell integrity) of neuronal degeneration.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ablation", "provides", "neuroprotection", "vitro", "neuronal", "cultures", "organotypic"], "article_id"=>404861, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Maryla Krajewska", "Zerong You", "Juan Rong", "Christina Kress", "Xianshu Huang", "Jinsheng Yang", "Tiffany Kyoda", "Ricardo Leyva", "Steven Banares", "Yue Hu", "Chia-Hung Sze", "Michael J. Whalen", "Leonardo Salmena", "Razqallah Hakem", "Brian P. Head", "John C. Reed", "Stan Krajewski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024341.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Caspase_8_gene_ablation_provides_neuroprotection_in_vitro_in_primary_neuronal_cultures_and_brain_organotypic_cultures_/404861", "title"=>"Caspase 8 gene ablation provides neuroprotection in vitro in primary neuronal cultures and brain organotypic cultures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:40:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734992"], "description"=>"<p>The coronal brain slices derived from the CRE3 control line and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> homozygous mice were maintained in <i>in vitro</i> conditions for 3 (<b>A1–M</b>) and 14 days (<b>N–X</b>). The presented results were obtained from untreated (<b>A1–D3, I, K, N–X</b>) and TRAIL-treated (<b>E–H, J, L</b>) cultures. Immunohistochemical stainings are depicted in cortical and subcortical regions of CRE3 (<b>A1, A2, E, F, Q, S, W</b>) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> (<b>B1–D3, G–P, R, T, U, X</b>) brain slices. Examples of single marker (<b>M–W</b>) and double (<b>A1–L, X</b>) immunostainings are presented for S100 (<b>M, N</b>), NeuN (<b>O–T</b>), and β3-tubulin (<b>U, W</b>) as well as for double labeled MAP2 (DAB-brown) and cleaved caspase 3 (SG-black; <b>A1–B2</b>) or GFAP (DAB; <b>D1–D3</b>), TUNEL (DAB; <b>E–H</b>) with MAP2/NeuN antibody cocktail (SG) and S100 (DAB; <b>I–J</b>); IbA1 (DAB; <b>C1–C2</b>) or GFAP (DAB; <b>D1–D3</b>) with NeuN (SG) immunostaining. Scale bar indicates ∼1000 µm on macro images and ∼100 µm on high magnification images of the slices. Abbreviations: <b>DG</b> = Dental Gyrus; <b>CA2; CA4</b> = sectors of hippocampus; <b>TH</b> = Thalamus; <b>AMG</b> = Amygdala; <b>PC</b> = Piriformis Cortex; <b>WM</b> = White Matter.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ablation", "provides", "neuroprotection", "organotypic"], "article_id"=>405328, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Maryla Krajewska", "Zerong You", "Juan Rong", "Christina Kress", "Xianshu Huang", "Jinsheng Yang", "Tiffany Kyoda", "Ricardo Leyva", "Steven Banares", "Yue Hu", "Chia-Hung Sze", "Michael J. Whalen", "Leonardo Salmena", "Razqallah Hakem", "Brian P. Head", "John C. Reed", "Stan Krajewski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024341.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Casp8_ablation_provides_neuroprotection_in_organotypic_brain_slice_cultures_/405328", "title"=>"Casp8 ablation provides neuroprotection in organotypic brain slice cultures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:43:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/735832"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Percentage of mIgG positive immunostaining was determined at various times in lesion or corresponding ipsilateral areas of the control (Ctrl) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> sham- or CCI-treated mice (8–10 mice per group) (mean±SEM; *<i>p</i> = 0.02; **<i>p</i> = 0.04). (<b>B</b>) Percentage of IbA1 immunopositive cells was compared in ipsilateral semihemispheres of the control <i>vs</i> N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> sham- or CCI-treated mice (*<i>p</i> = 0.02). (<b>C</b>) Neutrophil density (n/mm<sup>2</sup>) was determined by Ly6G immunostaining and compared in ipsilateral (IL) and contralateral (CL) semihemispheres of the CRE3 (Ctrl) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice at various times after CCI (*<i>p</i> = 0.03; **p = 0.02). Examples of digital (<b>D, F, H, J</b>) and mark-up (<b>E, G, I, K</b>) images of mIgG immunostaining are presented in brains from the control and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice 48 h (<b>D–G</b>) and 3 weeks (<b>H–K</b>) after CCI. Brown color (DAB) on digital images and red, orange and yellow pixels on mark-up images