The Involvement of Voltage-Operated Calcium Channels in Somato-Dendritic Oxytocin Release
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{"title"=>"The involvement of voltage-operated calcium channels in somato-dendritic oxytocin release", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Vicky A.", "last_name"=>"Tobin", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602305842"}, {"first_name"=>"Alison J.", "last_name"=>"Douglas", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202732554"}, {"first_name"=>"Gareth", "last_name"=>"Leng", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101743449"}, {"first_name"=>"Mike", "last_name"=>"Ludwig", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202717975"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"362778299", "sgr"=>"80054791739", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0025366", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80054791739", "pmid"=>"22028774"}, "id"=>"d904ecbf-6784-3050-a231-88af86ff0c69", "abstract"=>"Magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) secrete oxytocin and vasopressin from axon terminals in the neurohypophysis, but they also release large amounts of peptide from their somata and dendrites, and this can be regulated both by activity-dependent Ca(2+) influx and by mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+). This somato-dendritic release can also be primed by agents that mobilise intracellular Ca(2+), meaning that the extent to which it is activity-dependent, is physiologically labile. We investigated the role of different Ca(2+) channels in somato-dendritic release; blocking N-type channels reduced depolarisation-induced oxytocin release from SONs in vitro from adult and post-natal day 8 (PND-8) rats, blocking L-type only had effect in PND-8 rats, while blocking other channel types had no significant effect. When oxytocin release was primed by prior exposure to thapsigargin, both N- and L-type channel blockers reduced release, while P/Q and R-type blockers were ineffective. Using confocal microscopy, we found immunoreactivity for Ca(v)1.2 and 1.3 channel subunits (which both form L-type channels), 2.1 (P/Q type), 2.2 (N-type) and 2.3 (R-type) in the somata and dendrites of both oxytocin and vasopressin neurons, and the intensity of the immunofluorescence signal for different subunits differed between PND-8, adult and lactating rats. Using patch-clamp electrophysiology, the N-type Ca(2+) current density increased after thapsigargin treatment, but did not alter the voltage sensitivity of the channel. These results suggest that the expression, location or availability of N-type Ca(2+) channels is altered when required for high rates of somato-dendritic peptide release.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/involvement-voltageoperated-calcium-channels-somatodendritic-oxytocin-release", "reader_count"=>18, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Psychology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Poland"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/721634"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Immunostaining for Ca<sub>v</sub> subunits (red staining) and oxytocin (<b>A</b>) or vasopressin (<b>B</b>) (green staining) in SON sections from PND-8, adult, and lactating rats. Average optical density for the subunits normalised by the optical density of (<b>C</b>) oxytocin and (<b>D</b>) vasopressin (n = 5). No labelling was detected when primary antibodies were omitted or incubated with a five-fold excess of control immunogen before being exposed to the tissues (not shown). Means±S.E.M. vs adult, # <i>P</i><0.05 vs lactating rats, one-way ANOVA followed by Holm-Sidak <i>post-hoc</i> test. Scale bars, 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biology", "neuroscience", "Cellular neuroscience", "ion channels", "neurophysiology", "Central nervous system", "neural networks", "neurotransmitters", "sections"], "article_id"=>391991, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vicky A. Tobin", "Alison J. Douglas", "Gareth Leng", "Mike Ludwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025366.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ca_2_channel_distribution_in_tissue_sections_of_SON_/391991", "title"=>"Ca<sup>2+</sup> channel distribution in tissue sections of SON.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:29:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/721801"], "description"=>"<p>Immunostaining for Ca<sub>v</sub> α1 subunits (red) in acutely-dispersed oxytocin (<b>A</b>) and vasopressin neurons (<b>B</b>) (green). Immunostaining for all subunits was observed in the soma and dendrites, in both in the cytoplasm and at the plasma membrane. Immunostaining for oxytocin and Ca<sub>v</sub>2.1 and 2.2 also showed strong perinuclear staining. The merged images show areas of coincidence in yellow (third column). Scatter plots (fourth column) show co-variance of subunit signal with the oxytocin signal for each voxel The residual map corresponds to weighted residuals from the line fit to the scatter plot, thus indicating fluorescent channel covariance (hue from –1 to 1, with cyan corresponding to zero residual). (<b>C</b>) Quantification of covariance data of oxytocin or vasopressin and one of the five α1-subunits using Pearson's coefficient values (n = 5 per group). Means±S.E.M. * <i>P</i><0.05, one-way ANOVA followed by Holm-Sidak <i>post-hoc</i> test vs Ca<sub>v</sub>2.2. Scale bars 10 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biology", "neuroscience", "Cellular neuroscience", "ion channels", "neurophysiology", "Central nervous system", "neural networks", "neurotransmitters", "magnocellular"], "article_id"=>392156, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vicky A. Tobin", "Alison J. Douglas", "Gareth Leng", "Mike Ludwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025366.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ca_2_channel_distribution_in_isolated_magnocellular_neurons_/392156", "title"=>"Ca<sup>2+</sup> channel distribution in isolated magnocellular neurons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:30:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/722043"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Isolated magnocellular neurons were identified as either vasopressin or oxytocin by their presence or absence of the GFP signal. Scale bar = 10 µm. (<b>B</b>) The current-voltage relationships show no difference between whole-cell calcium currents (WCCC) of vasopressin and oxytocin neurons (n = 20 each). (<b>C</b>) Normalized conductance (G/G<sub>max</sub>, fitted using Boltzmann equation) showed no significant change with or without TG. (<b>D</b>) Examples of two neurons (both oxytocin neurons), one vehicle treated (•) and one 50 min after pre-treating with thapsigargin (○). The steady-state Ca<sup>2+</sup> current is plotted against time following treatment with channel toxins (in order: 1 µM nicardipine; 200 nM ω-agatoxin IV; 500 nM ω-conotoxin GVIA). The current measured after each toxin was subtracted from that evoked before each treatment to determine the current carried by L-, P/Q- and N-type channels. The remaining current was attributed to R-type channels. (<b>E</b>) Examples of N-, L- and WCCC elicited by voltage steps in controls and TG treated cells. (<b>F</b>) The resulting current density for each current type normalised for the peak maximal current was averaged (n = 5) to give the average current density from neurons treated with vehicle or thapsigargin. (<b>G</b>) In a subsequent experiment L- or N-type channel toxins were administered, alternating the order (n = 5 for each condition). Mean±S.E.M are shown and compared by t-test. *<i>P</i><0.05 vs control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biology", "neuroscience", "Cellular neuroscience", "ion channels", "neurophysiology", "Central nervous system", "neural networks", "neurotransmitters", "toxins", "currents"], "article_id"=>392394, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vicky A. Tobin", "Alison J. Douglas", "Gareth Leng", "Mike Ludwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025366.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_channel_toxins_on_Ca_2_currents_in_isolated_SON_neurons_/392394", "title"=>"Effects of channel toxins on <b>Ca<sup>2+</sup></b> currents in isolated SON neurons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:31:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/721936"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Immunostaining for Ca<sub>v</sub> α1 subunits (red) and the Golgi marker GM130 (green) in acutely-dispersed supraoptic neurons. There was strong co-localisation of Ca<sub>v</sub>2.2 with GM130, a marker for the Golgi apparatus. No fluorescent labelling was detected when primary antibodies were omitted or incubated with a five-fold excess of control immunogen before being exposed to the cells (not shown). (<b>C</b>) Quantification of covariance data of GM130 and one of the five α1-subunits using Pearson's coefficient values (n = 5 per group) showed a significant difference between the co-localisation of GM130 and Ca<sub>v</sub>2.2 versus the other α1-subunits. Means±S.E.M. * <i>P</i><0.05, one-way ANOVA followed by Holm-Sidak <i>post-hoc</i> test vs Ca<sub>v</sub>2.2. Scale bars 10 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biology", "neuroscience", "Cellular neuroscience", "ion channels", "neurophysiology", "Central nervous system", "neural networks", "neurotransmitters", "golgi"], "article_id"=>392287, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vicky A. Tobin", "Alison J. Douglas", "Gareth Leng", "Mike Ludwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025366.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ca_2_channel_distribution_in_relation_to_the_Golgi_apparatus_/392287", "title"=>"Ca<sup>2+</sup> channel distribution in relation to the Golgi apparatus.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:30:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/721480"], "description"=>"<p>Blocking N-type VOCC in SONs from adult (<b>A</b>) PDN-8 (B), thapsigargin- (TG)-treated adult rats (<b>C</b>) and TG-treated PDN-8 rats (D) shows a decrease in amplitude and duration of the potassium stimulated response. Stimulated release was enhanced after pretreatment with 0.2 µM TG as previously described (<b>C D</b> black lines) (Ludwig et al., 2002); this was prevented by blocking N-type Ca<sup>2+</sup> channels (red lines). Effects of blocking different VOCC on the S2:S1 oxytocin response in SONs from adult and adult TG-treated rats (E) and PND-8 rats and TG-treated PDN-8 rats (<b>F</b>). Means±S.E.M., <i>n</i> = 6 per group, # <i>P</i><0.05 vs first S1, * <i>P</i><0.05 vs control, one-way ANOVA followed by Dunn's <i>post-hoc</i> test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biology", "neuroscience", "Cellular neuroscience", "ion channels", "neurophysiology", "Central nervous system", "neural networks", "neurotransmitters", "vocc", "toxins", "oxytocin", "sons"], "article_id"=>391815, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vicky A. Tobin", "Alison J. Douglas", "Gareth Leng", "Mike Ludwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025366.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_VOCC_toxins_on_oxytocin_release_from_SONs_in_vitro_/391815", "title"=>"Effects of VOCC toxins on oxytocin release from SONs <i>in vitro.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:28:13"}

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Relative Metric

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