Measurements of Elastic Moduli of Silicone Gel Substrates with a Microfluidic Device
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{"title"=>"Measurements of elastic moduli of silicone gel substrates with a microfluidic device", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Edgar", "last_name"=>"Gutierrez", "scopus_author_id"=>"16052665400"}, {"first_name"=>"Alex", "last_name"=>"Groisman", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603722293"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362706619", "sgr"=>"80053611076", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"21980487", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80053611076", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0025534", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"f7641b6d-de69-3e1f-a4c3-9d2c67eed3c1", "abstract"=>"Thin layers of gels with mechanical properties mimicking animal tissues are widely used to study the rigidity sensing of adherent animal cells and to measure forces applied by cells to their substrate with traction force microscopy. The gels are usually based on polyacrylamide and their elastic modulus is measured with an atomic force microscope (AFM). Here we present a simple microfluidic device that generates high shear stresses in a laminar flow above a gel-coated substrate and apply the device to gels with elastic moduli in a range from 0.4 to 300 kPa that are all prepared by mixing two components of a transparent commercial silicone Sylgard 184. The elastic modulus is measured by tracking beads on the gel surface under a wide-field fluorescence microscope without any other specialized equipment. The measurements have small and simple to estimate errors and their results are confirmed by conventional tensile tests. A master curve is obtained relating the mixing ratios of the two components of Sylgard 184 with the resulting elastic moduli of the gels. The rigidity of the silicone gels is less susceptible to effects from drying, swelling, and aging than polyacrylamide gels and can be easily coated with fluorescent tracer particles and with molecules promoting cellular adhesion. This work can lead to broader use of silicone gels in the cell biology laboratory and to improved repeatability and accuracy of cell traction force microscopy and rigidity sensing experiments.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/measurements-elastic-moduli-silicone-gel-substrates-microfluidic-device", "reader_count"=>111, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>37, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>37, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>32, "Unspecified"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Materials Science"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>30, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>25, "Chemistry"=>4, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>32}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>5}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>25}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>30}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Japan"=>1, "China"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730116"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Schematic of channels in the microfluidic device. 650 µm deep connecting channels and 165 µm deep test channels are shown in blue and green, respectively. Test channels 1–3 are labeled by numbers to the left of them. (b) Schematic drawing of the <i>xz</i>-cross-section of a test channel of the device (not to scale, with fluorescent beads indicated by red dots), illustrating the proposed technique of measurements of elastic moduli of thin gel layers on cover glasses. (c) Flow velocity in the mid-plane of test channel 1 (82.5 µm from the bottom) from a numerical simulation in Comsol. The simulation domain is highlighted by a black dashed rectangle in panel A and includes the upper right quarter of test channel 1 and a fragment of the upstream connecting channel. Flow velocity is color-coded, with blue corresponding to the lowest and red corresponding to the highest values. The flow velocity is within 1% of its maximum value in the internal region to the bottom left from two blue dashed lines, which are drawn at 75 µm from the test channel entrance and at 250 µm from the right wall. Because of the symmetric layout of the channels and linear character of the flow, the flow velocity distribution in the remaining 3/4 of test channel 1 can be reconstructed by mirror-reflections about the <i>x</i>-asis at the left boundary and about the <i>y</i>-axis at the bottom boundary. (d) Color-coded map of the displacement, Δ<i>x</i>, of the top of a 70 µm thick gel layer with <i>E</i> = 2 kPa in the right half of test channel 1 and in neighboring regions under a flow with a substrate shear stress kPa from a numerical simulation in Comsol with simplified boundary conditions. Horizontal black lines are boundaries between the 165 µm deep test channel and two 650 µm deep connecting channels. is taken in both connecting channels. Vertical black line is the boundary between the test channel and a region with gel bonded to the PDMS chip, where the condition is . In the test channel, it is taken kPa outside and kPa inside the internal region demarcated by blue dashed lines, which is the same as the internal region marked by blue lines in panel C. White dashed lines demarcate an internal region (360 µm away from the test channel entrance and exit and 500 µm away from the side walls), in which is within 1% of its maximal value (10.42 µm). The distribution of in the left half of test channel 1 can be obtained by mirror reflection about the boundary on the left.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deformation", "gel", "substrate"], "article_id"=>400479, "categories"=>["Physics", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Edgar Gutierrez", "Alex Groisman"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025534.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Microfluidic_device_flow_in_it_and_deformation_of_gel_substrate_under_a_test_channel_/400479", "title"=>"Microfluidic device, flow in it, and deformation of gel substrate under a test channel.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:17:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730186"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Gel shear strain, <i>γ</i>, as a function of the hydrodynamic shear stress, <i>τ</i>, in the internal regions of the test channels 1 (blue circles), 2 (red squares), and 3 (black triangles), for a 70 µm layer of gel with B/C = 45. The data points for the three test channels are fitted with zero-crossing straight lines of matching colors. (b) <i>γ</i> as a function of <i>τ</i> measured in test channel 2 in five microfluidic devices bonded to gel layers on five separate cover glasses. Gel thicknesses were 58, 58, 64, 65, and 66 µm, all prepared using the same pre-polymer with B/C = 45. Data points for different gel layers are shown by different colors and symbols (circles, squares, diamonds, and triangles) and fitted by separate zero-crossing straight lines. (c) Displacement of beads on the gel surface, , as a function of the gel thickness, <i>ξ</i>, measured with microfluidic chips bonded to three different gel layers in test channel 2 at pressures, , of 1.5 kPa (blue circles), 3 kPa (red squares), and 6 kPa (black triangles), corresponding to , 0.117, and 0.243 kPa, respectively. The three dependencies are fitted with zero-crossing straight lines of matching colors. All three gel layers were prepared from the same pre-polymer with B/C = 58.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gel", "elastic", "moduli", "microfluidic"], "article_id"=>400543, "categories"=>["Physics", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Edgar Gutierrez", "Alex Groisman"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025534.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_gel_elastic_moduli_using_the_microfluidic_device_/400543", "title"=>"Measurements of gel elastic moduli using the microfluidic device.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:17:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730242"], "description"=>"<p>Elastic modulus, <i>E</i>, of silicone gels prepared by mixing the base (B) and cross-linker (C) components of Sylgard 184 as a function of the component mass ratio, <i>α</i> = B/C. Grey circles are data points from measurements on thin gel layers with the microfluidic device; black squares are data points from tensile tests on gel slabs; continuous line is a fit of the data points to equation 1, , with <i>E</i> measured in kPa and with <i>C</i><sub>0</sub>, <i>C</i><sub>1</sub>, <i>C</i><sub>2</sub>, and <i>C</i><sub>3</sub> equal to 4.86, −0.135, , and , respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["moduli", "gels", "prepared", "sylgard"], "article_id"=>400604, "categories"=>["Physics", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Edgar Gutierrez", "Alex Groisman"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025534.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Elastic_moduli_of_gels_prepared_from_Sylgard_184_/400604", "title"=>"Elastic moduli of gels prepared from Sylgard 184.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:18:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730290"], "description"=>"<p>Elastic moduli, <i>E</i>, of 6 randomly selected silicone gels prepared by mixing the B and C components of Sylgard 184 were reexamined with the proposed microfluidic technique after various storage times, and the percentage change in <i>E</i> was calculated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["elastic", "moduli", "silicone", "gels"], "article_id"=>400653, "categories"=>["Physics", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Edgar Gutierrez", "Alex Groisman"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025534.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_the_elastic_moduli_of_different_silicone_gels_over_time_/400653", "title"=>"Changes in the elastic moduli of different silicone gels over time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:18:27"}

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Relative Metric

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