The Orphan Gene ybjN Conveys Pleiotropic Effects on Multicellular Behavior and Survival of Escherichia coli
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{"title"=>"The orphan gene ybjN conveys pleiotropic effects on multicellular behavior and survival of Escherichia coli", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Dongping", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55713193900"}, {"first_name"=>"Bernarda", "last_name"=>"Calla", "scopus_author_id"=>"24177909800"}, {"first_name"=>"Sornkanok", "last_name"=>"Vimolmangkang", "scopus_author_id"=>"36464360000"}, {"first_name"=>"Xia", "last_name"=>"Wu", "scopus_author_id"=>"36117286700"}, {"first_name"=>"Schuyler S.", "last_name"=>"Korban", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005449054"}, {"first_name"=>"Steven C.", "last_name"=>"Huber", "scopus_author_id"=>"56062353100"}, {"first_name"=>"Steven J.", "last_name"=>"Clough", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005232957"}, {"first_name"=>"Youfu", "last_name"=>"Zhao", "scopus_author_id"=>"9435594600"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0025293", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0025293", "pui"=>"362635669", "sgr"=>"80053212621", "pmid"=>"21980417", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80053212621"}, "id"=>"7f0f9ed1-616a-382a-bef8-8b812225edb6", "abstract"=>"YbjN, encoding an enterobacteria-specific protein, is a multicopy suppressor of temperature sensitivity in the ts9 mutant strain of Escherichia coli. In this study, we further explored the role(s) of ybjN. First, we demonstrated that the ybjN transcript was about 10-fold lower in the ts9 strain compared to that of E. coli strain BW25113 (BW). Introduction of multiple copies of ybjN in the ts9 strain resulted in over-expression of ybjN by about 10-fold as compared to that of BW. These results suggested that temperature sensitivity of the ts9 mutant of E. coli may be related to expression levels of ybjN. Characterization of E. coli ybjN mutant revealed that ybjN mutation resulted in pleiotropic phenotypes, including increased motility, fimbriation (auto-aggregation), exopolysaccharide production, and biofilm formation. In contrast, over-expression of ybjN (in terms of multiple copies) resulted in reduced motility, fimbriation, exopolysaccharide production, biofilm formation and acid resistance. In addition, our results indicate that a ybjN-homolog gene from Erwinia amylovora, a plant enterobacterial pathogen, is functionally conserved with that of E. coli, suggesting similar evolution of the YbjN family proteins in enterobacteria. A microarray study revealed that the expression level of ybjN was inversely correlated with the expression of flagellar, fimbrial and acid resistance genes. Over-expression of ybjN significantly down-regulated genes involved in citric acid cycle, glycolysis, the glyoxylate shunt, oxidative phosphorylation, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism. Furthermore, over-expression of ybjN up-regulated toxin-antitoxin modules, the SOS response pathway, cold shock and starvation induced transporter genes. Collectively, these results suggest that YbjN may play important roles in regulating bacterial multicellular behavior, metabolism, and survival under stress conditions in E. coli. These results also suggest that ybjN over-expression-related temperature rescue of the ts9 mutant may be due to down-regulation of metabolic activity and activation of stress response genes in the ts9 mutant.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/orphan-gene-ybjn-conveys-pleiotropic-effects-multicellular-behavior-survival-escherichia-coli", "reader_count"=>26, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Greece"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "Thailand"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730963"], "description"=>"<p>A. Over-expression of <i>ybjN</i> from both <i>E. coli</i> and <i>Erwinia amylovora</i> rescued the temperature sensitivity of ts9 mutant of <i>E. coli</i>. BW: <i>E. coli</i> strain BW25113; pYbjN1 and pYbjN2: <i>E. coli</i> and <i>E. amylovora ybjN</i> gene in <i>pGEM T easy</i> vector, respectively; Empty vector (<i>pGEM T easy</i>) as negative control. Columns represented two dilutions of inoculum at both temperatures. B. Relative expression of <i>ybjN</i> gene in the ts9 mutant and the ts9 mutant strain harboring high copy plasmids of <i>ybjN</i> gene from both <i>E. coli</i> and <i>E. amylovora</i> compared to the <i>E. coli</i> strain BW25113 by qRT-PCR, normalized to the expression value of 16S rRNA (<i>rrsA</i>) gene. Cells were grown in LB broth with shaking overnight at 28°C and 6 h at 37°C. ts9: <i>E. coli</i> ts9 mutant; pYbjN1: ts9 over-expressing <i>E. coli ybjN</i> gene; pYbjN2: ts9 overexpressing <i>E. amylovora ybjN</i> gene.