Big Defensins, a Diverse Family of Antimicrobial Peptides That Follows Different Patterns of Expression in Hemocytes of the Oyster Crassostrea gigas
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Big defensins, a diverse family of antimicrobial peptides that follows different patterns of expression in hemocytes of the oyster crassostrea gigas", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Rafael D.", "last_name"=>"Rosa", "scopus_author_id"=>"18635012800"}, {"first_name"=>"Adrien", "last_name"=>"Santini", "scopus_author_id"=>"53664474800"}, {"first_name"=>"Julie", "last_name"=>"Fievet", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603925550"}, {"first_name"=>"Philippe", "last_name"=>"Bulet", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005773079"}, {"first_name"=>"Delphine", "last_name"=>"Destoumieux-Garzón", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603257871"}, {"first_name"=>"Evelyne", "last_name"=>"Bachère", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701762978"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"21980497", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0025594", "sgr"=>"80053261618", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80053261618", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"362648492"}, "id"=>"e2cb74fb-bfa3-37f9-a0cc-8e50d35a08b9", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Big defensin is an antimicrobial peptide composed of a highly hydrophobic N-terminal region and a cationic C-terminal region containing six cysteine residues involved in three internal disulfide bridges. While big defensin sequences have been reported in various mollusk species, few studies have been devoted to their sequence diversity, gene organization and their expression in response to microbial infections.\\n\\nFINDINGS: Using the high-throughput Digital Gene Expression approach, we have identified in Crassostrea gigas oysters several sequences coding for big defensins induced in response to a Vibrio infection. We showed that the oyster big defensin family is composed of three members (named Cg-BigDef1, Cg-BigDef2 and Cg-BigDef3) that are encoded by distinct genomic sequences. All Cg-BigDefs contain a hydrophobic N-terminal domain and a cationic C-terminal domain that resembles vertebrate β-defensins. Both domains are encoded by separate exons. We found that big defensins form a group predominantly present in mollusks and closer to vertebrate defensins than to invertebrate and fungi CSαβ-containing defensins. Moreover, we showed that Cg-BigDefs are expressed in oyster hemocytes only and follow different patterns of gene expression. While Cg-BigDef3 is non-regulated, both Cg-BigDef1 and Cg-BigDef2 transcripts are strongly induced in response to bacterial challenge. Induction was dependent on pathogen associated molecular patterns but not damage-dependent. The inducibility of Cg-BigDef1 was confirmed by HPLC and mass spectrometry, since ions with a molecular mass compatible with mature Cg-BigDef1 (10.7 kDa) were present in immune-challenged oysters only. From our biochemical data, native Cg-BigDef1 would result from the elimination of a prepropeptide sequence and the cyclization of the resulting N-terminal glutamine residue into a pyroglutamic acid.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: We provide here the first report showing that big defensins form a family of antimicrobial peptides diverse not only in terms of sequences but also in terms of genomic organization and regulation of gene expression.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/big-defensins-diverse-family-antimicrobial-peptides-follows-different-patterns-expression-hemocytes", "reader_count"=>69, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>51, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>51}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Belgium"=>1, "Brazil"=>3, "Australia"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "India"=>2}, "group_count"=>4}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/80053261618"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/80053261618?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=80053261618&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=80053261618&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/80053261618", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:80053261618", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-80053261618", "dc:title"=>"Big defensins, a diverse family of antimicrobial peptides that follows different patterns of expression in hemocytes of the oyster crassostrea gigas", "dc:creator"=>"Rosa R.