Looking the Part: Social Status Cues Shape Race Perception
Publication Date
September 26, 2011
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Jonathan B. Freeman, Andrew M. Penner, Aliya Saperstein, Matthias Scheutz, et al
Volume
6
Issue
9
Pages
e25107
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025107
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0025107
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21977227
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3180382
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21977227
Web of Science
000295932100018
Scopus
80053160852
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/looking-part-social-status-cues-shape-race-perception
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Looking the part: Social status cues shape race perception", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jonathan B.", "last_name"=>"Freeman", "scopus_author_id"=>"55371036900"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew M.", "last_name"=>"Penner", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701506076"}, {"first_name"=>"Aliya", "last_name"=>"Saperstein", "scopus_author_id"=>"14822575600"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthias", "last_name"=>"Scheutz", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603548841"}, {"first_name"=>"Nalini", "last_name"=>"Ambady", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004139484"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80053160852", "sgr"=>"80053160852", "pui"=>"362627644", "isbn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"21977227", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0025107"}, "id"=>"b5fa68ad-24c4-3baf-a9d9-e24e1f872317", "abstract"=>"It is commonly believed that race is perceived through another's facial features, such as skin color. In the present research, we demonstrate that cues to social status that often surround a face systematically change the perception of its race. Participants categorized the race of faces that varied along White-Black morph continua and that were presented with high-status or low-status attire. Low-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as Black, whereas high-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as White; and this influence grew stronger as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 1). When faces with high-status attire were categorized as Black or faces with low-status attire were categorized as White, participants' hand movements nevertheless revealed a simultaneous attraction to select the other race-category response (stereotypically tied to the status cue) before arriving at a final categorization. Further, this attraction effect grew as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 2). Computational simulations then demonstrated that these effects may be accounted for by a neurally plausible person categorization system, in which contextual cues come to trigger stereotypes that in turn influence race perception. Together, the findings show how stereotypes interact with physical cues to shape person categorization, and suggest that social and contextual factors guide the perception of race.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/looking-part-social-status-cues-shape-race-perception", "reader_count"=>127, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>54, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>54, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Design"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Psychology"=>65, "Social Sciences"=>28, "Computer Science"=>5, "Linguistics"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>28}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>65}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>5}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "United States"=>14, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Italy"=>3, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>8}