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ts9"], "article_id"=>401312, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Dongping Wang", "Bernarda Calla", "Sornkanok Vimolmangkang", "Xia Wu", "Schuyler S. Korban", "Steven C. Huber", "Steven J. Clough", "Youfu Zhao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_level_of_ybjN_is_directly_related_to_its_ability_to_rescue_the_temperature_sensitivity_of_Escherichia_coli_ts9_mutant_/401312", "title"=>"Expression level of <i>ybjN</i> is directly related to its ability to rescue the temperature sensitivity of <i>Escherichia coli</i> ts9 mutant.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:21:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731124"], "description"=>"<p>A. Demonstration of quick autoaggregative phenotype conferred by <i>ybjN</i> overexpression. Cells were grown in LB broth overnight with shaking at 37°C and allowed to settle for 6 h. BW: <i>E. coli</i> strain BW25113; BW(pYbjN1): <i>E. coli</i> strain BW25113 containing <i>E. coli ybjN</i> gene in <i>pGEM T easy</i> vector; B. Settling profile for <i>E. coli</i> strain BW25113, <i>ybjN</i> mutant and <i>E. coli</i> strain BW25113 over-expressing <i>ybjN</i>. Cells were grown in LB broth overnight at 37°C with shaking. At the beginning of the experiment, all overnight cultures were mixed vigorously by vortexing for 10 s and OD<sub>600</sub> for each tube was measured. Tubes were then left at room temperature without interference and OD<sub>600</sub> for each tube was measured at the time points indicated. C. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of fimbriae formation for <i>E. coli</i> strain BW25113, <i>ybjN</i> mutant and <i>E. coli</i> strain BW25113 over-expressing <i>ybjN</i>. Bacteria were grown with 250 rpm shaking at 34°C in M9 medium to OD600 = 0.5∼0.8. Cells were negatively stained with 1% phosphotungstic acid (pH 7.0) and micrographs were taken at an accelerating voltage of 80 kV. Pictures were selected from a representative of cells. D. Relative expression of <i>fimD</i> gene in <i>ybjN</i> mutant and <i>E. coli</i> strain BW25113 over-expressing <i>ybjN</i> compared to BW strain at OD<sub>600</sub> = 0.5∼0.8 in M9 medium by qRT-PCR, normalized to the expression value of 16S rRNA (<i>rrsA</i>) gene. Bacteria were grown with 250 rpm shaking at 34°C in M9 medium to OD<sub>600</sub> = 0.5∼0.8.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["negatively", "regulates", "fimbriae", "over-expression"], "article_id"=>401470, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Dongping Wang", "Bernarda Calla", "Sornkanok Vimolmangkang", "Xia Wu", "Schuyler S. Korban", "Steven C. Huber", "Steven J. Clough", "Youfu Zhao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_YbjN_negatively_regulates_fimbriae_formation_and_over_expression_of_ybjN_results_in_autoaggregation_/401470", "title"=>"YbjN negatively regulates fimbriae formation and over-expression of <i>ybjN</i> results in autoaggregation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:24:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731699"], "description"=>"<p>Stress responsive genes that are induced by <i>ybjN</i> over-expression (p-value<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["responsive", "genes", "induced", "over-expression"], "article_id"=>402046, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Dongping Wang", "Bernarda Calla", "Sornkanok Vimolmangkang", "Xia Wu", "Schuyler S. Korban", "Steven C. Huber", "Steven J. Clough", "Youfu Zhao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stress_responsive_genes_that_are_induced_by_ybjN_over_expression_p_value_/402046", "title"=>"Stress responsive genes that are induced by <i>ybjN</i> over-expression (p-value<0.05).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:34:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731618"], "description"=>"<p>*Selected genes with p-value<0.05 were listed; Others see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293#pone.0025293.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>.</p><p>**p>0.05. BW: <i>E. coli</i> K-12 strain BW25113.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genes", "inversely", "regulated"], "article_id"=>401964, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Dongping Wang", "Bernarda Calla", "Sornkanok Vimolmangkang", "Xia Wu", "Schuyler S. Korban", "Steven C. Huber", "Steven J. Clough", "Youfu Zhao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flagellar_fimbrial_and_acid_resistance_genes_that_are_inversely_regulated_by_ybjN_p_value_/401964", "title"=>"Flagellar, fimbrial, and acid resistance genes that are inversely regulated by <i>ybjN</i> (p-value<0.05).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:32:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731659"], "description"=>"<p>Carbohydrate catabolism genes that are suppressed in <i>ybjN</i> over-expression strain (p-value<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["catabolism", "genes", "suppressed", "over-expression"], "article_id"=>402010, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Dongping Wang", "Bernarda Calla", "Sornkanok Vimolmangkang", "Xia Wu", "Schuyler S. Korban", "Steven C. Huber", "Steven J. Clough", "Youfu Zhao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Carbohydrate_catabolism_genes_that_are_suppressed_in_ybjN_over_expression_strain_p_value_/402010", "title"=>"Carbohydrate catabolism genes that are suppressed in <i>ybjN</i> over-expression strain (p-value<0.05).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:33:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731385"], "description"=>"<p>A. All strains were grown overnight in LB broth at 30°C, diluted (1∶150) in LB and incubated at 30°C, without shaking, in PVC plates. After 48 h, the extent of biofilm formation was assessed by staining the wells with 1% crystal violet (CV). B. Quantification of CV staining. The amount of CV staining (and therefore biofilm formation) was quantified at OD<sub>540</sub>. CK: negative water control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biofilm"], "article_id"=>401736, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Dongping Wang", "Bernarda Calla", "Sornkanok Vimolmangkang", "Xia Wu", "Schuyler S. Korban", "Steven C. Huber", "Steven J. Clough", "Youfu Zhao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_YbjN_is_a_negative_regulator_of_biofilm_formation_/401736", "title"=>"YbjN is a negative regulator of biofilm formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:28:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731213"], "description"=>"<p>A. Migration phenotypes of <i>E. coli</i> strain BW25113 (BW), <i>ybjN</i> mutant and BW over-expressing <i>ybjN</i> at12 h after incubation. B. Comparison of the movement distance of BW, <i>ybjN</i> and BW over-expressing <i>ybjN</i>. Cells were inoculated on the surface of a motility plate containing 0.25% agar as described previously <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293#pone.0025293-Fredericks1\" target=\"_blank\">[20]</a>. Plates were incubated at 30°C for 24 h, during which the displacement (diameter) of the outermost edge of the movement was measured. The experiment was performed for three times in triplicate. Errors bars were smaller than the symbols. C. Relative expression of <i>fliA</i> and <i>flgD</i> gene expression in <i>ybjN</i> mutant and BW over-expressing <i>ybjN</i> compared to BW strain. Bacterial strains were grown overnight in LB broth and re-inoculated in 5 mL M9 medium. Relative expression of <i>fliA</i> and <i>flgD</i> genes, normalized to the expression value of 16S rRNA (<i>rrsA</i>) gene, was determined by qRT-PCR after 8 h growth (OD<sub>600</sub> at 0.5–0.8) in M9 medium.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["suppresses", "bacterial", "motility", "over-expression", "negatively", "regulates", "flagellar"], "article_id"=>401557, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Dongping Wang", "Bernarda Calla", "Sornkanok Vimolmangkang", "Xia Wu", "Schuyler S. Korban", "Steven C. Huber", "Steven J. Clough", "Youfu Zhao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_YbjN_suppresses_bacterial_motility_and_over_expression_of_ybjN_negatively_regulates_flagellar_gene_expression_/401557", "title"=>"YbjN suppresses bacterial motility and over-expression of <i>ybjN</i> negatively regulates flagellar gene expression.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:25:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731049"], "description"=>"<p>A. Growth curve of <i>ybjN</i> mutant and strain over-expressing <i>ybjN</i> in LB broth at 37°C. ♦: <i>E. coli</i> strain BW25113 (BW), ▪: Δ<i>ybjN mutant</i>, ▴: <i>E. coli</i> strain BW25113 (pYbjN1), •: <i>E. coli</i> strain BW25113 (pYbjN2). pYbjN1 and pYbjN2: <i>E. coli</i> and <i>E. amylovora ybjN</i> gene in <i>pGEM T easy</i> vector, respectively; original inoculum at an OD<sub>600</sub> of 0.001. B. Relative expression of <i>mqsR</i>, <i>ygiT</i>, <i>relE</i> and <i>relB</i> genes in BW strain harboring high copy plasmid of <i>E. coli ybjN</i> gene compared to the BW strain by qRT-PCR, normalized to the expression value of 16S rRNA (<i>rrsA</i>) gene. Cells were grown in M9 medium for 8 h with shaking to an OD<sub>600</sub> of 0.5–0.8.