denote positive immunostaining (magnification scale bar = ∼1000 µm). Digital (<b>L, N, P, R</b>) and mark-up (<b>M, O, Q, S</b>) images of the IbA1 (<b>L–S</b>) immunostainings are presented in the ipsilateral semihemispheres of the control (<b>L, M, P, Q</b>) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> (<b>N, O, R, S</b>) mice after brain trauma. Magnification scale bar = ∼100 µm. Insets show 800–1,200× magnification of activated microglia (<b>P, R</b>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["migg", "microglia", "neutrophil", "infiltration", "post-traumatic"], "article_id"=>406168, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Maryla Krajewska", "Zerong You", "Juan Rong", "Christina Kress", "Xianshu Huang", "Jinsheng Yang", "Tiffany Kyoda", "Ricardo Leyva", "Steven Banares", "Yue Hu", "Chia-Hung Sze", "Michael J. Whalen", "Leonardo Salmena", "Razqallah Hakem", "Brian P. Head", "John C. Reed", "Stan Krajewski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024341.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Immunohistochemical_assessment_of_mIgG_extravasation_microglia_activation_and_neutrophil_infiltration_in_post_traumatic_mouse_brains_/406168", "title"=>"Immunohistochemical assessment of mIgG extravasation, microglia activation, and neutrophil infiltration in post-traumatic mouse brains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:47:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734303"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) The ratio of surviving NeuN-positive neurons that showed Hoechst staining profile characteristic of viable cells to the total cell number (number of Hoechst-positive nuclei) was determined after 3 and 14 days of culture for untreated (UNT), staurosporine- (STS) and TNFα/CHX-treated primary cortical neurons derived from embryos (E16.5) of CRE3 and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> homozygous mice. Cells were counted on ten random fluorescent images (×20). (<b>B</b>) The ratio of pSIVA-positive neurons with colocalized MAP2 expression to the total number of MAP2-positive cells was determined after 14 days of culture for UNT, STS- and TNFα/CHX-treated primary cortical neurons derived from embryos of CRE3 and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice. Cells were counted on 15 random fluorescent images (×20) from 3 experiments. (<b>C–I</b>) Bar graphs present average percentages of MAP2 (<b>C</b>), NeuN (<b>D</b>), cleaved caspase 3 (<b>E</b>), GFAP (<b>G</b>), S100 (<b>H</b>), Iba1 (<b>I</b>) immunopositive staining and mean percentage of TUNEL positive signaling (<b>F</b>) in cortices (left) and basal ganglia (right) of untreated and TRAIL-treated cultured coronal brain slices derived from CRE3, <i>casp8<sup>fl/fl</sup></i> (Casp8 line) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice after 3 days of culture. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0024341#pone-0024341-t001\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Tables 1</b></a><b> and </b><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0024341#pone-0024341-t002\" target=\"_blank\"><b>2</b></a> provide the results of statistical analyses.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["caspase", "ablation", "demonstrated", "cultured"], "article_id"=>404632, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Maryla Krajewska", "Zerong You", "Juan Rong", "Christina Kress", "Xianshu Huang", "Jinsheng Yang", "Tiffany Kyoda", "Ricardo Leyva", "Steven Banares", "Yue Hu", "Chia-Hung Sze", "Michael J. Whalen", "Leonardo Salmena", "Razqallah Hakem", "Brian P. Head", "John C. Reed", "Stan Krajewski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024341.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Neuroprotective_effects_of_caspase_8_gene_ablation_demonstrated_for_cultured_primary_neurons_/404632", "title"=>"Neuroprotective effects of caspase 8 gene ablation demonstrated for cultured primary neurons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:39:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734116"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) PCR was performed using 1 µg tail genomic DNA for transgenic CRE3 and caspase 8<i><sup>flox</sup></i> animals. PCR products were generated using amplification primers specific to either the <i>cre</i> or <i>casp8</i> genes. PCR products were analyzed by agarose