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"6", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"9", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2011-09-28", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"28 September 2011", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0025594", "citedby-count"=>"67", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Université de Montpellier", "affiliation-city"=>"Montpellier", "affiliation-country"=>"France"}], "pubmed-id"=>"21980497", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e25594", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0025594", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"50", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"16", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"56", "xml_views"=>"41", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"16", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"16", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"13", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/368872"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Big defensin is an antimicrobial peptide composed of a highly hydrophobic N-terminal region and a cationic C-terminal region containing six cysteine residues involved in three internal disulfide bridges. While big defensin sequences have been reported in various mollusk species, few studies have been devoted to their sequence diversity, gene organization and their expression in response to microbial infections.</p> <h3>Findings</h3><p>Using the high-throughput Digital Gene Expression approach, we have identified in <em>Crassostrea gigas</em> oysters several sequences coding for big defensins induced in response to a <em>Vibrio</em> infection. We showed that the oyster big defensin family is composed of three members (named <em>Cg</em>-BigDef1, <em>Cg</em>-BigDef2 and <em>Cg</em>-BigDef3) that are encoded by distinct genomic sequences. All <em>Cg</em>-BigDefs contain a hydrophobic N-terminal domain and a cationic C-terminal domain that resembles vertebrate β-defensins. Both domains are encoded by separate exons. We found that big defensins form a group predominantly present in mollusks and closer to vertebrate defensins than to invertebrate and fungi CSαβ-containing defensins. Moreover, we showed that <em>Cg-BigDef</em>s are expressed in oyster hemocytes only and follow different patterns of gene expression. While <em>Cg-BigDef3</em> is non-regulated, both <em>Cg-BigDef1</em> and <em>Cg-BigDef2</em> transcripts are strongly induced in response to bacterial challenge. Induction was dependent on pathogen associated molecular patterns but not damage-dependent. The inducibility of <em>Cg</em>-BigDef1 was confirmed by HPLC and mass spectrometry, since ions with a molecular mass compatible with mature <em>Cg</em>-BigDef1 (10.7 kDa) were present in immune-challenged oysters only. From our biochemical data, native <em>Cg</em>-BigDef1 would result from the elimination of a prepropeptide sequence and the cyclization of the resulting N-terminal glutamine residue into a pyroglutamic acid.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>We provide here the first report showing that big defensins form a family of antimicrobial peptides diverse not only in terms of sequences but also in terms of genomic organization and regulation of gene expression.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["antimicrobial", "peptides", "follows", "patterns", "hemocytes", "oyster"], "article_id"=>132896, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Rafael D. Rosa", "Adrien Santini", "Julie Fievet", "Philippe Bulet", "Delphine Destoumieux-Garzón", "Evelyne Bachère"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025594", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Big_Defensins_a_Diverse_Family_of_Antimicrobial_Peptides_That_Follows_Different_Patterns_of_Expression_in_Hemocytes_of_the_Oyster_Crassostrea_gigas_/132896", "title"=>"Big Defensins, a Diverse Family of Antimicrobial Peptides That Follows Different Patterns of Expression in Hemocytes of the Oyster <em>Crassostrea gigas</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-28 00:48:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730801"], "description"=>"<p>Elution was performed with a linear gradient of 0-60% of acetonitrile in acidified water over 40 minutes at a flow rate of 0.6 ml/min (grey line). Absorbance was monitored at 214 nm. One fraction eluted with 34% acetonitrile (arrow) showed an increased absorbance over the time course. Ions compatible with the mass of a double-charged <i>Cg</i>-BigDef1 (asterisks) were identified by MALDI-TOF MS in this fraction only. They were found in challenged oysters at 12, 24 and 48 h (see <i>m/z</i> values) but not in unchallenged oysters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hplc", "gill", "extracts", "unchallenged", "immune-challenged", "oysters", "12", "24", "48", "injection", "heat-killed"], "article_id"=>401141, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Rafael D. Rosa", "Adrien Santini", "Julie Fievet", "Philippe Bulet", "Delphine Destoumieux-Garzón", "Evelyne Bachère"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025594.