Salmonella Biofilm Formation on Aspergillus niger Involves Cellulose – Chitin Interactions
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{"title"=>"Salmonella biofilm formation on Aspergillus niger involves cellulose - chitin interactions", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Maria T.", "last_name"=>"Brandl", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005162781"}, {"first_name"=>"Michelle Q.", "last_name"=>"Carter", "scopus_author_id"=>"36479919000"}, {"first_name"=>"Craig T.", "last_name"=>"Parker", "scopus_author_id"=>"35431780300"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew R.", "last_name"=>"Chapman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401435910"}, {"first_name"=>"Steven", "last_name"=>"Huynh", "scopus_author_id"=>"35784415800"}, {"first_name"=>"Yaguang", "last_name"=>"Zhou", "scopus_author_id"=>"53986751000"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"22003399", "sgr"=>"80053908998", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0025553", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80053908998", "pui"=>"362721132", "isbn"=>"5325420000450", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"5b08604a-51f9-3885-b6a8-4ea8a8c93d6a", "abstract"=>"Salmonella cycles between host and nonhost environments, where it can become an active member of complex microbial communities. The role of fungi in the environmental adaptation of enteric pathogens remains relatively unexplored. We have discovered that S. enterica Typhimurium rapidly attaches to and forms biofilms on the hyphae of the common fungus, Aspergillus niger. Several Salmonella enterica serovars displayed a similar interaction, whereas other bacterial species were unable to bind to the fungus. Bacterial attachment to chitin, a major constituent of fungal cell walls, mirrored this specificity. Pre-incubation of S. Typhimurium with N-acetylglucosamine, the monomeric component of chitin, reduced binding to chitin beads by as much as 727-fold and inhibited attachment to A. niger hyphae considerably. A cellulose-deficient mutant of S. Typhimurium failed to attach to chitin beads and to the fungus. Complementation of this mutant with the cellulose operon restored binding to chitin beads to 79% of that of the parental strain and allowed for attachment and biofilm formation on A. niger, indicating that cellulose is involved in bacterial attachment to the fungus via the chitin component of its cell wall. In contrast to cellulose, S. Typhimurium curli fimbriae were not required for attachment and biofilm development on the hyphae but were critical for its stability. Our results suggest that cellulose-chitin interactions are required for the production of mixed Salmonella-A. niger biofilms, and support the hypothesis that encounters with chitinaceous alternate hosts may contribute to the ecological success of human pathogens.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/salmonella-biofilm-formation-aspergillus-niger-involves-cellulose-chitin-interactions", "reader_count"=>18, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/726397"], "description"=>"1<p>Average calculated from 10 chitin beads in each of two replicate suspensions (s.e.m.).</p>2<p>Relative qualitative assessment of cellulose production assayed by fluorescence intensity of colonies on CFA-no salt due to binding of the bacterial cells to Calcofluor White.</p>3<p>Plasmid used for complementation of cellulose deficiency as in MB683; carries SL1344 cellulose synthesis operon.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bacterial", "strains", "chitin", "typhimurium", "wild-type", "derivative", "affected", "cellulose"], "article_id"=>396736, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Craig T. Parker", "Matthew R. Chapman", "Steven Huynh", "Yaguang Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025553.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Attachment_of_various_bacterial_strains_to_chitin_beads_including_S_Typhimurium_wild_type_and_derivative_strains_affected_in_cellulose_synthesis_/396736", "title"=>"Attachment of various bacterial strains to chitin beads, including <i>S</i>. Typhimurium wild-type and derivative strains affected in cellulose synthesis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-07 01:52:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/367376", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/367409", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/367436", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/367461"], "description"=>"<div><p><em>Salmonella</em> cycles between host and nonhost environments, where it can become an active member of complex microbial communities. The role of fungi in the environmental adaptation of enteric pathogens remains relatively unexplored. We have discovered that <em>S. enterica</em> Typhimurium rapidly attaches to and forms biofilms on the hyphae of the common fungus, <em>Aspergillus niger</em>. Several <em>Salmonella enterica</em> serovars displayed a similar interaction, whereas other bacterial species were unable to bind to the fungus. Bacterial attachment to chitin, a major constituent of fungal cell walls, mirrored this specificity. Pre-incubation of <em>S.</em> Typhimurium with N-acetylglucosamine, the monomeric component of chitin, reduced binding to chitin beads by as much as 727-fold and inhibited attachment to <em>A. niger</em> hyphae considerably. A cellulose-deficient mutant of <em>S.</em> Typhimurium failed to attach to chitin beads and to the fungus. Complementation of this mutant with the cellulose operon restored binding to chitin beads to 79% of that of the parental strain and allowed for attachment and biofilm formation on <em>A. niger</em>, indicating that cellulose is involved in bacterial attachment to the fungus via the chitin component of its cell wall. In contrast to cellulose, <em>S</em>. Typhimurium curli fimbriae were not required for attachment and biofilm development on the hyphae but were critical for its stability. Our results suggest that cellulose–chitin interactions are required for the production of mixed <em>Salmonella-A. niger</em> biofilms, and support the hypothesis that encounters with chitinaceous alternate hosts may contribute to the ecological success of human pathogens.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biofilm", "involves", "cellulose", "chitin", "interactions"], "article_id"=>132586, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Microbiology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Craig T. Parker", "Matthew R. Chapman", "Steven Huynh", "Yaguang Zhou"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025553.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025553.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025553.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025553.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Salmonella_Biofilm_Formation_on_Aspergillus_niger_Involves_Cellulose_Chitin_Interactions/132586", "title"=>"<em>Salmonella</em> Biofilm Formation on <em>Aspergillus niger</em> Involves Cellulose – Chitin Interactions", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-10-07 00:43:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/726236"], "description"=>"<p>Micrographs of <i>S</i>. Typhimurium biofilms on the fungal hyphae after 1 h (A) and 24 h (B and C) of co-incubation. Top and middle panel images show the fluorescence emitted from the chitin in the fungal cell wall (white arrows) and from the bacterial cellulose present in the biofilms (yellow arrows) after staining with Calcofluor White and UV illumination. Figure C is a phase contrast version of the epifluorescence image shown in B. Scale bar, 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cellulose", "biofilms"], "article_id"=>396592, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Craig T. Parker", "Matthew R. Chapman", "Steven Huynh", "Yaguang Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025553.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Detection_of_cellulose_in_biofilms_on_A_niger_/396592", "title"=>"Detection of cellulose in biofilms on <i>A. niger</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-07 01:49:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/726429"], "description"=>"<p>Strains and plasmids used in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plasmids"], "article_id"=>396786, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Craig T. Parker", "Matthew R. Chapman", "Steven Huynh", "Yaguang Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025553.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Strains_and_plasmids_used_in_this_study_/396786", "title"=>"Strains and plasmids used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-07 01:53:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725951"], "description"=>"<p>GFP-<i>S</i>. Typhimurium cells attached rapidly to the tip of the fungal hyphae (A, black arrows), where large biofilms formed within 1 h of incubation (B). The biofilm coated the entire hyphae by 4 h (C) and began to differentiate by 7 h (D, white arrows). Distinct branching of the biofilm was visible by 24 h (E). <i>E. coli</i> K-12 (stained with SYTO9®) did not display any significant attachment to the hyphae by 24 h (F). Scale bars, 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["typhimurium"], "article_id"=>396307, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Craig T. Parker", "Matthew R. Chapman", "Steven Huynh", "Yaguang Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025553.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_course_of_interaction_of_S_Typhimurium_with_A_niger_hyphae_/396307", "title"=>"Time course of interaction of <i>S</i>. Typhimurium with <i>A. niger</i> hyphae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-07 01:45:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/726308"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Colonization of the hyphae by a S. Typhimurium mutant deficient in curli fimbriae production (Δ<i>agfBA</i>). Note that the 4 h-biofilm formed by this mutant is thick and very similar to the WT biofilm shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025553#pone-0025553-g001\" target=\"_blank\">figure 1C</a>. By 24 h, the mutant remains on the hyphae mostly at their tips (long white arrows) compared with the WT, which persists as a biofilm along the entire <i>A. niger</i> hyphal surface, as shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025553#pone-0025553-g001\" target=\"_blank\">figure 1E</a>. (B) Whole-cell Western blot analysis of curli production by <i>S</i>. Typhimurium wild-type and its AgfBA-minus mutant during biofilm production on <i>A. niger</i>. The blot was probed with anti-DnaK antibody as an internal control (top panel) and with anti-<i>E. coli</i> CsgA antibody (lower panel), which also binds to AgfA. The time (h) of sampling during co-incubation is given under the lower panel. Samples at 0 h were obtained from <i>S</i>. Typhimurium inoculum cells grown in LB broth at 28°C. Curli were not detected in the whole-cell lysates of the Δ<i>agfBA</i> mutant at 24 h. Scale bar, 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["curli", "typhimurium"], "article_id"=>396661, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Craig T. Parker", "Matthew R. Chapman", "Steven Huynh", "Yaguang Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025553.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Role_of_curli_in_the_interaction_of_S_Typhimurium_with_A_niger_/396661", "title"=>"Role of curli in the interaction of <i>S</i>. Typhimurium with <i>A. niger</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-07 01:51:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/726061"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Increasing concentrations of GlcNAc greatly inhibited the number of bacterial cells attached per chitin bead; mean number of cells per bead was 0.30 (s.e.m., 0.13) with 250 mg/ml GlcNAc. (B) Epifluorescence microscopy of bacterial cells pre-treated with 175 mg/ml GlcNAc revealed minimal binding to chitin beads (top right panel) and lack of biofilm formation on the hyphae (lower right panel), compared with the controls (left panels), as evidence by staining with SYTO 9®. Scale bars, 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pre-incubation", "typhimurium", "glcnac", "attachment", "chitin", "beads"], "article_id"=>396406, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Craig T. Parker", "Matthew R. Chapman", "Steven Huynh", "Yaguang Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025553.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inhibitory_effect_of_pre_incubation_of_S_Typhimurium_with_GlcNAc_on_its_attachment_to_chitin_beads_and_A_niger_hyphae_/396406", "title"=>"Inhibitory effect of pre-incubation of <i>S</i>. Typhimurium with GlcNAc on its attachment to chitin beads and <i>A. niger</i> hyphae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-07 01:46:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/726168"], "description"=>"<p>Strain MB664 failed to attach to the hyphae except for a few rare random cells at later time points (white arrows, B). Transformation with pMB682 restored attachment at high density and formation of a stable biofilm at later incubation times (C and D), albeit not as thick as that of the wild-type strain, as shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025553#pone-0025553-g001\" target=\"_blank\">figure 1D</a>. Scale bar, 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["micrographs", "cellulose-deficient", "typhimurium", "mb664", "complemented", "mb683", "incubation"], "article_id"=>396510, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Craig T. Parker", "Matthew R. Chapman", "Steven Huynh", "Yaguang Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025553.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparative_micrographs_of_the_interaction_of_the_cellulose_deficient_S_Typhimurium_strain_MB664_cel_A_and_B_and_its_complemented_strain_MB683_cel_C_and_D_after_2_h_left_panel_and_7_h_right_panel_of_incubation_with_A_niger_/396510", "title"=>"Comparative micrographs of the interaction of the cellulose-deficient <i>S</i>. Typhimurium strain MB664 (cel<sup>-</sup>, A and B) and its complemented strain MB683 (cel<sup>+</sup>, C and D), after 2 h (left panel) and 7 h (right panel) of incubation with <i>A. niger</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-07 01:48:30"}

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Relative Metric

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