gel-electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. Arrows indicate the <i>cre</i> PCR product of 750 bp and <i>casp8</i> PCR products of 800 bp for floxed genes and 650 bp for wild-type <i>casp8</i>. (<b>B</b>) Brain-specific recombination of floxed <i>casp8</i> genes in CRE3 mice. Genomic DNA was isolated from various tissues of CRE3 mice containing either wild-type <i>casp8</i> genes or homozygous floxed <i>casp8</i> genes (N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup>). PCR was performed using primers specific for <i>casp8</i> (top) or the <i>cre</i> transgene (bottom). Brain tissues included cortex (lanes #1), thalamus/basal ganglia (lanes #2), and brain stem (lanes #3). Arrows indicate the expected PCR products for unrecombined (fl/fl) at 650 bp, recombined <i>caspase8</i> gene knockout at ∼200 bp (−/−), and wild-type unfloxed (+/+) c<i>asp8</i> genes at ∼800 bp. (<b>C</b>) SDS-PAGE immunoblot analysis of caspase 8 protein levels in mouse brain tissues. Brain samples from cortex (C), cerebellum (CB) or basal ganglia (BG) of <i>casp8<sup>fl/fl</sup></i>-CRE3 mice were compared with CRE3 and <i>casp8<sup>fl/fl</sup></i> animals. Lysates were normalized for total protein content (30 µg/lane) and analyzed by SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting using antibodies specific for mouse caspase 8 (top), or β-actin (bottom), using a multiple antigen detection method <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0024341#pone.0024341-Krajewski1\" target=\"_blank\">[39]</a>. (<b>D–K</b>) Examples are provided of immunostaining for mouse caspase 8 in the brains of CRE3 (<b>D–G</b>) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice (<b>H–K</b>). Antibody detection was accomplished using diaminobenzidine (DAB) chromogen (brown); nuclei were counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Magnification scale bar = ∼100 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuron-specific", "ablation"], "article_id"=>404444, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Maryla Krajewska", "Zerong You", "Juan Rong", "Christina Kress", "Xianshu Huang", "Jinsheng Yang", "Tiffany Kyoda", "Ricardo Leyva", "Steven Banares", "Yue Hu", "Chia-Hung Sze", "Michael J. Whalen", "Leonardo Salmena", "Razqallah Hakem", "Brian P. Head", "John C. Reed", "Stan Krajewski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024341.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Generation_of_mouse_line_Ncasp8_8722_8722_with_neuron_specific_ablation_of_caspase8_/404444", "title"=>"Generation of mouse line (Ncasp8<sup>−/−</sup>) with neuron-specific ablation of caspase8.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:38:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/735223"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Sensorimotor function was measured as the number of foot slips while traversing the length of the beam three times in the beam walking trial. Training was followed by probe 1 (one week interval) before CCI procedure and repeated 7 and 21 days after the procedure (probe 2 and 3). <i>P</i> values result from Student's t-test (*<i>p</i> = 0.009; **<i>p</i> = 0.04). (<b>B</b>) Wire grip scores were quantified using a 5-point scale <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0024341#pone.0024341-Hall1\" target=\"_blank\">[33]</a> to assess motor function. Tests were conducted 1 day before CCI (probe 1) and 7 (probe 2; *<i>p</i> = 0.03) and 21 days (probe 3) after brain trauma. (<b>C</b>) Morris water maze (MWM) performance was tested in the control (Ctrl; n = 12) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> (n = 15) mice. Average latency to reach and climb the platform or enter the platform zone before and after CCI is shown (mean±SEM) (*<i>p</i> = 0.005; **<i>p</i> = 0.001; ***<i>p</i> = 0.009). Beam walking (<b>D</b>) and wire grip (<b>E</b>) tests were conducted in uninjured 18 month old <i>casp8<sup>fl/fl</sup></i> (Ctrl; n = 19) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> (n = 20) mice (3 testing sessions, spaced one week apart). <i>P</i> values result from Student's t-test (*<i>p</i> = 0.01). (<b>F</b>) MWM task was performed in the same aged cohort to test memory retention up to 60 days after completion of the learning sessions. Average latency to reach and climb the platform is shown (mean±SEM) (*<i>p</i> = 0.04). (<b>G–I</b>) Histopathological outcomes were compared between the control (Ctrl) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice 2 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 3 weeks after the trauma (8–10 mice per time point in each experimental group). Using Aperio scanning system, lesion (<b>G</b>) and cavity (<b>H</b>) volumes were determined by summing each lesion or cavity area multiplied by the distance between each coronal slice (mean±SEM). Plots depict average lesion volume (<b>G</b>: *<i>p</i> = 0.03; **<i>p</i> = 0.002; ***<i>p</i> = 0.003), cavity volume (<b>H</b>: *<i>p</i> = 0.02; **<i>p</i> = 0.03), and neuropathological scores (<b>I</b>: *<i>p</i> = 0.002; **<i>p</i> = 0.02; ***<i>p</i> = 0.004). (<b>J</b>) Time course for density (n/mm<sup>2</sup>) of NeuN-immunopositive neurons in traumatic brain lesions is depicted for the control (Ctrl) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice. (<b>K</b>) The NeuN immunostaining results are compared among the six experimental groups [control (Ctrl) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> naïve (no surgery “-”), sham (surgery “S”), and subjected to CCI (“C”) mice] in impact lesions (CCI-treated) or corresponding regions (naïve or sham-operated) at 21 day after procedure. Density (n/mm<sup>2</sup>) of NeuN-immunopositive neurons in impact lesions or matching ipsilateral regions (IL) and corresponding contralateral (CL) regions of the control (Ctrl) (<b>L</b>) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> (<b>M</b>) naïve (no surgery “-”), sham (surgery “S”), and subjected to CCI (“C”) mice is presented in a time-course manner (<b>L, M</b>) or at 21 day after procedure (<b>N</b>) (<b>J</b>: *<i>p</i> = 0.02; **<i>p</i> = 0.01; ***<i>p</i> = 0.0004; <b>L</b>: *<i>p</i> = 0.0005; **<i>p</i><.0001; ***<i>p</i> = 0.0008; <b>M</b>: *<i>p</i> = 0.0002; **<i>p</i> = 0.006; ***<i>p</i> = 0.002; ****<i>p</i> = 0.0007). (<b>O–P</b>) Percentages of MAP2 immunopositive neurons were compared in impact lesions or corresponding ipsilateral regions of the control (Ctrl) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> naïve (no surgery “-”), sham (surgery “S”), and subjected to CCI (“C”) mice (8–10 mice/time point/group) and presented as time-course data (<b>O</b>) at 5 time points post CCI (mean±SEM) (<b>L</b>: *<i>p</i> = 0.002) and at 21 day after CCI (bar graph)(<b>P</b>). (<b>Q</b>) Phospho-tau immunoreactivity was assessed in ipsilateral semihemispheres of the control and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice 48 h and 3 weeks after CCI (n = 8–10 per group) (mean ± SEM *<i>p</i> = 0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deficiency", "affects", "histopathological", "tbi", "facilitates", "retention", "aged"], "article_id"=>405559, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Maryla Krajewska", "Zerong You", "Juan Rong", "Christina Kress", "Xianshu Huang", "Jinsheng Yang", "Tiffany Kyoda", "Ricardo Leyva", "Steven Banares", "Yue Hu", "Chia-Hung Sze", "Michael J. Whalen", "Leonardo Salmena", "Razqallah Hakem", "Brian P. Head", "John C. Reed", "Stan Krajewski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024341.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Caspase_8_deficiency_affects_functional_and_histopathological_outcome_following_TBI_and_facilitates_learning_and_memory_retention_in_aged_mice_/405559", "title"=>"Caspase 8 deficiency affects functional and histopathological outcome following TBI and facilitates learning and memory retention in aged mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:44:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/736161"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Mouse survival was monitored for 24 hours after exposure of control (n = 8) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice (n = 11) to KA. Non-linear x-axis corresponds to time following KA injection. (<b>B</b>) Seizure scores for control and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice were determined every 15 min for 2 h and at longer intervals thereafter <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0024341#pone.0024341-Yang1\" target=\"_blank\">[40] </a><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0024341#pone.0024341-Zhang2\" target=\"_blank\">[41]</a>. Percentage of TUNEL-positive neurons (<b>C</b>) and density of degenerating neurons (Masson's trichrome stain) (<b>D</b>) were assessed in the hippocampi of the control