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reversed_phase_HPLC_of_gill_acid_extracts_from_unchallenged_black_line_and_immune_challenged_oysters_analyzed_12_h_green_line_24_h_blue_line_and_48_h_red_line_after_an_injection_of_heat_killed_bacteria_/401141", "title"=>"Reversed-phase HPLC of gill acid extracts from unchallenged (black line) and immune-challenged oysters analyzed 12 h (green line), 24 h (blue line), and 48 h (red line) after an injection of heat-killed bacteria.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-28 00:19:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730548"], "description"=>"<p><b>a</b>: Expression analysis of the three <i>Cg-BigDef</i> forms at 12 h post-stimulation with sterile sea water (white bars, SSW) and heat-killed bacteria (black bars, stimulation). Asterisks (*) indicate significant differences between conditions according to the Student's t-test (<i>p</i><0.05). <b>b</b>: Time-course expression levels of transcripts of the inducible <i>Cg-BigDef1</i> at 0, 3, 8, 24, 48, 72 and 120 h after <i>Vibrio splendidus</i> LGP32 and <i>V. tasmaniensis</i> LMG 20012<sup>T</sup> challenge or SSW injection. Data analysis was performed with the Pfaffl method. Significant differences (Student's t-test, <i>p</i><0.05) are indicated by different lowercase letters (a, b, and c). The absence of significant difference is indicated by the use of identical lowercase letters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transcripts", "oyster", "hemocytes", "Real-time", "quantitative"], "article_id"=>400899, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Rafael D. Rosa", "Adrien Santini", "Julie Fievet", "Philippe Bulet", "Delphine Destoumieux-Garzón", "Evelyne Bachère"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025594.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_expression_of_Cg_BigDef_transcripts_in_oyster_hemocytes_by_real_time_quantitative_PCR_/400899", "title"=>"Relative expression of <i>Cg-BigDef</i> transcripts in oyster hemocytes by real-time quantitative PCR.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-28 00:14:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730661"], "description"=>"<p>Histological sections of <i>C. gigas</i> were analyzed by ISH using <i>Cg-BigDef</i> -DIG-UTP antisense (<b>a-e</b>) and sense (<b>f</b>) riboprobes. In unchallenged oysters, <i>Cg-BigDef1</i> (<b>a</b>) and <i>Cg-BigDef3</i> (<b>b</b>) labeling appeared in hemocytes (arrows) located in blood vessels and infiltrating oyster tissues. In <i>Vibrio</i>-challenged oysters, strong hybridization signals were detected with <i>Cg-BigDef1</i> antisense riboprobe in hemocytes located in blood vessel (<b>c</b>) and invading massively connective tissues of the oyster organs such as the digestive gland (<b>d</b>) and the gills (<b>e</b>). Control sections with the sense <i>Cg-BigDef1</i> riboprobe were devoid of labeling (<b>f</b>). (Scale bars: 100 µm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mrna", "unchallenged", "oyster", "tissues", "hybridization"], "article_id"=>401012, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Rafael D. Rosa", "Adrien Santini", "Julie Fievet", "Philippe Bulet", "Delphine Destoumieux-Garzón", "Evelyne Bachère"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025594.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Localization_of_Cg_BigDef_mRNA_expression_in_unchallenged_and_Vibrio_infected_oyster_tissues_by_in_situ_hybridization_ISH_/401012", "title"=>"Localization of <i>Cg-BigDef</i> mRNA expression in unchallenged and <i>Vibrio</i>-infected oyster tissues by <i>in situ</i> hybridization (ISH).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-28 00:16:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730905"], "description"=>"<p>Nucleotide sequence of primers used in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["primers"], "article_id"=>401259, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Rafael D. Rosa", "Adrien Santini", "Julie Fievet", "Philippe Bulet", "Delphine Destoumieux-Garzón", "Evelyne Bachère"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025594.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nucleotide_sequence_of_primers_used_in_this_study_/401259", "title"=>"Nucleotide sequence of primers used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-09-28 00:20:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730331"], "description"=>"<p><b>a</b>: Amino acid sequence alignment of big defensins from <i>Crassostrea gigas</i> and <i>Tachypleus tridentatus</i> (BDEF_TACTR, GenBank: P80957). The predicted signal peptides are in bold and underlined. The putative propeptides and the conserved cysteine residues are shadowed with grey and black backgrounds, respectively. I: hydrophobic N-terminal domain; II: C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (β-defensin-like). The putative furin-like cleavage motif (RXKR) is indicated by a dotted rectangle. Asterisks (*) indicate identical amino acid residues. <b>b</b>: A not-to-scale representation of oyster big defensin genomic sequences (<i>Cg-bigdef1</i>, <i>Cg-bigdef2</i> and <i>Cg-bigdef3</i>). Black lines represent the untranslated regions of the exons. White boxes indicate the signal and the propeptide sequence, and the N-terminal domain of the mature peptide. Black boxes indicate the C-terminal domain of the mature peptides, and the grey box indicates a part of the 5′ untranslated region (37-bp) of the first exon found in <i>Cg-bigdef3</i>. Numbers indicate the length of exons and introns (in base pairs).