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731479"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) The likelihood of Black categorization is plotted as a function of racial ambiguity, separately for faces surrounded by high-status versus low-status attire (Experiment 2). (<b>B</b>) The degree of the hand's attraction toward the opposite race-category response (indexed by trajectory curvature) is plotted as a function of racial ambiguity, separately for trials where the categorization response was stereotypically congruent versus incongruent with the status cue (Experiment 2).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["moderation"], "article_id"=>401837, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jonathan B. Freeman", "Andrew M. Penner", "Aliya Saperstein", "Matthias Scheutz", "Nalini Ambady"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025107.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Racial_ambiguity_s_moderation_of_the_influence_of_status_cues_/401837", "title"=>"Racial ambiguity's moderation of the influence of status cues.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-26 00:30:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731409"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Sample stimuli. A high-status or low-status cue was affixed to 13-point morph continua, where race was varied from White (−6) to Black (+6). (<b>B</b>) The likelihood of Black categorization is plotted as a function of morph values, separately for faces with high-status versus low-status attire (Experiment 2). Note the canonical sigmoidal shape of the curves, consistent with the categorical perception of race <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025107#pone.0025107-Levin1\" target=\"_blank\">[30]</a>. Also note that the strongest influences of the status cue are in the middle of the continuum (most clearly shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025107#pone-0025107-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1C</a>). (<b>C</b>) The same plot as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025107#pone-0025107-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1B</a>, except here zooming in on the middle of the morph continuum, where race is most ambiguous.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cues"], "article_id"=>401772, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jonathan B. Freeman", "Andrew M. Penner", "Aliya Saperstein", "Matthias Scheutz", "Nalini Ambady"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025107.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_influence_of_status_cues_on_race_categorization_/401772", "title"=>"The influence of status cues on race categorization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-26 00:29:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731615"], "description"=>"<p>A new instantiation of the dynamic interactive model of person categorization (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025107#pone.0025107-Freeman1\" target=\"_blank\">[<b>14</b>]</a>), a recurrent connectionist network that was used to account for the empirical data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["instantiation", "interactive", "categorization", "recurrent", "connectionist", "was", "empirical"], "article_id"=>401961, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jonathan B. Freeman", "Andrew M. Penner", "Aliya Saperstein", "Matthias Scheutz", "Nalini Ambady"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025107.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>53, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_new_instantiation_of_the_dynamic_interactive_model_of_person_categorization_see_14_a_recurrent_connectionist_network_that_was_used_to_account_for_the_empirical_data_/401961", "title"=>"A new instantiation of the dynamic interactive model of person categorization (see [<b>14</b>]), a recurrent connectionist network that was used to account for the empirical data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-26 00:32:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/369307"], "description"=>"<div><p>It is commonly believed that race is perceived through another's facial features, such as skin color. In the present research, we demonstrate that cues to social status that often surround a face systematically change the perception of its race. Participants categorized the race of faces that varied along White–Black morph continua and that were presented with high-status or low-status attire. Low-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as Black, whereas high-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as White; and this influence grew stronger as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 1). When faces with high-status attire were categorized as Black or faces with low-status attire were categorized as White, participants' hand movements nevertheless revealed a simultaneous attraction to select the other race-category response (stereotypically tied to the status cue) before arriving at a final categorization. Further, this attraction effect grew as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 2). Computational simulations then demonstrated that these effects may be accounted for by a neurally plausible person categorization system, in which contextual cues come to trigger stereotypes that in turn influence race perception. Together, the findings show how stereotypes interact with physical cues to shape person categorization, and suggest that social and contextual factors guide the perception of race.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["looking", "cues"], "article_id"=>132971, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jonathan B. Freeman", "Andrew M. Penner", "Aliya Saperstein", "Matthias Scheutz", "Nalini Ambady"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025107", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Looking_the_Part_Social_Status_Cues_Shape_Race_Perception/132971", "title"=>"Looking the Part: Social Status Cues Shape Race Perception", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-26 00:49:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731713"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) The proportion of simulation runs in which the network settled into the Black category (the Black category node won the competition) after presented with faces that varied along a continuum of race and with either high-status or low-status attire. Note the close correspondence with the data from human perceivers (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025107#pone-0025107-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1B</a>). (<b>B</b>) Maximum activation level of the winning White or Black category node (the selected category) and the losing White or Black category node (unselected category) is plotted for incongruent trials (when the Black category won the competition for a face with high-status attire, or the White category won the competition for a face with low-status attire), at varying levels of racial ambiguity. Note that the unselected category is partially activated as well, and that as racial ambiguity increases the maximum activation level of the other, unselected category increases correspondingly. This accounts for why participants' mouse movements exhibit an attraction toward that unselected race category, and increasingly so as race becomes more ambiguous (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025107#pone-0025107-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 3</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["computational"], "article_id"=>402070, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jonathan B. Freeman", "Andrew M. Penner", "Aliya Saperstein", "Matthias Scheutz", "Nalini Ambady"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025107.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_computational_simulations_/402070", "title"=>"Results of the computational simulations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-26 00:34:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731532"], "description"=>"<p>In the figures, trajectories for all targets were remapped rightward, with the other, unselected race category on the left and the selected race category on the right. A sample face stimulus, surrounded by a status cue associated with the selected race category, is shown on the right, next to the mean trajectory for congruent trials (when faces with high-status cues were categorized as White or faces with low-status cues were categorized as Black). On the left is shown that same face stimulus, but with a status cue associated with the other, unselected race category, next to the mean trajectory for incongruent trials (when faces with high-status cues were categorized as Black or faces with low-status cues were categorized as White). During an actual trial, a single face was centered at the bottom of the screen. As shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025107#pone-0025107-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 2B</a>, trajectories for incongruent trials showed an attraction toward the other race category response, relative to trajectories for congruent trials, and this attraction grew as racial increased in ambiguity. This is exemplified by the difference between the two panels. Panel <b>A</b> shows trajectories averaged across trials for the most ambiguous faces (morphs 0 and ±1), along with a sample ambiguous face stimulus. Panel <b>B</b> shows trajectories averaged across trials for the least ambiguous faces (morphs ±5 and ±6), along with a sample unambiguously White face stimulus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience"], "article_id"=>401889, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Jonathan B. Freeman", "Andrew M. Penner", "Aliya Saperstein", "Matthias Scheutz", "Nalini Ambady"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025107.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_computer_mouse_trajectories_/401889", "title"=>"Mean computer mouse trajectories.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-26 00:31:29"}

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Relative Metric

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