and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice (mean±SEM). <i>P</i> values result from Student's t-test (<b>B</b>: *<i>p</i> = 0.008; <b>C</b>: *<i>p</i> = 0.002; <b>D</b>: *<i>p</i> = 0.005). Colorimetric intensity measurements were applied to Masson's trichrome-stained control (<b>E</b>) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> (<b>F</b>) hippocampi to obtain density of degenerating neurons in the annotated area (mark-up images). Arrows indicate hippocampal CA3–CA4 sectors and the hilus (<b>E</b>) and the CA3 sector (<b>F</b>). Apoptotic neurons were visualized by TUNEL assay (<b>G, H</b>), and cleaved-caspase 3 immunostaining (<b>I–K</b>) as presented on virtual (<b>I, K</b>) and mark-up (<b>G, H, J</b>) images of the hippocampal regions of the control (<b>G, I, J</b>) and N<i>casp8</i><sup>−/−</sup> (<b>H, K</b>) mice. Brown color (DAB) on digital images and red, orange and yellow pixels on mark-up images denote positive staining. The arrow indicates TUNEL positive neurons in the CA3–CA4 sector.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deficiency", "protects", "neurons", "vivo", "ka-induced", "seizure"], "article_id"=>406488, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Maryla Krajewska", "Zerong You", "Juan Rong", "Christina Kress", "Xianshu Huang", "Jinsheng Yang", "Tiffany Kyoda", "Ricardo Leyva", "Steven Banares", "Yue Hu", "Chia-Hung Sze", "Michael J. Whalen", "Leonardo Salmena", "Razqallah Hakem", "Brian P. Head", "John C. Reed", "Stan Krajewski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024341.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Caspase_8_deficiency_protects_neurons_in_in_vivo_KA_induced_seizure_mouse_model_/406488", "title"=>"Caspase 8 deficiency protects neurons in in vivo KA-induced seizure mouse model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:49:46"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"4", "unique-ip"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"88", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"47", "unique-ip"=>"89", "figure"=>"15", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"62", "unique-ip"=>"58", "pdf"=>"31", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"14", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"44", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"20", "unique-ip"=>"45", "figure"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"35", "unique-ip"=>"37", "pdf"=>"14", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"55", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"35", "unique-ip"=>"55", "figure"=>"17", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"61", "unique-ip"=>"62", "pdf"=>"33", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"36", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"15", "unique-ip"=>"34", "figure"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"38", "unique-ip"=>"38", "pdf"=>"20", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"36", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"19", "unique-ip"=>"39", "figure"=>"14", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"21", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"67", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"62", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2011-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2011-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[298, 559, 690, 805, 916, 1018, 1115, 1201, 1283, 1356, 1425, 1498, 1565, 1635, 1703, 1767, 1835, 1902, 1962, 2027, 2089, 2150, 2210, 2265]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[289, 559, 699, 817, 931, 1031, 1127, 1214, 1297, 1370, 1444, 1515, 1584, 1656, 1726, 1797, 1862, 1930, 1996, 2061, 2125, 2190, 2250, 2311, 2373, 2435, 2496, 2563, 2630, 2692, 2760, 2824, 2898, 2960, 3019, 3089, 3143]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[306, 540, 664, 768, 864, 959, 1036, 1121, 1199, 1277, 1341, 1411, 1477, 1543, 1609, 1675, 1739, 1802, 1868, 1933, 1995, 2050, 2107, 2164, 2220, 2277, 2327, 2374, 2436, 2488, 2542, 2594, 2650, 2705, 2769, 2817, 2859]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Neurology", "average_usage"=>[306, 594, 747, 886, 1029, 1141, 1243, 1346, 1446, 1520, 1606, 1689, 1766, 1845, 1921, 1996, 2076, 2136, 2224, 2295, 2367, 2436, 2519, 2589, 2662, 2731, 2806, 2865, 2924, 2980, 3064, 3112, 3167, 3225, 3298, 3364, 3438]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts