Ontogeny of the Alligator Cartilago Transiliens and Its Significance for Sauropsid Jaw Muscle Evolution
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{"title"=>"Ontogeny of the Alligator cartilago transiliens and its significance for sauropsid jaw muscle evolution", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Henry P.", "last_name"=>"Tsai", "scopus_author_id"=>"52664724100"}, {"first_name"=>"Casey M.", "last_name"=>"Holliday", "scopus_author_id"=>"14829148700"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80052835363", "sgr"=>"80052835363", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0024935", "pmid"=>"21949795", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"362568149"}, "id"=>"b911d540-c596-34c1-98f7-fa298cf98a07", "abstract"=>"The cartilago transiliens is a fibrocartilaginous structure within the jaw muscles of crocodylians. The cartilago transiliens slides between the pterygoid buttress and coronoid region of the lower jaw and connects two muscles historically identified as m. pseudotemporalis superficialis and m. intramandibularis. However, the position of cartilago transiliens, and its anatomical similarities to tendon organs suggest the structure may be a sesamoid linking a single muscle. Incompressible sesamoids often form inside tendons that wrap around bone. However, such structures rarely ossify in reptiles and have thus far received scant attention. We tested the hypothesis that the cartilago transiliens is a sesamoid developed within in one muscle by investigating its structure in an ontogenetic series of Alligator mississippiensis using dissection, 3D imaging, and polarizing and standard light microscopy. In all animals studied, the cartilago transiliens receives collagen fibers and tendon insertions from its two main muscular attachments. However, whereas collagen fibers were continuous within the cartilaginous nodule of younger animals, such continuity decreased in older animals, where the fibrocartilaginous core grew to displace the fibrous region. Whereas several neighboring muscles attached to the fibrous capsule in older individuals, only two muscles had significant contributions to the structure in young animals. Our results indicate that the cartilago transiliens is likely a sesamoid formed within a single muscle (i.e., m. pseudotemporalis superficialis) as it wraps around the pterygoid buttress. This tendon organ is ubiquitous among fossil crocodyliforms indicating it is a relatively ancient, conserved structure associated with the development of the large pterygoid flanges in this clade. Finally, these findings indicate that similar tendon organs exist among potentially homologous muscle groups in birds and turtles, thus impacting inferences of jaw muscle homology and evolution in sauropsids in general.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ontogeny-alligator-cartilago-transiliens-significance-sauropsid-jaw-muscle-evolution", "reader_count"=>47, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>13, "Environmental Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>13}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734823"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, Parasagittal section. <b>B</b>, Axial section. The μCT data were used to reconstruct 3D surface models using Amira 5.2 to illustrate the cartilago transiliens, muscles, and nerve. <b>C</b>, Left, lateral view. <b>D</b>, Mirrored, dorsal view. <b>E</b>, Rostral view. Muscles are color-coded to reflect hypotheses of jaw muscle homology described in Holliday and Witmer <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0024935#pone.0024935-Holliday1\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a> and Holliday <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0024935#pone.0024935-Holliday2\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a> and consistently used throughout the remainder of figures. The 3D model of alligator jaw muscles is available on the Holliday lab website.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["iodine-stained", "yearling"], "article_id"=>405182, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Henry P. Tsai", "Casey M. Holliday"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024935.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lugol_s_iodine_stained_956_CT_scanned_yearling_alligator_/405182", "title"=>"Lugol's iodine-stained μCT-scanned yearling alligator.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:42:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/735399"], "description"=>"<p>Section was taken on the lateral edge of the cartilaginous transiliens to demonstrate superficial muscle and tendinous attachments. The m. intramandibularis tendon is obscured from view by the dentary.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parasagittal", "histological", "cartilago", "transiliens", "tendon", "embryo", "lateral"], "article_id"=>405755, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Henry P. Tsai", "Casey M. Holliday"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024935.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Right_parasagittal_histological_section_of_cartilago_transiliens_tendon_organ_from_a_late_term_embryo_in_lateral_view_/405755", "title"=>"Right, parasagittal histological section of cartilago transiliens tendon organ from a late term embryo in lateral view.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:45:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/736106"], "description"=>"<p>Anatomical abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>406472, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Henry P. Tsai", "Casey M. Holliday"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024935.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anatomical_abbreviations_/406472", "title"=>"Anatomical abbreviations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:49:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/735526"], "description"=>"<p>All sections are arranged dorsal to the top and cranial to the right. <b>A</b>, Reconstructed model of Lugol-stained yearling μCT, parasagittally sliced to show cartilago transiliens and adnexa. <b>B</b>, Lateral section from yearling. <b>C</b>, Medial section of cartilago transiliens from small juvenile. <b>D</b>, Lateral section of cartilago transiliens from a subadult.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parasagittal", "sections", "cartilago"], "article_id"=>405891, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Henry P. Tsai", "Casey M. Holliday"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024935.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Right_parasagittal_sections_of_the_cartilago_transiliens_/405891", "title"=>"Right, parasagittal sections of the cartilago transiliens.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:46:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/736041"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, Topological position of the cartilago transiliens in lateral view. <b>B</b>, Illustrations depicting morphological changes and characteristic differences among differently-aged individuals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ontogenetic", "changes", "cartilago", "transiliens", "tendon"], "article_id"=>406398, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Henry P. Tsai", "Casey M. Holliday"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024935.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_key_ontogenetic_changes_of_the_cartilago_transiliens_tendon_organ_in_Alligator_mississippiensis_/406398", "title"=>"The key ontogenetic changes of the cartilago transiliens tendon organ in <i>Alligator mississippiensis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:49:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/736138"], "description"=>"<p>Alligator specimens and techniques used to investigate cartilago transiliens anatomy.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["specimens", "techniques", "cartilago", "transiliens"], "article_id"=>406498, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Henry P. Tsai", "Casey M. Holliday"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024935.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Alligator_specimens_and_techniques_used_to_investigate_cartilago_transiliens_anatomy_/406498", "title"=>"Alligator specimens and techniques used to investigate cartilago transiliens anatomy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:49:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/735816"], "description"=>"<p>All sections are arranged medial to the top and rostral to the right. <b>A</b>, Reconstructed model based on Lugol-stained yearling µCT, horizontally sliced. <b>B</b>, Dorsal section of ct from small juvenile; <b>C</b>, Ventral sections of ct from a medium-sized juvenile. <b>D</b>, Dorsal section of a medium-sized juvenile.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differences", "horizontal", "sections", "cartilago"], "article_id"=>406173, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Henry P. Tsai", "Casey M. Holliday"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024935.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ontogenetic_differences_between_horizontal_sections_of_cartilago_transiliens_/406173", "title"=>"Ontogenetic differences between horizontal sections of cartilago transiliens.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:47:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/735940"], "description"=>"<p>Collagen fiber orientation in a left parasagittal section of the cartilago transiliens of a juvenile under polarized light illustrating the continuity of fibers between mIRA and mPSTs caudal to the nodular, cartilaginous region.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parasagittal", "cartilago", "transiliens", "juvenile", "polarized", "illustrating", "continuity", "fibers", "mira", "mpsts", "caudal", "cartilaginous"], "article_id"=>406286, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Henry P. Tsai", "Casey M. Holliday"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024935.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Collagen_fiber_orientation_in_a_left_parasagittal_section_of_the_cartilago_transiliens_of_a_juvenile_under_polarized_light_illustrating_the_continuity_of_fibers_between_mIRA_and_mPSTs_caudal_to_the_nodular_cartilaginous_region_/406286", "title"=>"Collagen fiber orientation in a left parasagittal section of the cartilago transiliens of a juvenile under polarized light illustrating the continuity of fibers between mIRA and mPSTs caudal to the nodular, cartilaginous region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:48:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/735269"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, Reconstructed model of Lugol-stained yearling μCT, coronally sliced. <b>B</b>, Dissected rictal region of embryonic alligator in right, cranial view. <b>C</b>, coronal histological section of the same region, in cranial view with inset for D. <b>D</b>, The fibrocartilaginous nodule is composed mostly of unorganized internal collagen fiber woven within the cartilage matrix. Continuous collagen fibers pass laterally to the fibrocartilaginous nodule, bridging m. pseudotemporalis superficialis tendon to m. intramandibularis tendon. Note: the cartilago transiliens in the specimen became rotated counter- clockwise during preparation leading to the change in orientation in mPSTs and mIRA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["alligator", "rictal", "adductor", "cartilago"], "article_id"=>405628, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Henry P. Tsai", "Casey M. Holliday"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024935.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anatomy_of_the_alligator_rictal_region_showing_the_relative_position_of_adductor_musculature_cartilago_transiliens_bone_nerve_/405628", "title"=>"Anatomy of the alligator rictal region, showing the relative position of adductor musculature, cartilago transiliens, bone, nerve.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:45:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/735686"], "description"=>"<p>The boxes correspond to higher magnification views. <b>A</b>, In the yearling, collagen fibers from mIRA tendon are continuous with mPSTs, encircling the fibrocartilaginous nodule both rostrally and caudally. <b>B</b>, Higher magnification of inset in A. <b>C</b>, In a juvenile, collagen and muscle fiber from mPSTs still inserts onto the fibrocartilaginous nodule. However, in the core regions of the cartilago transiliens (enlarged picture to right), collagen fibers show no continuity between mPSTs and mIRA tendons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differences", "parasagittal", "histological", "sections", "cartilago", "transiliens", "yearling", "polarized", "subadult"], "article_id"=>406039, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Henry P. Tsai", "Casey M. Holliday"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024935.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ontogenetic_differences_between_parasagittal_histological_sections_of_cartilago_transiliens_of_a_yearling_PSR_polarized_light_and_a_subadult_Masson_s_trichrome_/406039", "title"=>"Ontogenetic differences between parasagittal histological sections of cartilago transiliens of a yearling (PSR, polarized light) and a subadult (Masson's trichrome).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:47:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/735107"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, Yearling; <b>B</b>, Juvenile alligator.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transiliens", "adductor", "tissues", "topological", "lateral"], "article_id"=>405462, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Henry P. Tsai", "Casey M. Holliday"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024935.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cartilago_transiliens_and_adductor_chamber_soft_tissues_maintain_topological_similarity_through_ontogeny_left_lateral_view_/405462", "title"=>"Cartilago transiliens and adductor chamber soft tissues maintain topological similarity through ontogeny, left lateral view.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:44:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734971"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, 3D reconstruction of skull in lateral view and mandible in medial view, showing position of the pterygoid buttress and cartilago transiliens respectively. <b>B</b>, Cranial view of the rictal region. The mandible is slightly everted laterally. The cartilago transiliens is bounded laterally by skin and muscles, dorsally and ventrally by fibrous sheaths, and medially it articulates with the pterygoid buttress. <b>C</b>, Grossly dissected adductor region (box in A). The green oval shape denotes the resting position of cartilago transiliens on the rostrodorsal-most part of the pterygoid buttress trochlea. <b>D</b>, Dissected mandibular fossa with cartilago transiliens in situ.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "pterygoid", "buttress", "cartilago"], "article_id"=>405326, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Henry P. Tsai", "Casey M. Holliday"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024935.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>49, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gross_anatomy_of_the_pterygoid_buttress_and_cartilago_transiliens_/405326", "title"=>"Gross anatomy of the pterygoid buttress and cartilago transiliens.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:43:21"}

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