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["leads", "inhibition", "up-regulation", "toxin-antitoxin"], "article_id"=>401396, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Dongping Wang", "Bernarda Calla", "Sornkanok Vimolmangkang", "Xia Wu", "Schuyler S. Korban", "Steven C. Huber", "Steven J. Clough", "Youfu Zhao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Over_expression_of_ybjN_leads_to_growth_inhibition_and_up_regulation_of_toxin_antitoxin_modules_/401396", "title"=>"Over-expression of <i>ybjN</i> leads to growth inhibition and up-regulation of toxin-antitoxin modules.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:23:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731447"], "description"=>"<p>A. Effect of <i>ybjN</i> on acid susceptibility. Cells were grown for 18 h in M9 medium and bacterial suspensions were incubated in EG medium at pH 2.5 as described previously <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293#pone.0025293-Vogel1\" target=\"_blank\">[44]</a>. Surviving bacterial cells were counted at time 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h by dilution plating on LB plates.▴: <i>E. coli</i> strain BW25113 (BW), pH 7.0; _: <i>ybjN</i>, pH 7.0; -: BW (pYbjN1), pH 7.0; ▪: BW, pH 2.5, ♦: <i>ybjN</i>, pH 2.5, •: BW (pYbjN1), pH 2.5. B. Relative expression of acid resistance genes in <i>ybjN</i> over-expression strain. Bacterial strains were grown overnight in LB broth and re-inoculated in 5 mL M9 medium. Cells were grown in M9 medium for 8 h with shaking to an OD<sub>600</sub> of 0.5–0.8. Relative expression of <i>gadA</i>, <i>gadB</i> and <i>gadE</i> genes in <i>ybjN</i> over-expression strain compared to BW strain was determined by qRT- PCR, normalized to the expression value of 16S rRNA (<i>rrsA</i>) gene.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["confers"], "article_id"=>401806, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Dongping Wang", "Bernarda Calla", "Sornkanok Vimolmangkang", "Xia Wu", "Schuyler S. Korban", "Steven C. Huber", "Steven J. Clough", "Youfu Zhao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Over_expression_of_ybjN_confers_acid_susceptibility_/401806", "title"=>"Over-expression of <i>ybjN</i> confers acid susceptibility.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:30:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/369139", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/369175", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/369216", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/369267", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/369282", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/369329"], "description"=>"<div><p><em>YbjN</em>, encoding an enterobacteria-specific protein, is a multicopy suppressor of temperature sensitivity in the ts9 mutant strain of <em>Escherichia coli</em>. In this study, we further explored the role(s) of <em>ybjN</em>. First, we demonstrated that the <em>ybjN</em> transcript was about 10-fold lower in the ts9 strain compared to that of <em>E. coli</em> strain BW25113 (BW). <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293#s1\">Introduction</a> of multiple copies of <em>ybjN</em> in the ts9 strain resulted in over-expression of <em>ybjN</em> by about 10-fold as compared to that of BW. These results suggested that temperature sensitivity of the ts9 mutant of <em>E. coli</em> may be related to expression levels of <em>ybjN</em>. Characterization of <em>E. coli ybjN</em> mutant revealed that <em>ybjN</em> mutation resulted in pleiotropic phenotypes, including increased motility, fimbriation (auto-aggregation), exopolysaccharide production, and biofilm formation. In contrast, over-expression of <em>ybjN</em> (in terms of multiple copies) resulted in reduced motility, fimbriation, exopolysaccharide production, biofilm formation and acid resistance. In addition, our results indicate that a <em>ybjN</em>-homolog gene from <em>Erwinia amylovora</em>, a plant enterobacterial pathogen, is functionally conserved with that of <em>E. coli</em>, suggesting similar evolution of the YbjN family proteins in enterobacteria. A microarray