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["defensin", "members", "multi-domain", "polypeptides", "encoded", "genomic"], "article_id"=>400677, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Rafael D. Rosa", "Adrien Santini", "Julie Fievet", "Philippe Bulet", "Delphine Destoumieux-Garzón", "Evelyne Bachère"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025594.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Oyster_big_defensin_members_are_multi_domain_defense_polypeptides_encoded_by_distinct_genomic_sequences_/400677", "title"=>"Oyster big defensin members are multi-domain defense polypeptides encoded by distinct genomic sequences.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-28 00:11:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730868"], "description"=>"<p>NInf: non-infected DGE library; SVir: surviving virulent <i>Vibrio</i> DGE library; SaVir: surviving avirulent <i>Vibrio</i> DGE library.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sequences", "defensins", "oyster", "dge"], "article_id"=>401220, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Rafael D. Rosa", "Adrien Santini", "Julie Fievet", "Philippe Bulet", "Delphine Destoumieux-Garzón", "Evelyne Bachère"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025594.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Assigned_tag_sequences_specific_to_big_defensins_in_oyster_DGE_libraries_/401220", "title"=>"Assigned tag sequences specific to big defensins in oyster DGE libraries.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-09-28 00:20:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730452"], "description"=>"<p><b>a</b>: Multiple alignments of mature polypeptides of big defensins from bivalve mollusks, horseshoe crab and amphioxus. Identical amino acid residues are shaded with black backgrounds. <b>b</b>: Phylogenetic tree of different defensin groups, including big defensins, CSαβ-containing defensins, α-defensins, β-defensins and β-defensin-like peptides from fish. The tree was constructed using the Neighbour-Joining method in MEGA 4. Bootstrap sampling was reiterated 1,000 times. Sequences included in analyses of defensins were the following, where asterisks (*) indicate mollusk big defensin members newly identified in this study from GenBank: (i) <u>big defensins</u>: oysters <i>Crassostrea gigas</i> (<i>Cg</i>-BigDef1*: AEE92768, <i>Cg</i>-BigDef2*: AEE92775, <i>Cg</i>-BigDef3*: AEE92778) and <i>C. virginica</i> (BDEF_CRAVI*: CV133156), horseshoe crabs <i>Tachypleus tridentatus</i> (BDEF_TACTR: P80957) and <i>Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda</i> (BDEF_CARRO: CK086629), amphioxus <i>Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense</i> (BDEF_BRABE: AAO18674) and <i>B. floridae</i> (BDEF_BRAFL: ADH03419), scallops <i>Argopecten irradians</i> (AiBD: ABC61319) and <i>Mizuhopecten yessoensis</i> (MyBD: GH736001), clams <i>Venerupis</i> (<i>Ruditapes</i>) <i>philippinarum</i> (VpBD: ADM25826, VpBD-EST*: AM873974) and <i>Mercenaria mercenaria</i> (BDEF_MERME: GO915266), mussels <i>Mytilus galloprovincialis</i> (BDEF_MYTGA*: FL490131), <i>M. californianus</i> (BDEF1_MYTCA*: GE761911, BDEF2_MYTCA*: GE759807) and <i>Bathymodiolus azoricus</i> (BDEF_BATAZ: HM756150), abalone <i>Haliotis diversicolor</i> (BDEF_HALDV*: GT870909); (ii) <u>CSαβ-containing defensins</u>: oysters <i>C. gigas</i> (<i>Cg</i>-Defm: CAJ19280, <i>Cg</i>-Defh1: ABD66301, <i>Cg</i>-Defh2: ABD66302) and <i>C. virginica</i> (AOD: P85008), mussels <i>M. edulis</i> (DEFA_MYTED: P81610, DEFB_MYTED: P81611) and <i>M. galloprovincialis</i> (MGD-1: P80571, MGD-2: AAD52660), abalones <i>Haliotis discus discus</i> (DEF_HALDS: ACZ15982) and <i>H. discus hannai</i> (DEF_HALHA: ABF69125), scorpion <i>Androctonus australis</i> (DEF4_ANDAU: P56686), tick <i>Dermacentor variabilis</i> (VSNA1: AAO24323), fruit fly <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i> (DEFI_DROME: P36192), mosquitos <i>Anopheles gambiae</i> (DEFI_ANOGA: Q17027) and <i>Aedes aegypi</i> (DEFC_AEDAE: P81603), saprophytic fungus <i>Pseudoplectania nigrella</i> (PLECT_PSENR: Q53I06); (iii) <u>α-defensins</u>: rhesus monkey <i>Macaca mulatta</i> (DEF1_MACMU: P60030), house mouse <i>Mus musculus</i> (CRYP-1: NP_034161), Norway rat <i>Rattus norvegicus</i> (DEF2_RAT: Q62715), rabbit <i>Oryctolagus cuniculus</i> (DEF3_RABIT: P01376), domestic guinea pig <i>Cavia porcellus</i> (DEF1A_CAVPO: P11478), <i>Homo sapiens</i> (HNP-1: NP_004075, HNP-3: AAA35753, HNP-4: NP_001916); (iv) <u>β-defensins</u>: spiny lobster <i>Panulirus japonicus</i> (PJD1: ACM62357, PJD2: ACM62358), chicken <i>Gallus gallus</i> (GAL4: NP_001001610), wild turkey <i>Meleagris gallopavo</i> (GPV-1: AAG09213), <i>R. norvegicus</i> (RBD-4: NP_071989), water buffalo <i>Bubalus bubalis</i> (DEFB_BUBBU: ABI36600); cattle <i>Bos taurus</i> (DEFB_BOSTA: CAC15400), goat <i>Capra hircus</i> (DEFB_CAPHI: ABF71365), <i>H. sapiens</i> (HBD-2: NP_004933, HBD-3: NP_061131); (v) <u>fish defensins</u>: rainbow trout <i>Oncorhynchus mykiss</i> (DEF_ONCMY: ABR68250), zebrafish <i>Danio rerio</i> (DEF_DANRE: AM181358), fugu pufferfish <i>Takifugu rubripes</i> (DEF_TATRU: CAJ57646), spotted green pufferfish <i>Tetraodon nigroviridis</i> (DEF_TATNI: CAJ57644), Japanese flounder <i>Paralichthys olivaceus</i> (DEF_PAROL: ADA84138).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["defensins", "predominantly", "mollusk", "vertebrate"], "article_id"=>400799, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Rafael D. Rosa", "Adrien Santini", "Julie Fievet", "Philippe Bulet", "Delphine Destoumieux-Garzón", "Evelyne Bachère"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025594.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Big_defensins_form_a_group_predominantly_present_in_mollusk_species_and_closer_to_vertebrate_defensins_/400799", "title"=>"Big defensins form a group predominantly present in mollusk species and closer to vertebrate defensins.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-28 00:13:19"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"month"=>"10", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"38", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"31", "unique-ip"=>"39", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"22", "unique-ip"=>"21", "pdf"=>"16", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"7", "unique-ip"=>"15", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"25", "unique-ip"=>"23", "pdf"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"20", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"14", "unique-ip"=>"16", "figure"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"27", "unique-ip"=>"26", "pdf"=>"20", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"17", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"4", "unique-ip"=>"21", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"18", "unique-ip"=>"15", "pdf"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"5", "unique-ip"=>"11", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"27", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2011-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2011-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[290, 559, 698, 813, 927, 1028, 1121, 1206, 1289, 1360, 1433, 1501, 1569, 1637, 1707, 1774, 1841, 1911, 1974, 2038, 2103, 2161, 2219, 2280, 2345, 2406, 2466, 2529, 2592, 2654, 2713, 2772, 2835, 2893, 2954, 3020, 3071]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[289, 559, 699, 817, 931, 1031, 1127, 1214, 1297, 1370, 1444, 1515, 1584, 1656, 1726, 1797, 1862, 1930, 1996, 2061, 2125, 2190, 2250, 2311, 2373, 2435, 2496, 2563, 2630, 2692, 2760, 2824, 2898, 2960, 3019, 3089, 3143]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Immunology", "average_usage"=>[303, 577, 713, 831, 950, 1048, 1144, 1230, 1307, 1381, 1454, 1521, 1590, 1655, 1713, 1778, 1848, 1913, 1972, 2033, 2098, 2154, 2215, 2263, 2322, 2388, 2436, 2500, 2571, 2623, 2689, 2754, 2806, 2864, 2930, 2984, 3038]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[316, 571, 699, 812, 915, 1008, 1095, 1180, 1255, 1319, 1393, 1461, 1528, 1595, 1662, 1729, 1802, 1868, 1937, 1997, 2062, 2130, 2192, 2254, 2324, 2386, 2450, 2510, 2579, 2642, 2716, 2778, 2842, 2908, 2979, 3042, 3095]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[303, 571, 709, 823, 937, 1038, 1133, 1216, 1298, 1370, 1447, 1518, 1588, 1656, 1725, 1790, 1856, 1926, 1992, 2054, 2118, 2182, 2242, 2301, 2363, 2425, 2484, 2544, 2602, 2662, 2716, 2776, 2841, 2901, 2960, 3016, 3071]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Immunology", "average_usage"=>[299, 582, 725, 844, 971, 1076, 1167, 1253, 1328, 1403, 1480, 1551, 1620, 1691, 1756, 1821, 1893, 1962, 2032, 2110, 2178, 2236, 2300, 2358, 2419, 2465, 2529, 2587, 2643, 2700, 2756, 2817, 2869, 2932, 2986, 3046, 3101]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pharmacology", "average_usage"=>[337, 604, 750, 875, 1001, 1107, 1205, 1299, 1391, 1468, 1552, 1629, 1709, 1785, 1862, 1935, 2013, 2081, 2140, 2212, 2281, 2352, 2422, 2489, 2564, 2629, 2698, 2752, 2833, 2880, 2925, 2983, 3042, 3111, 3183, 3250, 3311]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts