A New Troodontid Theropod, Talos sampsoni gen. et sp. nov., from the Upper Cretaceous Western Interior Basin of North America
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{"title"=>"A new troodontid theropod, talos sampsoni gen. et sp. nov., from the upper cretaceous western interior basin of North America", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Lindsay E.", "last_name"=>"Zanno", "scopus_author_id"=>"8219913700"}, {"first_name"=>"David J.", "last_name"=>"Varricchio", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602536744"}, {"first_name"=>"Patrick M.", "last_name"=>"O'Connor", "scopus_author_id"=>"35732312000"}, {"first_name"=>"Alan L.", "last_name"=>"Titus", "scopus_author_id"=>"12645138500"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael J.", "last_name"=>"Knell", "scopus_author_id"=>"37020119900"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80052889470", "sgr"=>"80052889470", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0024487", "pmid"=>"21949721", "pui"=>"362577557"}, "id"=>"3f997e7f-f961-3f72-84a2-74c4c382e4ec", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Troodontids are a predominantly small-bodied group of feathered theropod dinosaurs notable for their close evolutionary relationship with Avialae. Despite a diverse Asian representation with remarkable growth in recent years, the North American record of the clade remains poor, with only one controversial species--Troodon formosus--presently known from substantial skeletal remains.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report a gracile new troodontid theropod--Talos sampsoni gen. et sp. nov.--from the Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation, Utah, USA, representing one of the most complete troodontid skeletons described from North America to date. Histological assessment of the holotype specimen indicates that the adult body size of Talos was notably smaller than that of the contemporary genus Troodon. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Talos as a member of a derived, latest Cretaceous subclade, minimally containing Troodon, Saurornithoides, and Zanabazar. MicroCT scans reveal extreme pathological remodeling on pedal phalanx II-1 of the holotype specimen likely resulting from physical trauma and subsequent infectious processes.\\n\\nCONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Talos sampsoni adds to the singularity of the Kaiparowits Formation dinosaur fauna, which is represented by at least 10 previously unrecognized species including the recently named ceratopsids Utahceratops and Kosmoceratops, the hadrosaurine Gryposaurus monumentensis, the tyrannosaurid Teratophoneus, and the oviraptorosaurian Hagryphus. The presence of a distinct troodontid taxon in the Kaiparowits Formation supports the hypothesis that late Campanian dinosaurs of the Western Interior Basin exhibited restricted geographic ranges and suggests that the taxonomic diversity of Late Cretaceous troodontids from North America is currently underestimated. An apparent traumatic injury to the foot of Talos with evidence of subsequent healing sheds new light on the paleobiology of deinonychosaurians by bolstering functional interpretations of prey grappling and/or intraspecific combat for the second pedal digit, and supporting trackway evidence indicating a minimal role in weight bearing.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/new-troodontid-theropod-talos-sampsoni-gen-et-sp-nov-upper-cretaceous-western-interior-basin-north-a", "reader_count"=>70, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>25, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>34}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>34}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>25}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "Argentina"=>2, "United States"=>3, "Poland"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Chile"=>2, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/370448", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/370513", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/370574"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Troodontids are a predominantly small-bodied group of feathered theropod dinosaurs notable for their close evolutionary relationship with Avialae. Despite a diverse Asian representation with remarkable growth in recent years, the North American record of the clade remains poor, with only one controversial species—<em>Troodon formosus</em>—presently known from substantial skeletal remains.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Here we report a gracile new troodontid theropod—<em>Talos sampsoni</em> gen. et sp. nov.—from the Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation, Utah, USA, representing one of the most complete troodontid skeletons described from North America to date. Histological assessment of the holotype specimen indicates that the adult body size of <em>Talos</em> was notably smaller than that of the contemporary genus <em>Troodon</em>. Phylogenetic analysis recovers <em>Talos</em> as a member of a derived, latest Cretaceous subclade, minimally containing <em>Troodon</em>, <em>Saurornithoides</em>, and <em>Zanabazar</em>. MicroCT scans reveal extreme pathological remodeling on pedal phalanx II-1 of the holotype specimen likely resulting from physical trauma and subsequent infectious processes.</p> <h3>Conclusion/Significance</h3><p><em>Talos sampsoni</em> adds to the singularity of the Kaiparowits Formation dinosaur fauna, which is represented by at least 10 previously unrecognized species including the recently named ceratopsids <em>Utahceratops</em> and <em>Kosmoceratops</em>, the hadrosaurine <em>Gryposaurus monumentensis</em>, the tyrannosaurid <em>Teratophoneus</em>, and the oviraptorosaurian <em>Hagryphus</em>. The presence of a distinct troodontid taxon in the Kaiparowits Formation supports the hypothesis that late Campanian dinosaurs of the Western Interior Basin exhibited restricted geographic ranges and suggests that the taxonomic diversity of Late Cretaceous troodontids from North America is currently underestimated. An apparent traumatic injury to the foot of <em>Talos</em> with evidence of subsequent healing sheds new light on the paleobiology of deinonychosaurians by bolstering functional interpretations of prey grappling and/or intraspecific combat for the second pedal digit, and supporting trackway evidence indicating a minimal role in weight bearing.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["troodontid", "et", "cretaceous", "basin", "america"], "article_id"=>133196, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lindsay E. Zanno", "David J. Varricchio", "Patrick M. O'Connor", "Alan L. Titus", "Michael J. Knell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_New_Troodontid_Theropod_Talos_sampsoni_gen_et_sp_nov_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_Western_Interior_Basin_of_North_America/133196", "title"=>"A New Troodontid Theropod, <em>Talos sampsoni</em> gen. et sp. nov., from the Upper Cretaceous Western Interior Basin of North America", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 00:53:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/733270"], "description"=>"<p><i>Talos</i> is known from the upper Campanian Kaiparowits Formation, southern Utah, USA. Skeletal drawing illustrates the distribution of elements preserved with the holotype (in red). Missing elements based on <i>Troodon formosus</i> and/or <i>Saurornithoides mongoliensis</i>. Drawing © Scott Hartman 2010.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reconstruction", "vp"], "article_id"=>403625, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lindsay E. Zanno", "David J. Varricchio", "Patrick M. O'Connor", "Alan L. Titus", "Michael J. Knell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Skeletal_reconstruction_of_Talos_sampsoni_UMNH_VP_19479_/403625", "title"=>"Skeletal reconstruction of <i>Talos sampsoni</i> (UMNH VP 19479).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:00:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/733348"], "description"=>"<p>Section indicates relative chronostratigraphic positions of <i>Talos sampsoni</i> UMNH VP 19479, troodontid indet. UMNH VP 16303, and <i>Hagryphus giganteus</i> (UMNH VP 12765). Radiometric dates derived from <sup>40</sup>Ar/<sup>39</sup>Ar dating of bentonites <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487#pone.0024487-Roberts1\" target=\"_blank\">[46]</a>, undated bentonite horizons also shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stratigraphic", "units", "kaiparowits"], "article_id"=>403700, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lindsay E. Zanno", "David J. Varricchio", "Patrick M. O'Connor", "Alan L. Titus", "Michael J. Knell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stylized_stratigraphic_section_of_the_middle_and_lower_units_of_the_Kaiparowits_Formation_46_/403700", "title"=>"Stylized stratigraphic section of the middle and lower units of the Kaiparowits Formation [46].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:01:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/733500"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) left astragalus of <i>Talos</i> (on left) and right astragalus of <i>Troodon</i> (on right, reversed, MOR 553S-8.20.92.311) in lateral view, (<b>B</b>) and in proximal view, (<b>C</b>) distal aspect of left metatarsal III of <i>Talos</i> (on left) and <i>Troodon</i> (right two elements, MOR 553S-8.69.406, 7.29.92.113) in extensor view, and (<b>D</b>) distal aspect of left metatarsal IV of <i>Talos</i> (left two elements) and <i>Troodon</i> (on right, reversed, MOR 553S-11.1.01.8) in oblique distal and extensor, and extensor views respectively. Abbreviations: <b>dd</b>, dorsolateral depression on metatarsal IV; <b>dp</b>, dorsolateral tuberosity on metatarsal IV; <b>dg</b>, dorsolateral groove on metatarsal IV; <b>ib</b>, intercondylar bridge on astragalus; <b>ln</b>, lateral notch on astragalus; <b>lt</b>, lateral tab on metatarsal III; <b>pg</b>, proximal groove on astragalus; <b>sc</b>, subequal lateral and medial condyles of astragalus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["elements", "illustrating", "diagnostic", "characters", "vp"], "article_id"=>403849, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lindsay E. Zanno", "David J. Varricchio", "Patrick M. O'Connor", "Alan L. Titus", "Michael J. Knell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Skeletal_elements_of_Talos_and_Troodon_illustrating_select_diagnostic_characters_of_Talos_sampsoni_UMNH_VP_19479_/403849", "title"=>"Skeletal elements of <i>Talos</i> and <i>Troodon</i> illustrating select diagnostic characters of <i>Talos sampsoni</i> (UMNH VP 19479).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:04:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/733622"], "description"=>"<p>Regressions quantify the taxonomic significance of metatarsal slenderness in the holotype of <i>Talos</i> (UMNH VP 19479) based on transverse width of the second metatarsal (p<0.05) and craniocaudal width of the fourth metatarsal (p<0.05), despite its juvenile ontogenetic stage. <i>Troodon</i> specimens represented: metatarsal II (MOR 553S-7.8.91.28; MOR 553S-7.18.92.5; and MOR 748); metatarsal IV (MOR 553S-11.1.01.8; MOR 553S7.28.8.102; MOR 553S-7.1.9.9, MOR 553S-92.260, MOR 748).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regression", "length-to-width", "metatarsals"], "article_id"=>403978, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lindsay E. Zanno", "David J. Varricchio", "Patrick M. O'Connor", "Alan L. Titus", "Michael J. Knell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Linear_regression_of_length_to_width_ratio_in_the_second_and_fourth_metatarsals_of_Talos_sampsoni_and_Troodon_formosus_/403978", "title"=>"Linear regression of length-to-width ratio in the second and fourth metatarsals of <i>Talos sampsoni</i> and <i>Troodon formosus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:06:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/733759"], "description"=>"<p>Dorsal vertebra in left lateral (<b>A</b>), caudal (<b>B</b>), and dorsal (<b>E</b>) views; sacral centrum in ventral view (<b>C</b>), and dorsal centrum in ventral view (<b>D</b>). Abbreviations: <b>ipdf</b>, infrapostzygapophyseal fossa; <b>nc</b>, neural canal; <b>ns</b>, neural spine; <b>poz</b>, postzygapophysis; <b>pp</b>, parapophysis; <b>tp</b>, transverse process. Scale bar equals 5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["elements", "vp"], "article_id"=>404118, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lindsay E. Zanno", "David J. Varricchio", "Patrick M. O'Connor", "Alan L. Titus", "Michael J. Knell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Axial_elements_of_Talos_sampsoni_UMNH_VP_19479_/404118", "title"=>"Axial elements of <i>Talos sampsoni</i> (UMNH VP 19479).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:08:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/733866"], "description"=>"<p>Ulna in medial (<b>A</b>) and dorsal (<b>B</b>) views. Abbreviations: <b>er</b>, extensor ridge; <b>lc</b>, lateral aspect of the distal condyle condyle; <b>mc</b>, medial aspect of the distal condyle; <b>paf</b>, proximal articular facet. Scale bar equals 5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ulna", "vp"], "article_id"=>404225, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lindsay E. Zanno", "David J. Varricchio", "Patrick M. O'Connor", "Alan L. Titus", "Michael J. Knell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Left_ulna_of_Talos_sampsoni_UMNH_VP_19479_/404225", "title"=>"Left ulna of <i>Talos sampsoni</i> (UMNH VP 19479).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:10:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734038"], "description"=>"<p>Right ischium in proximal (<b>A</b>), medial (<b>B</b>), and lateral (<b>C</b>) views; left ischium in medial (<b>D</b>) and lateral (<b>E</b>) views; right (<b>F</b>) and left (<b>G</b>) pubic shafts in cranial view. Abbreviations: <b>ac</b>, acetabulum; <b>cdr</b>, caudolateral ridge; <b>ip</b>, iliac peduncle; <b>op</b>, obturator process; <b>pa</b>, pubic apron; <b>pdt</b>, proximodorsal tuberosity; <b>pp</b>, pubic peduncle. Scale bar equals 10 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["girdle", "elements", "vp"], "article_id"=>404391, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lindsay E. Zanno", "David J. Varricchio", "Patrick M. O'Connor", "Alan L. Titus", "Michael J. Knell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pelvic_girdle_elements_of_Talos_sampsoni_UMNH_VP_19479_/404391", "title"=>"Pelvic girdle elements of <i>Talos sampsoni</i> (UMNH VP 19479).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:13:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734152"], "description"=>"<p>Left femur in lateral view (<b>A</b>); left tibia in cranial view (<b>B</b>); left fibula in lateral view (<b>C</b>). Dotted line illustrates impression of ascending process of ipsilateral astragalus. Abbreviations: <b>ca</b>, caudal aspect; <b>cr</b>, cranial aspect; <b>gt</b>, greater trochanter; <b>lc</b>, lateral condyle; <b>lr</b>, lateral ridge; <b>lt</b>, lesser trochanter; <b>mc</b>, medial condyle; <b>pt</b>, posterior trochanter, <b>ttc</b>, lateral tubercle of trochanteric crest. Scale bar equals 10 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fibula", "vp"], "article_id"=>404508, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lindsay E. Zanno", "David J. Varricchio", "Patrick M. O'Connor", "Alan L. Titus", "Michael J. Knell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Femur_tibia_and_fibula_of_Talos_sampsoni_UMNH_VP_19479_/404508", "title"=>"Femur, tibia, and fibula of <i>Talos sampsoni</i> (UMNH VP 19479).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:15:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734285"], "description"=>"<p>Left astragalus in medial (<b>A</b>), cranial (<b>B</b>), lateral (<b>C</b>), and proximal (<b>D</b>) views; left calcaneum in lateral view (<b>E</b>). Abbreviations: <b>ap</b>, ascending process; <b>as</b>, astragalar sulcus; <b>g</b>, groove at base of ascending process; <b>ib</b>, intercondylar bridge; <b>mc</b>, medial condyle; <b>lc</b>, lateral condyle. Scale bar equals 3 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["elements", "vp"], "article_id"=>404648, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lindsay E. Zanno", "David J. Varricchio", "Patrick M. O'Connor", "Alan L. Titus", "Michael J. Knell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487.g009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tarsal_elements_of_Talos_sampsoni_UMNH_VP_19479_/404648", "title"=>"Tarsal elements of <i>Talos sampsoni</i> (UMNH VP 19479).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:17:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734415"], "description"=>"<p>Digit one reversed from right pes. Abbreviations: <b>DI</b>, digit one; <b>DII</b>, digit two; <b>DIII</b>, digit three; <b>DIV</b>, digit four; <b>MT1</b>, metatarsal one; <b>MT2</b>, metatarsal two; <b>MT3</b> metatarsal three; <b>MT4</b>, metatarsal four. Scale bar equals 10 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pes", "vp"], "article_id"=>404773, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lindsay E. Zanno", "David J. Varricchio", "Patrick M. O'Connor", "Alan L. Titus", "Michael J. Knell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487.g010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Articulated_pes_of_Talos_sampsoni_UMNH_VP_19479_/404773", "title"=>"Articulated pes of <i>Talos sampsoni</i> (UMNH VP 19479).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:19:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734517"], "description"=>"<p>Right metatarsal I in lateral (<b>G</b>) and medial (<b>H</b>) views; left metatarsal II in extensor (<b>A</b>), medial (<b>B</b>), flexor (<b>C</b>), lateral (<b>D</b>), proximal (<b>E</b>), and distal (<b>F</b>) views; left metatarsal III in extensor (<b>J</b>), medial (<b>K</b>), and distal (<b>I</b>) views; left metatarsal IV in flexor (<b>N</b>), lateral (<b>O</b>), medial (<b>P</b>), proximal (<b>L</b>), and distal (<b>M</b>) views. Abbreviations: <b>lc</b>, lateral condyle, <b>mc</b>, medial condyle; <b>m3t</b>, tab on extensor surface of metatarsal three; <b>m4t</b>, tab on flexor surface of metatarsal four; <b>MT1</b>, metatarsal one; <b>MT2</b>, metatarsal two; <b>MT3</b> metatarsal three; <b>MT4</b>, metatarsal four. Scale bar equals 10 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vp"], "article_id"=>404876, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lindsay E. Zanno", "David J. Varricchio", "Patrick M. O'Connor", "Alan L. Titus", "Michael J. Knell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487.g011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metatarsus_of_Talos_sampsoni_UMNH_VP_19479_/404876", "title"=>"Metatarsus of <i>Talos sampsoni</i> (UMNH VP 19479).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:21:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734653"], "description"=>"<p>Digit one of right pes in lateral (<b>A</b>) and medial (<b>B</b>) views; digit two of left pes in medial (<b>C</b>), lateral (<b>D</b>), and extensor (<b>E</b>) views; digit three of left pes in medial (<b>F</b>), lateral (<b>G</b>), and extensor (<b>H</b>) views; digit four of left pes in medial (<b>I</b>), lateral (<b>J</b>), and extensor (<b>K</b>) views. Abbreviations: <b>er</b>, extensor ridge; <b>dl</b>, dorsal “lip”; <b>ird</b>, dorsal intercondylar ridge; <b>irv</b>, ventral intercondylar ridge; <b>p</b>, pathology; <b>pp</b>, proximal pit; <b>PI-1</b>, first phalanx of digit 1; <b>PI-2</b>, second phalanx of digit 1; <b>PII-1</b>, first phalanx of digit 2; <b>PII-2</b>, second phalanx of digit 2; <b>PII-3</b>, third phalanx of digit 2; <b>PIII-1</b>, first phalanx of digit 3; <b>PIII-2</b>, second phalanx of digit 3; <b>PIII-3</b>, third phalanx of digit 3; <b>PIII-4</b>, fourth phalanx of digit 3; <b>PIV-1</b>, first phalanx of digit 4; <b>PIV-2</b>, second phalanx of digit 4; <b>PIV-3</b>, third phalanx of digit 4; <b>PIV-4</b>, fourth phalanx of digit 4; <b>PIV-5</b>, fifth phalanx of digit 4. Scale bar equals 5 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phalanges", "vp"], "article_id"=>405018, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lindsay E. Zanno", "David J. Varricchio", "Patrick M. O'Connor", "Alan L. Titus", "Michael J. Knell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487.g012"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pedal_phalanges_of_Talos_sampsoni_UMNH_VP_19479_/405018", "title"=>"Pedal phalanges of <i>Talos sampsoni</i> (UMNH VP 19479).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:23:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734778"], "description"=>"<p>Phalanx II-1 in lateral (<b>A</b>, <b>H</b>), flexor (<b>C</b>–<b>D</b>). extensor (<b>F</b>–<b>G</b>) views. Cross-sectional images of <i>Talos</i> taken through axial (<b>B</b>), transverse (<b>E</b>), and parasagittal (<b>I</b>) planes. Hashed lines in A and F represent the plane of section for images in B (1), E (2), and I (3). Anatomical reference lines show position of axial cross section (B) only. Green arrows in B, E, and I depict the boundary between the original cortical contour (shown in purple on C, G, and H) and the exostotic bone. Abbreviations: <b>bc</b>, bony collar; <b>Ic</b>, lateral condyle; <b>mc</b>, medial condyle; <b>oc</b>, original cortical surface.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["renderings", "pathological", "phalanx", "pedal", "digit", "vp"], "article_id"=>405131, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lindsay E. Zanno", "David J. Varricchio", "Patrick M. O'Connor", "Alan L. Titus", "Michael J. Knell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487.g013"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Micro_CT_renderings_of_the_pathological_first_phalanx_of_the_left_second_pedal_digit_II_1_of_Talos_sampsoni_UMNH_VP_19479_/405131", "title"=>"Micro-CT renderings of the pathological first phalanx of the left second pedal digit (II-1) of <i>Talos sampsoni</i> (UMNH VP 19479).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:25:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734950"], "description"=>"<p>Medullary spaces are towards the bottom. Bands representing slowed growth including lamellar bone and lines of arrested growth are marked with “<b><</b>”. The proximal section preserves five or six bands, whereas the midshaft has three. The third band of the midshaft section is not represented in this view due to taphonomic loss of the bone periphery. Between these bands, bone consists primarily of fibrolamellar bone with longitudinally oriented osteons. Episodes of endosteal deposition and erosion occur in the medullary regions of both sections. Abbreviations: <b>do</b>, developing osteons; <b>el</b>, endosteal deposition of lamellar bone; <b>fl</b>, fibrolamellar bone; <b>mc</b>, medullary cavity. Scale bars equal 0.3 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["midshaft", "histologic", "cross-sections", "fibula", "vp"], "article_id"=>405305, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lindsay E. Zanno", "David J. Varricchio", "Patrick M. O'Connor", "Alan L. Titus", "Michael J. Knell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487.g014"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proximal_A_and_midshaft_B_histologic_cross_sections_of_the_fibula_of_Talos_sampsoni_UMNH_VP_19479_/405305", "title"=>"Proximal (A) and midshaft (B) histologic cross-sections of the fibula of <i>Talos sampsoni</i> (UMNH VP 19479).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:28:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/735050"], "description"=>"<p>Tree illustrates combined topology of six MPTs (Tree Length = 48). Dashed lines indicate equally parsimonious positions for <i>T</i>. <i>sampsoni</i> (three alternates) and <i>Sinovenator changi</i> (two alternates). Node numbers represent support values (black = Bremer; blue = standard bootstrapping, GC values; green = symmetrical resampling, GC values).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships"], "article_id"=>405415, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Lindsay E. Zanno", "David J. Varricchio", "Patrick M. O'Connor", "Alan L. Titus", "Michael J. Knell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024487.g015"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Evolutionary_relationships_of_Talos_sampsoni_in_red_/405415", "title"=>"Evolutionary relationships of <i>Talos sampsoni</i> (in red).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:30:15"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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