Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia: Meta-Analysis of the Neural Correlates of Social Cognition
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{"title"=>"Autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia: Meta-analysis of the neural correlates of social cognition", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Gisela", "last_name"=>"Sugranyes", "scopus_author_id"=>"26028120400"}, {"first_name"=>"Marinos", "last_name"=>"Kyriakopoulos", "scopus_author_id"=>"23489542500"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard", "last_name"=>"Corrigall", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603375976"}, {"first_name"=>"Eric", "last_name"=>"Taylor", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403206584"}, {"first_name"=>"Sophia", "last_name"=>"Frangou", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004549374"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362707092", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0025322", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80053610180", "pmid"=>"21998649", "sgr"=>"80053610180"}, "id"=>"29b19ac6-559e-38e7-b389-13e3e4db4410", "abstract"=>"CONTEXT: Impaired social cognition is a cardinal feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Schizophrenia (SZ). However, the functional neuroanatomy of social cognition in either disorder remains unclear due to variability in primary literature. Additionally, it is not known whether deficits in ASD and SZ arise from similar or disease-specific disruption of the social cognition network.\\n\\nOBJECTIVE: To identify regions most robustly implicated in social cognition processing in SZ and ASD.\\n\\nDATA SOURCES: Systematic review of English language articles using MEDLINE (1995-2010) and reference lists.\\n\\nSTUDY SELECTION: Studies were required to use fMRI to compare ASD or SZ subjects to a matched healthy control group, provide coordinates in standard stereotactic space, and employ standardized facial emotion recognition (FER) or theory of mind (TOM) paradigms.\\n\\nDATA EXTRACTION: Activation foci from studies meeting inclusion criteria (n = 33) were subjected to a quantitative voxel-based meta-analysis using activation likelihood estimation, and encompassed 146 subjects with ASD, 336 SZ patients and 492 healthy controls.\\n\\nRESULTS: Both SZ and ASD showed medial prefrontal hypoactivation, which was more pronounced in ASD, while ventrolateral prefrontal dysfunction was associated mostly with SZ. Amygdala hypoactivation was observed in SZ patients during FER and in ASD during more complex ToM tasks. Both disorders were associated with hypoactivation within the Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS) during ToM tasks, but activation in these regions was increased in ASD during affect processing. Disease-specific differences were noted in somatosensory engagement, which was increased in SZ and decreased in ASD. Reduced thalamic activation was uniquely seen in SZ.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Reduced frontolimbic and STS engagement emerged as a shared feature of social cognition deficits in SZ and ASD. However, there were disease- and stimulus-specific differences. These findings may aid future studies on SZ and ASD and facilitate the formulation of new hypotheses regarding their pathophysiology.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/autism-spectrum-disorders-schizophrenia-metaanalysis-neural-correlates-social-cognition-6", "reader_count"=>254, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>55, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>28, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>52, "Student > Postgraduate"=>19, "Student > Master"=>35, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>25, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>55, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>28, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>52, "Student > Postgraduate"=>19, "Student > Master"=>35, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>25, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>20, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22, "Arts and Humanities"=>4, "Philosophy"=>1, "Engineering"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>49, "Neuroscience"=>27, "Design"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>111, "Social Sciences"=>7, "Linguistics"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>49}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>111}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>20}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>4}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>27}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>6, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Portugal"=>1, "Iceland"=>1, "Spain"=>3, "Canada"=>1, "Korea (South)"=>1, "Turkey"=>2, "Belgium"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>3}, "group_count"=>11}

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/727599"], "description"=>"<p>Clusters of relative overactivation and underactivation in ASD are shown in green and yellow respectively; numbers represent the sagittal (x), coronal (y) and axial (z) coordinates of each slice in Talairach space. p<0.05 False Rate Discovery corrected for multiple comparisons. ASD = Autism Spectrum Disorders, SZ = Schizophrenia.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimation", "maps", "comparing", "autism", "schizophrenia"], "article_id"=>397952, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Gisela Sugranyes", "Marinos Kyriakopoulos", "Richard Corrigall", "Eric Taylor", "Sophia Frangou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Activation_likelihood_estimation_maps_comparing_autism_spectrum_disorder_with_schizophrenia_patients_/397952", "title"=>"Activation likelihood estimation maps comparing autism spectrum disorder with schizophrenia patients.