Defective Fluid Secretion from Submucosal Glands of Nasal Turbinates from CFTR-/- and CFTRΔF508/ΔF508 Pigs
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Defective fluid secretion from submucosal glands of nasal turbinates from CFTR -/- and CFTRΔ ΔF508/ΔF508 pigs", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Hyung Ju", "last_name"=>"Cho", "scopus_author_id"=>"36097733200"}, {"first_name"=>"Nam Soo", "last_name"=>"Joo", "scopus_author_id"=>"55665422000"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeffrey J.", "last_name"=>"Wine", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006421948"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"21935358", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0024424", "sgr"=>"80052323522", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80052323522", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"362471847"}, "id"=>"3aa3f039-1b3e-3181-8f11-d447fb09be57", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF), caused by reduced CFTR function, includes severe sinonasal disease which may predispose to lung disease. Newly developed CF pigs provide models to study the onset of CF pathophysiology. We asked if glands from pig nasal turbinates have secretory responses similar to those of tracheal glands and if CF nasal glands show reduced fluid secretion.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Unexpectedly, we found that nasal glands differed from tracheal glands in five ways, being smaller, more numerous (density per airway surface area), more sensitive to carbachol, more sensitive to forskolin, and nonresponsive to Substance P (a potent agonist for pig tracheal glands). Nasal gland fluid secretion from newborn piglets (12 CF and 12 controls) in response to agonists was measured using digital imaging of mucus bubbles formed under oil. Secretion rates were significantly reduced in all conditions tested. Fluid secretory rates (Controls vs. CF, in pl/min/gland) were as follows: 3 µM forskolin: 9.2±2.2 vs. 0.6±0.3; 1 µM carbachol: 143.5±35.5 vs. 52.2±10.3; 3 µM forskolin + 0.1 µM carbachol: 25.8±5.8 vs. CF 4.5±0.9. We also compared CF(ΔF508/ΔF508) with CFTR(-/-) piglets and found significantly greater forskolin-stimulated secretion rates in the ΔF508 vs. the null piglets (1.4±0.8, n = 4 vs. 0.2±0.1, n = 7). An unexpected age effect was also discovered: the ratio of secretion to 3 µM forskolin vs. 1 µM carbachol was ∼4 times greater in adult than in neonatal nasal glands.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings reveal differences between nasal and tracheal glands, show defective fluid secretion in nasal glands of CF pigs, reveal some spared function in the ΔF508 vs. null piglets, and show unexpected age-dependent differences. Reduced nasal gland fluid secretion may predispose to sinonasal and lung infections.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/defective-fluid-secretion-submucosal-glands-nasal-turbinates-cftr-cftr%CE%B4-%CE%B4f508%CE%B4f508-pigs", "reader_count"=>10, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/80052323522"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/80052323522?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=80052323522&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=80052323522&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/80052323522", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:80052323522", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-80052323522", "dc:title"=>"Defective fluid secretion from submucosal glands of nasal turbinates from CFTR <sup>-/-</sup> and CFTRΔ <sup>ΔF508/ΔF508</sup> pigs", "dc:creator"=>"Cho H.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"6", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"8", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2011-09-07", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"2011", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0024424", "citedby-count"=>"25", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Stanford University", "affiliation-city"=>"Palo Alto", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"21935358", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e24424", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0024424", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"42", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"326"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"96"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"86"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"132"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"101"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"96"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"82"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/741449"], "description"=>"<p>All data are from a one day old WT pig. <b>A</b>, A representative experiment plotting mucus volume as a function of time and stimulation with 0.1 µM carbachol for 12 nasal glands from a newborn WT piglet. Thicker plot line and gray circle symbols indicate averaged volume. <b>B</b>, Average secretion rates as a function of time and stimulation for 7 control and 9–10 CF piglets stimulated with 0.1 µM and then 1 µM carbachol. <b>C</b>, Summary data: 1 µM carbachol caused a significant increase is secretion from nasal glands of both control and CF piglets; the response in CF piglets was significantly smaller than in control piglets († indicates Mann-Whitney test, <i>P</i><0.03, * indicates t-test, <i>P</i><0.04). Secretion rates to 0.1 µM carbachol were (in pl/min/gland) control: 22.4±7.0 (n = 7) and CF: 6.7±2.6 (n = 10). Rates to 1 µM carbachol were control: 143.5±35.5 (n = 7) and CF was 52.2±10.3 (n = 9). <b>D</b>, Average nasal gland secretion rates as a function of time and stimulation for 10 control and 9–12 CF piglets stimulated sequentially with 3 µM forskolin, 3 µM Forskolin + 0.1 µM carbachol, and 1 µM carbachol. <b>E</b>, Mean basal and 1 µM carbachol- stimulated secretory rates from experiment shown in (<b>D</b>). Bars represent the average secretion rates for the 30 min period following addition of carbachol, the difference between this graph and (<b>C</b>) is that carbachol stimulation here directly followed forskolin stimulation after brief washout (* indicates control vs. CF, t-test <i>P</i><0.05, † indicates paired t-test <i>P</i><0.03). <b>F</b>, Distribution of secretory rates for all glands in response to 1 µM carbachol.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["secretion", "cf", "nasal", "submucosal", "glands"], "article_id"=>411821, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Medicine", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Hyung-Ju Cho", "Nam Soo Joo", "Jeffrey J. Wine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024424.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Carbachol_stimulated_secretion_from_CF_nasal_submucosal_glands_is_reduced_/411821", "title"=>"Carbachol-stimulated secretion from CF nasal submucosal glands is reduced.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-31 00:30:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/373759"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Cystic fibrosis (CF), caused by reduced CFTR function, includes severe sinonasal disease which may predispose to lung disease. Newly developed CF pigs provide models to study the onset of CF pathophysiology. We asked if glands from pig nasal turbinates have secretory responses similar to those of tracheal glands and if CF nasal glands show reduced fluid secretion.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Unexpectedly, we found that nasal glands differed from tracheal glands in five ways, being smaller, more numerous (density per airway surface area), more sensitive to carbachol, more sensitive to forskolin, and nonresponsive to Substance P (a potent agonist for pig tracheal glands). Nasal gland fluid secretion from newborn piglets (12 CF and 12 controls) in response to agonists was measured using digital imaging of mucus bubbles formed under oil. Secretion rates were significantly reduced in all conditions tested. Fluid secretory rates (Controls vs. CF, in pl/min/gland) were as follows: 3 µM forskolin: 9.2±2.2 vs. 0.6±0.3; 1 µM carbachol: 143.5±35.5 vs. 52.2±10.3; 3 µM forskolin + 0.1 µM carbachol: 25.8±5.8 vs. CF 4.5±0.9. We also compared CF<sup>ΔF508/ΔF508</sup> with CFTR<sup>-/-</sup> piglets and found significantly greater forskolin-stimulated secretion rates in the ΔF508 vs. the null piglets (1.4±0.8, n = 4 vs. 0.2±0.1, n = 7). An unexpected age effect was also discovered: the ratio of secretion to 3 µM forskolin vs. 1 µM carbachol was ∼4 times greater in adult than in neonatal nasal glands.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>These findings reveal differences between nasal and tracheal glands, show defective fluid secretion in nasal glands of CF pigs, reveal some spared function in the ΔF508 vs. null piglets, and show unexpected age-dependent differences. Reduced nasal gland fluid secretion may predispose to sinonasal and lung infections.