study revealed that the expression level of <em>ybjN</em> was inversely correlated with the expression of flagellar, fimbrial and acid resistance genes. Over-expression of <em>ybjN</em> significantly down-regulated genes involved in citric acid cycle, glycolysis, the glyoxylate shunt, oxidative phosphorylation, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism. Furthermore, over-expression of <em>ybjN</em> up-regulated toxin-antitoxin modules, the SOS response pathway, cold shock and starvation induced transporter genes. Collectively, these results suggest that YbjN may play important roles in regulating bacterial multicellular behavior, metabolism, and survival under stress conditions in <em>E. coli</em>. These results also suggest that <em>ybjN</em> over-expression-related temperature rescue of the ts9 mutant may be due to down-regulation of metabolic activity and activation of stress response genes in the ts9 mutant.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["orphan", "conveys", "pleiotropic", "effects", "multicellular"], "article_id"=>132942, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Dongping Wang", "Bernarda Calla", "Sornkanok Vimolmangkang", "Xia Wu", "Schuyler S. Korban", "Steven C. Huber", "Steven J. Clough", "Youfu Zhao"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Orphan_Gene_ybjN_Conveys_Pleiotropic_Effects_on_Multicellular_Behavior_and_Survival_of_Escherichia_coli_/132942", "title"=>"The Orphan Gene <em>ybjN</em> Conveys Pleiotropic Effects on Multicellular Behavior and Survival of <em>Escherichia coli</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:49:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731559"], "description"=>"<p>A and B. Relative expression level of <i>ybjN</i> in LB broth (A) and M9 medium (B). Dark bar: log phase, Light bar: stationary phase. The expression of <i>ybjN</i> was measured by qRT-PCR, normalized to the expression value of 16S rRNA (<i>rrsA</i>) gene and then compared to <i>ybjN</i> expression level at stationary phase at 37°C in M9 medium. Bacterial cells were collected in LB or M9 medium at an OD<sub>600</sub> at 0.8∼1.0 for log phase and 1.8∼2.1 for stationary phase. C. Relative expression level of <i>ybjN</i> at high temperature. Bacterial cells were grown to log phase in M9 at 37°C and then incubated with shaking at 37°C or 42°C for 6 h. The relative expression of <i>ybjN</i> at 42°C was measured by qRT-PCR, normalized to the expression value of <i>rrsA</i> gene and then compared to the <i>ybjN</i> expression level at 37°C.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bw25113"], "article_id"=>401912, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Dongping Wang", "Bernarda Calla", "Sornkanok Vimolmangkang", "Xia Wu", "Schuyler S. Korban", "Steven C. Huber", "Steven J. Clough", "Youfu Zhao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_of_ybjN_gene_in_E_coli_strain_BW25113_strain_/401912", "title"=>"Expression of <i>ybjN</i> gene in <i>E. coli</i> strain BW25113 strain.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:31:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731297"], "description"=>"<p>A. <i>ybjN</i> negatively regulates colanic acid biosynthesis. Growth of <i>E. coli</i> strain BW25113 (BW), <i>ybjN</i> mutant and BW over-expressing <i>ybjN</i> on LB plates supplemented with 700 mM NaCl at 37°C, showing mucoid phenotype of <i>ybjN</i> mutant. B. Over-expression of <i>ybjN</i> from both <i>E. coli</i> and <i>E. amylovora</i> suppresses mucoid phenotypes of <i>E. coli</i> strain AJW678, <i>ackA</i> and <i>ackA/rcsC</i> mutants. Bacteria were grown in LB for 24 h at 28°C with shaking. 10 µl bacterial cells were streaked on LB plates supplemented with 700 mM NaCl and incubated at 28°C as described previously <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293#pone.0025293-Fredericks1\" target=\"_blank\">[20]</a>. Pictures were taken at 24 h.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["capsule"], "article_id"=>401646, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Dongping Wang", "Bernarda Calla", "Sornkanok Vimolmangkang", "Xia Wu", "Schuyler S. Korban", "Steven C. Huber", "Steven J. Clough", "Youfu Zhao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025293.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Impact_of_ybjN_on_capsule_biosynthesis_/401646", "title"=>"Impact of <i>ybjN</i> on capsule biosynthesis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:27:26"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

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