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-05 02:12:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/727814"], "description"=>"<p>Details of studies included in the meta-analysis for theory of mind tasks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies", "included", "meta-analysis"], "article_id"=>398174, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Gisela Sugranyes", "Marinos Kyriakopoulos", "Richard Corrigall", "Eric Taylor", "Sophia Frangou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Details_of_studies_included_in_the_meta_analysis_for_theory_of_mind_tasks_/398174", "title"=>"Details of studies included in the meta-analysis for theory of mind tasks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-05 02:16:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/727730"], "description"=>"<p>Unless otherwise specified neuroleptic dose expressed in chlorpromazine equivalents; duration of illness is presented as mean (standard deviation); DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition; NLP = neuroleptics; PANSS = Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322#pone.0025322-Kay1\" target=\"_blank\">[79]</a>; SAPS = Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322#pone.0025322-Andreasen1\" target=\"_blank\">[80]</a>; SANS = Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322#pone.0025322-Andreasen2\" target=\"_blank\">[81]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patients", "schizophrenia", "included"], "article_id"=>398083, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Gisela Sugranyes", "Marinos Kyriakopoulos", "Richard Corrigall", "Eric Taylor", "Sophia Frangou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clinical_description_of_patients_with_Schizophrenia_included_in_theory_of_mind_studies_/398083", "title"=>"Clinical description of patients with Schizophrenia included in theory of mind studies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-05 02:14:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/727467"], "description"=>"<p>Clusters of relative underactivation or overactivation in SZ are shown in blue and red respectively; numbers represent the sagittal (x), coronal (y) and axial (z) coordinates of each slice in Talairach space. p<0.05 False Rate Discovery corrected for multiple comparisons. SZ = Schizophrenia, HC = Healthy Controls.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimation", "maps", "comparing", "schizophrenia", "patients"], "article_id"=>397818, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Gisela Sugranyes", "Marinos Kyriakopoulos", "Richard Corrigall", "Eric Taylor", "Sophia Frangou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Activation_likelihood_estimation_maps_comparing_schizophrenia_patients_with_healthy_controls_/397818", "title"=>"Activation likelihood estimation maps comparing schizophrenia patients with healthy controls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-05 02:10:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/367733", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/367797"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Context</h3><p>Impaired social cognition is a cardinal feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Schizophrenia (SZ). However, the functional neuroanatomy of social cognition in either disorder remains unclear due to variability in primary literature. Additionally, it is not known whether deficits in ASD and SZ arise from similar or disease-specific disruption of the social cognition network.</p> <h3>Objective</h3><p>To identify regions most robustly implicated in social cognition processing in SZ and ASD.</p> <h3>Data Sources</h3><p>Systematic review of English language articles using MEDLINE (1995–2010) and reference lists.</p> <h3>Study Selection</h3><p>Studies were required to use fMRI to compare ASD or SZ subjects to a matched healthy control group, provide coordinates in standard stereotactic space, and employ standardized facial emotion recognition (FER) or theory of mind (TOM) paradigms.</p> <h3>Data Extraction</h3><p>Activation foci from studies meeting inclusion criteria (n = 33) were subjected to a quantitative voxel-based meta-analysis using activation likelihood estimation, and encompassed 146 subjects with ASD, 336 SZ patients and 492 healthy controls.</p> <h3>Results</h3><p>Both SZ and ASD showed medial prefrontal hypoactivation, which was more pronounced in ASD, while ventrolateral prefrontal dysfunction was associated mostly with SZ. Amygdala hypoactivation was observed in SZ patients during FER and in ASD during more complex ToM tasks. Both disorders were associated with hypoactivation within the Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS) during ToM tasks, but activation in these regions was increased in ASD during affect processing. Disease-specific differences were noted in somatosensory engagement, which was increased in SZ and decreased in ASD. Reduced thalamic activation was uniquely seen in SZ.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Reduced frontolimbic and STS engagement emerged as a shared feature of social cognition deficits in SZ and ASD. However, there were disease- and stimulus-specific differences. These findings may aid future studies on SZ and ASD and facilitate the formulation of new hypotheses regarding their pathophysiology.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["autism", "disorders", "meta-analysis", "neural", "correlates", "cognition"], "article_id"=>132647, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Gisela Sugranyes", "Marinos Kyriakopoulos", "Richard Corrigall", "Eric Taylor", "Sophia Frangou"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Autism_Spectrum_Disorders_and_Schizophrenia_Meta_Analysis_of_the_Neural_Correlates_of_Social_Cognition/132647", "title"=>"Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia: Meta-Analysis of the Neural Correlates of Social Cognition", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-10-05 00:44:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/727901"], "description"=>"<p>*x = sagittal, y = coronal, z = axial coordinates according to Talairach and Tournoux; BA = Brodmann Area; ALE = Activation Likelihood Estimation, p<0.05 False Rate Discovery corrected for multiple comparisons. SZ = Schizophrenia, ASD = Autism Spectrum Disorders, HC = Healthy Controls.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimation", "facial", "patients", "schizophrenia", "autism", "disorders", "compared"], "article_id"=>398248, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Gisela Sugranyes", "Marinos Kyriakopoulos", "Richard Corrigall", "Eric Taylor", "Sophia Frangou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Activation_likelihood_estimation_results_for_facial_emotion_recognition_in_patients_with_schizophrenia_or_autism_spectrum_disorders_compared_to_healthy_controls_/398248", "title"=>"Activation likelihood estimation results for facial emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia or autism spectrum disorders compared to healthy controls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-05 02:17:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/728022"], "description"=>"<p>Unless otherwise specified, neuroleptic dose expressed in chlorpromazine equivalents; NLP = neuroleptics; PANSS = Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322#pone.0025322-Kay1\" target=\"_blank\">[79]</a>; SAPS = Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322#pone.0025322-Andreasen1\" target=\"_blank\">[80]</a>; SANS = Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322#pone.0025322-Andreasen2\" target=\"_blank\">[81]</a>;</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patients", "schizophrenia", "included", "facial"], "article_id"=>398374, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Gisela Sugranyes", "Marinos Kyriakopoulos", "Richard Corrigall", "Eric Taylor", "Sophia Frangou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clinical_description_of_patients_with_Schizophrenia_included_in_facial_emotion_recognition_studies_/398374", "title"=>"Clinical description of patients with Schizophrenia included in facial emotion recognition studies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-05 02:19:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/727770"], "description"=>"<p>x = sagittal, y = coronal, z = axial coordinates according to Talairach and Tournoux; BA = Brodmann Area; ALE = Activation Likelihood Estimation, p<0.05 False Rate Discovery corrected for multiple comparisons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimation", "patients", "schizophrenia", "autism", "disorders", "compared"], "article_id"=>398119, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Gisela Sugranyes", "Marinos Kyriakopoulos", "Richard Corrigall", "Eric Taylor", "Sophia Frangou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322.t009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Activation_likelihood_estimation_results_for_theory_of_mind_in_patients_with_schizophrenia_or_autism_spectrum_disorders_compared_to_healthy_controls_/398119", "title"=>"Activation likelihood estimation results for theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia or autism spectrum disorders compared to healthy controls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-05 02:15:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/727335"], "description"=>"<p>Clusters of relative underactivation or overactivation in ASD are shown in blue and red respectively; numbers represent the sagittal (x), coronal (y) and axial (z) coordinates of each slice in Talairach space. p<0.05 False Rate Discovery corrected for multiple comparisons. ASD = Autism Spectrum Disorders, HC = Healthy Controls.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimation", "maps", "comparing", "autism", "subjects"], "article_id"=>397681, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Gisela Sugranyes", "Marinos Kyriakopoulos", "Richard Corrigall", "Eric Taylor", "Sophia Frangou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Activation_likelihood_estimation_maps_comparing_autism_spectrum_disorder_subjects_with_healthy_controls_/397681", "title"=>"Activation likelihood estimation maps comparing autism spectrum disorder subjects with healthy controls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-05 02:08:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/727698"], "description"=>"<p>x = sagittal, y = coronal, z = axial coordinates according to Talairach and Tournoux; BA = Brodmann Area; ALE = Activation Likelihood Estimation, p<0.05 False Rate Discovery corrected for multiple comparisons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimation", "tasks", "schizophrenia", "autism"], "article_id"=>398050, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Gisela Sugranyes", "Marinos Kyriakopoulos", "Richard Corrigall", "Eric Taylor", "Sophia Frangou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322.t010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Activation_likelihood_estimation_results_for_theory_of_mind_tasks_comparison_of_schizophrenia_and_autism_spectrum_disorders_/398050", "title"=>"Activation likelihood estimation results for theory of mind tasks comparison of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-05 02:14:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/727947"], "description"=>"<p>x = sagittal, y = coronal, z = axial coordinates according to Talairach and Tournoux. BA = Brodmann Area; ALE = Activation Likelihood Estimation, p<0.05 False Rate Discovery corrected for multiple comparisons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimation", "facial", "schizophrenia", "autism"], "article_id"=>398297, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Gisela Sugranyes", "Marinos Kyriakopoulos", "Richard Corrigall", "Eric Taylor", "Sophia Frangou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Activation_likelihood_estimation_results_for_facial_emotion_recognition_comparison_of_schizophrenia_and_autism_spectrum_disorders_/398297", "title"=>"Activation likelihood estimation results for facial emotion recognition comparison of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-05 02:18:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/728065"], "description"=>"<p>Details of studies included in the meta-analysis for facial emotion recognition tasks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies", "included", "meta-analysis", "facial"], "article_id"=>398419, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Gisela Sugranyes", "Marinos Kyriakopoulos", "Richard Corrigall", "Eric Taylor", "Sophia Frangou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Details_of_studies_included_in_the_meta_analysis_for_facial_emotion_recognition_tasks_/398419", "title"=>"Details of studies included in the meta-analysis for facial emotion recognition tasks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-05 02:20:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/727989"], "description"=>"<p>ADI-R = Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322#pone.0025322-Lord1\" target=\"_blank\">[77]</a>; ADOS = Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322#pone.0025322-Lord2\" target=\"_blank\">[78]</a>; BZD = benzodiazepine; HFA = High Functioning Autism; PDD-NOS = Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified; NLP = neuroleptics; SSRI = selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; TCA = tricyclic antidepressant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patients", "autism", "disorders", "included", "facial"], "article_id"=>398337, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Gisela Sugranyes", "Marinos Kyriakopoulos", "Richard Corrigall", "Eric Taylor", "Sophia Frangou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025322.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clinical_description_of_patients_with_Autism_Spectrum_Disorders_included_in_facial_emotion_recognition_studies_/398337", "title"=>"Clinical description of patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders included in facial emotion recognition studies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-05 02:18:57"}

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