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["defective", "secretion", "submucosal", "glands", "nasal", "turbinates", "pigs"], "article_id"=>133819, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Medicine", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Hyung-Ju Cho", "Nam Soo Joo", "Jeffrey J. Wine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024424", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Defective_Fluid_Secretion_from_Submucosal_Glands_of_Nasal_Turbinates_from_CFTR_and_CFTR_F508_F508_Pigs/133819", "title"=>"Defective Fluid Secretion from Submucosal Glands of Nasal Turbinates from CFTR<sup>-/-</sup> and CFTR<sup>ΔF508/ΔF508</sup> Pigs", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-31 01:03:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/741095"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, Plots of averaged nasal gland secretion rates from 8 control and 9 CF piglets stimulated with 3 µM forskolin. The response for each piglet was the average of from 8 to 17 glands. Significantly more fluid was secreted at the first 5 min time point and at each subsequent point (t-test, * indicates <i>P</i><0.05). <b>B</b>, Response to small carbachol stimulus proves CF nasal glands are viable. Average secretion rates of 9 nasal glands from a 1 day old CF (-/-) piglet as a function of time and stimulation with forskolin (3 and 10 µM) and carbachol (0.1 µM). <b>C</b>, Summary data for 10 control and 12 CF piglets (* indicates t-test <i>P</i><0.003, † indicates paired t-test <i>P</i><0.006). Rates were averaged over the entire 30 min period of stimulation and the basal rate was subtracted from the forskolin-stimulated rates. If rates are determined for only the last 20 min of stimulation (sustained rates) the rate is ∼10% higher for forskolin and ∼20% less for carbachol. The response of CF glands to 3 µM forskolin did not differ significantly from zero. <b>D</b>, Mean response rates to 3 µM forskolin plotted separately for each genotype. (* indicates t-test <i>P</i><0.006, † indicates Mann-Whitney test <i>P</i><0.03). <b>E</b>, Response rates for all glands tested, plotted separately for genotype; horizontal bars indicate means.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["forskolin-stimulated", "secretion", "cf", "piglet", "nasal"], "article_id"=>411465, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Medicine", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Hyung-Ju Cho", "Nam Soo Joo", "Jeffrey J. Wine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024424.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Defective_forskolin_stimulated_fluid_secretion_from_CF_piglet_nasal_glands_/411465", "title"=>"Defective forskolin-stimulated fluid secretion from CF piglet nasal glands.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-31 00:24:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/741947"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of subjects used.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["subjects"], "article_id"=>412324, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Medicine", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Hyung-Ju Cho", "Nam Soo Joo", "Jeffrey J. Wine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024424.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_subjects_used_/412324", "title"=>"Summary of subjects used.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-31 00:38:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/741291"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, Nasal glands are more sensitive than tracheal glands to both carbachol and forskolin. Dose-response plots for carbachol (circles) and forskolin (square) in nasal glands (solid line, closed symbols) and tracheal glands (dotted line, open symbols) of adult pigs. Tracheal gland responses are plotted on the left Y axis and nasal gland responses on the right Y axis; the two Y axes were adjusted to give overlapping maximal response rates to carbachol. The carbachol dose-response for tracheal glands (dotted line, open circles) is from Choi <i>et al.</i>, 2007 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0024424#pone.0024424-Choi1\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a>. Each point represents average data from 33–80 glands in 3–7 pigs; doses were increased sequentially except for concentrations ≥3 µM forskolin and ≥1 µM carbachol, where single doses were tested in each experiment to avoid desensitization and merging of bubbles. <b>B</b>, nasal gland secretion rates of neonates and adults to carbachol and forskolin (*indicates paired t-test, <i>P</i><0.02). <b>C</b>, The <i>ratio</i> of secretion rates to forskolin vs. carbachol was significantly greater in adult than in neonatal pigs (t-test, * indicates <i>P</i><0.02).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics", "physiology", "respiratory medicine", "otolaryngology"], "article_id"=>411663, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Medicine", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Hyung-Ju Cho", "Nam Soo Joo", "Jeffrey J. Wine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024424.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Agonist_sensitivities_/411663", "title"=>"Agonist sensitivities.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-31 00:27:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/741844"], "description"=>"<p>Data for tracheal responses taken from Joo <i>et al.</i>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0024424#pone.0024424-Joo2\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a>. <b>A</b>–<b>F</b>, Each graph shows control (open bars) and CF (closed bars) secretory rates for nasal (left) or tracheal (right) glands in response to the agents shown. * indicates t-test <i>P</i><0.05 for either WT vs. CF or nasal vs. tracheal. † indicates Mann-Whitney test <i>P</i><0.02. See text.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["secretory", "responses", "comparing", "cf", "nasal", "tracheal", "glands", "neonatal"], "article_id"=>412208, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Medicine", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Hyung-Ju Cho", "Nam Soo Joo", "Jeffrey J. Wine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024424.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_secretory_responses_comparing_control_vs_CF_and_nasal_vs_tracheal_glands_in_neonatal_piglets_/412208", "title"=>"Summary of secretory responses comparing control vs. CF and nasal vs. tracheal glands in neonatal piglets.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-31 00:36:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/741607"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, Averaged secretion rates as a function of time and stimulation from one day old WT and CF piglets (n = 3 each). Note especially the lack of response to SubP in both groups. <b>B</b>, Data from (<b>A</b>), replotted to show mean basal rates and rates to SubP and carbachol. Mean rates for control (in pl/min/gland) were: basal: 1.8±1.3; SubP: 8.8±2.8; carbachol: 137.7±9.0, (* indicates <i>P</i><0.0002, n = 3, paired t-test, for difference between responses to SubP and carbachol. Mean rates for CF (in pl/min/gland) were: basal: 2.3±2.5; SubP: 1.5±1.8; carbachol: 55.4±37.0, (n = 3, paired t-test, <i>P</i> = 0.228).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["glands", "newborn", "piglets", "secretory"], "article_id"=>411982, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Medicine", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Hyung-Ju Cho", "Nam Soo Joo", "Jeffrey J. Wine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024424.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nasal_glands_of_newborn_piglets_show_minimal_secretory_response_to_SubP_/411982", "title"=>"Nasal glands of newborn piglets show minimal secretory response to SubP.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-31 00:33:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/741746"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, Adult pig responses to SubP. Graph of mucus volume as a function of time and stimulation for 12 glands in fresh tissue from an adult pig. <b>B</b>, Images of mucus bubbles secreted under oil from nasal turbinate mucosa of an adult pig after stimulation with SubP for 20 min followed by carbachol for 5 min. <b>C</b>, Summary data for 3–4 pigs; the responses to SubP did not differ significantly from basal (paired t-test, <i>P</i> = 0.375) and were significantly less than the response to carbachol (t-test, <i>P</i><0.02).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["glands", "wt", "pigs", "secretory"], "article_id"=>412118, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Medicine", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Hyung-Ju Cho", "Nam Soo Joo", "Jeffrey J. Wine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024424.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nasal_glands_of_adult_WT_pigs_show_minimal_secretory_response_to_SubP_/412118", "title"=>"Nasal glands of adult WT pigs show minimal secretory response to SubP.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-31 00:35:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/740923"], "description"=>"<p><b>A and B</b>, Examples of mucous bubbles formed under oil on the surface of nasal turbinates after 5 min stimulation with 1 µM carbachol of WT (<b>A</b>) and CF (<b>B</b>) piglets. This type of measurement was used to determine the number of functional nasal glands per unit area of surface shown in (<b>C</b>). <b>C,</b> The average number of functional nasal glands per mm<sup>2</sup> of surface did not differ between control and CF piglets; values were 29±3 (8 WT + 2 Hz piglets) vs. 30±2 in 9 CF piglets (<i>P</i> = 0.58, n.s.). <b>D</b>, Gland density as a function of age and location. Nasal gland density is significantly greater than tracheal gland density (<i>P</i><0.0001), and neonatal gland density is greater than adult gland density (<i>P</i><0.0001). Values per mm<sup>2</sup> were: neonatal turbinate: 29.4; neonatal trachea: 9.01; adult turbinate: 9.05; adult trachea: 1.33. <b>E</b>, Single gland secretion rates were inversely related to gland density, being lowest in neonatal nasal glands and highest in adult tracheal glands. <b>F</b>–<b>J</b>, Histology of nasal submucosal glands from WT neonate (<b>F, I</b>), CF neonate (<b>G, J</b>), and WT adult (<b>H</b>) pig (hematoxylin and eosin with periodic acid-Schiff stain, x40 (<b>F</b>–<b>H</b>), x100 (<b>I, J</b>)). Scale bars: 0.5 mm (<b>A, B, F, G, H</b>); 0.1 mm (<b>I, J</b>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["submucosal", "glands", "nasal"], "article_id"=>411300, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Medicine", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Hyung-Ju Cho", "Nam Soo Joo", "Jeffrey J. Wine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024424.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Overview_of_submucosal_glands_from_pig_nasal_turbinates_/411300", "title"=>"Overview of submucosal glands from pig nasal turbinates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-31 00:21:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/740710"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, Cross-section of adult pig nose observed from caudal side. <b>B</b>, Ventral nasal turbinate from right side of nasal cavity of adult pig, observed from medial side. Inset shows turbinate from a neonatal piglet. <b>C</b>, Cross-sectioned turbinate showing superior and inferior scrolls. Dotted lines in <b>B</b> and <b>C</b> indicate convex medial side of ventral nasal turbinate where most submucosal glands are located and where mucus bubbles were observed. Scale bars: 20 mm (<b>A</b>); 10 mm (<b>B</b>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "nasal", "cavity"], "article_id"=>411081, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Medicine", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Hyung-Ju Cho", "Nam Soo Joo", "Jeffrey J. Wine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024424.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gross_anatomy_of_pig_nasal_cavity_and_turbinate_/411081", "title"=>"Gross anatomy of pig nasal cavity and turbinate.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-31 00:18:01"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"29", "unique-ip"=>"27", "pdf"=>"19", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"26", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"9", "unique-ip"=>"28", "figure"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"14", "unique-ip"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"15", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"6", "unique-ip"=>"14", "figure"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"8", "unique-ip"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"14", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"7", "unique-ip"=>"15", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"13", "unique-ip"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"4", "unique-ip"=>"10", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"6", "unique-ip"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"1", "unique-ip"=>"8", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"24", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2011-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2011-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[298, 559, 690, 805, 916, 1018, 1115, 1201, 1283, 1356, 1425, 1498, 1565, 1635, 1703, 1767, 1835, 1902, 1962, 2027, 2089, 2150, 2210, 2265]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[316, 571, 699, 812, 915, 1008, 1095, 1180, 1255, 1319, 1393, 1461, 1528, 1595, 1662, 1729, 1802, 1868, 1937, 1997, 2062, 2130, 2192, 2254, 2324, 2386, 2450, 2510, 2579, 2642, 2716, 2778, 2842, 2908, 2979, 3042, 3095]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[303, 571, 709, 823, 937, 1038, 1133, 1216, 1298, 1370, 1447, 1518, 1588, 1656, 1725, 1790, 1856, 1926, 1992, 2054, 2118, 2182, 2242, 2301, 2363, 2425, 2484, 2544, 2602, 2662, 2716, 2776, 2841, 2901, 2960, 3016, 3071]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[296, 554, 686, 802, 910, 1014, 1104, 1195, 1277, 1349, 1419, 1483, 1551, 1620, 1690, 1757, 1820, 1888, 1957, 2017, 2081, 2140, 2202, 2259]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[291, 540, 674, 787, 893, 986, 1087, 1172, 1249, 1319, 1394, 1465, 1526, 1588, 1645, 1713, 1774, 1837, 1903, 1959, 2027, 2085, 2152, 2205, 2259, 2318, 2377, 2436, 2486, 2539, 2603, 2664, 2719, 2779, 2835, 2888, 2944]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[346, 621, 752, 863, 972, 1071, 1187, 1286, 1369, 1443, 1516, 1582, 1659, 1736, 1816, 1899, 1967, 2041, 2119, 2193, 2260, 2330, 2389, 2455, 2510, 2567, 2625, 2698, 2787, 2836, 2908, 2966, 3019, 3080, 3130, 3180, 3244]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[344, 630, 756, 876, 981, 1083, 1179, 1272, 1346, 1421, 1508, 1583, 1659, 1744, 1809, 1891, 1954, 2030, 2105, 2174, 2247, 2324, 2386, 2441, 2502, 2557, 2621, 2685, 2753, 2825, 2882, 2935, 2989, 3052, 3117, 3181, 3242]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts