Nociceptive Afferents to the Premotor Neurons That Send Axons Simultaneously to the Facial and Hypoglossal Motoneurons by Means of Axon Collaterals
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{"title"=>"Nociceptive afferents to the premotor neurons that send axons simultaneously to the facial and hypoglossal motoneurons by means of axon collaterals", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Yulin", "last_name"=>"Dong", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403390945"}, {"first_name"=>"Jinlian", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"7410056578"}, {"first_name"=>"Fuxing", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55534928800"}, {"first_name"=>"Yunqing", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"36064982300"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"80053321022", "pui"=>"362661094", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80053321022", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"21980505", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0025615"}, "id"=>"e4816fff-a74c-3151-9757-d29accfaf58e", "abstract"=>"It is well known that the brainstem premotor neurons of the facial nucleus and hypoglossal nucleus coordinate orofacial nociceptive reflex (ONR) responses. However, whether the brainstem PNs receive the nociceptive projection directly from the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus is still kept unclear. Our present study focuses on the distribution of premotor neurons in the ONR pathways of rats and the collateral projection of the premotor neurons which are involved in the brainstem local pathways of the orofacial nociceptive reflexes of rat. Retrograde tracer Fluoro-gold (FG) or FG/tetramethylrhodamine-dextran amine (TMR-DA) were injected into the VII or/and XII, and anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vc). The tracing studies indicated that FG-labeled neurons receiving BDA-labeled fibers from the Vc were mainly distributed bilaterally in the parvicellular reticular formation (PCRt), dorsal and ventral medullary reticular formation (MdD, MdV), supratrigeminal nucleus (Vsup) and parabrachial nucleus (PBN) with an ipsilateral dominance. Some FG/TMR-DA double-labeled premotor neurons, which were observed bilaterally in the PCRt, MdD, dorsal part of the MdV, peri-motor nucleus regions, contacted with BDA-labeled axonal terminals and expressed c-fos protein-like immunoreactivity which induced by subcutaneous injection of formalin into the lip. After retrograde tracer wheat germ agglutinated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) was injected into VII or XII and BDA into Vc, electron microscopic study revealed that some BDA-labeled axonal terminals made mainly asymmetric synapses on the dendritic and somatic profiles of WGA-HRP-labeled premotor neurons. These data indicate that some premotor neurons could integrate the orofacial nociceptive input from the Vc and transfer these signals simultaneously to different brainstem motonuclei by axonal collaterals.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/nociceptive-afferents-premotor-neurons-send-axons-simultaneously-facial-hypoglossal-motoneurons-mean", "reader_count"=>11, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Spain"=>2}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730100"], "description"=>"<p>Projection drawing of transverse section through the brainstem of R23, showing the distribution pattern of the retrograde double-labeled neuronal cell bodies with FG injection into the VII and TMR-DA into the ipsilateral XII. The injection sites are blackened. Neuronal cell bodies single-labeled with FG, TMR-DA, or those dually labeled with FG/TMR-DA are represented by filled circles, open circles or filled triangles. The filled circles and open circles are plotted in one-to-three fashion, whereas the filled triangles are one-to-one fashion. Scale Bar = 1 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["retrograde", "double-labeled"], "article_id"=>400455, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Yulin Dong", "Jinlian Li", "Fuxing Zhang", "Yunqing Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025615.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_distribution_pattern_of_the_retrograde_FG_TMR_DA_double_labeled_neuron_/400455", "title"=>"The distribution pattern of the retrograde FG/TMR-DA double-labeled neuron.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:17:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731114"], "description"=>"<p>In each rat, the numbers of FG-, TMR-single-labeled and FG/TMR-double-labeled neurons were counted in the pontomedullary reticular formation (RF), parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and the regions around the Vmo on both sides. And then, the ratio of FG/TMR-double-labeled neurons to total retrograde-labeled neurons (FG+TMR+FG/TMR) was calculated in each region. Cell counts were obtained from every fifth section of a series of serial sections of 30 µm thickness.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neurons", "regions", "brainstem", "injections", "fg", "tmr-da", "facial", "hypoglossal", "rats"], "article_id"=>401453, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Yulin Dong", "Jinlian Li", "Fuxing Zhang", "Yunqing Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025615.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Double_labeled_neurons_in_some_regions_of_the_brainstem_after_injections_of_FG_and_TMR_DA_into_the_facial_and_hypoglossal_nucleus_respectively_of_the_rats_in_the_group_3_/401453", "title"=>"Double-labeled neurons in some regions of the brainstem after injections of FG and TMR-DA into the facial and hypoglossal nucleus, respectively, of the rats in the group 3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:22:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730897"], "description"=>"<p>WGA-HRP was injected into the XII of the rat and BDA into its ipsilateral Vc. BDA-labeled S-type terminals (T) containing spherical vesicles make asymmetric synapses with dendrites (D) of HRP-labeled premotor neurons (a). Two BDA-labeled terminals (T1, T2) make asymmetric synapses simultaneously with dendrite of HRP-labeled premotor neuron (b). A BDA-labeled terminal makes asymmetric synapses simultaneously with one HRP-labeled spine (S2), one negative dendrite (D) and one negative spine (S1) (c). One negative terminal makes asymmetric synapse with HRP-labeled dendrite (d). The arrowheads indicate postsynaptic specializations. a and b are taken from the dorsal medullary reticular formation, c and d from the parvicellular reticular formation. Scale bars = 0.5 µm in a; 0.35 µm in b and c and 0.45 µm in d.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["micrograph", "bda-labeled", "terminals", "wga-hrp-labeled", "soma", "dendrites", "brainstem"], "article_id"=>401246, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Yulin Dong", "Jinlian Li", "Fuxing Zhang", "Yunqing Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025615.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Electron_micrograph_showing_BDA_labeled_terminals_and_WGA_HRP_labeled_soma_and_dendrites_in_the_brainstem_of_a_rat_/401246", "title"=>"Electron micrograph showing BDA-labeled terminals and WGA-HRP-labeled soma and dendrites in the brainstem of a rat.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:21:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730223"], "description"=>"<p>a–b′, Fluorescent photomicrographs showing FG (a and b) and TMR-DA (a′ and b′) retrograde-labeled neurons in the brainstem reticular formation after FG injection into the VII and TMR-DA ipsilaterally into the XII. Double-arrowheads indicate FG/TMR-DA double-labeled neurons, arrowheads and arrows indicate FG or TMR-DA single-labeled neurons, respectively. a and b were taken from the parvicellular reticular formation and the dorsal medullary reticular formation, respectively. The fields of a–b corresponds with that of a′–b′. Scale bar = 35 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["double-labeled"], "article_id"=>400583, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Yulin Dong", "Jinlian Li", "Fuxing Zhang", "Yunqing Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025615.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_FG_TMR_DA_double_labeled_neurons_/400583", "title"=>"FG/TMR-DA double-labeled neurons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:18:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731068"], "description"=>"<p>In each rat, the total number of Fos positive neurons were counted in the MdV and PCRt. Of these Fos-labeled neurons, the numbers of FG retrogradely labeled ones (FG+Fos) were also counted. The ratio of FG+Fos to total Fos (%) was calculated in each region. Cell counts were obtained from every fifth section of a series of serial sections of 30 µm thickness.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fos", "neurons", "labeled", "retrogradely", "fg", "injected", "vii", "xii"], "article_id"=>401416, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Yulin Dong", "Jinlian Li", "Fuxing Zhang", "Yunqing Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025615.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Counts_of_Fos_positive_neurons_which_were_labeled_retrogradely_with_FG_injected_into_the_VII_Group_1_or_XII_Group_2_/401416", "title"=>"Counts of Fos positive neurons which were labeled retrogradely with FG injected into the VII (Group 1) or XII (Group 2).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:22:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731146"], "description"=>"<p>Experimental Cases.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "neuroscience", "Biochemistry"], "article_id"=>401501, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Yulin Dong", "Jinlian Li", "Fuxing Zhang", "Yunqing Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025615.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_Cases_/401501", "title"=>"Experimental Cases.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:22:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730388"], "description"=>"<p>Digital images showing the close appositions (arrows) between axonal terminals of the Vc neurons and FG retrograde-labeled dendrites (a, d) or neuronal cell bodies (a, b and c) of the premotor neurons in the brainstem reticular formation after BDA injection into the Vc and FG into the VII (a, b) or XII (c, d). a and c were taken from the parvicellular reticular formation, b from the supratrigeminal nucleus, d from the dorsal medullary reticular formation. Scale bars = 20 µm in a, b and d, 18 µm in c.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["appositions", "axonal", "terminals", "vc", "premotor", "neurons", "vii"], "article_id"=>400739, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Yulin Dong", "Jinlian Li", "Fuxing Zhang", "Yunqing Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025615.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_close_appositions_between_axonal_terminals_of_the_Vc_and_the_premotor_neurons_of_the_VII_or_XII_/400739", "title"=>"The close appositions between axonal terminals of the Vc and the premotor neurons of the VII or XII.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:18:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730001"], "description"=>"<p>Fluorescent photomicrographs of a section through the brainstem, showing the sites of FG centered on the facial nucleus (VII) (a), hypoglossal nucleus (XII) (b) and BDA on the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vc)(c). Scale bars = 250 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "neuroscience", "Biochemistry"], "article_id"=>400354, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Yulin Dong", "Jinlian Li", "Fuxing Zhang", "Yunqing Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025615.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Injection_site_/400354", "title"=>"Injection site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:16:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730746"], "description"=>"<p>WGA-HRP was injected into the VII of the rat and BDA into its ipsilateral Vc. Note: BDA-labeled terminals were identified by fine granular and homogeneously distributed electron dense reaction product with the dense distribution on the membrane of the synaptic vesicles or outer membrane of the mitochondria,and most synaptic vesicles are clear spherical in their terminal. HRP-labeled postsynaptic components exhibited highly electron dense, clumps of crystalline or amorphous material (arrows) in the cytoplasm and dendritic profiles. BDA-labeled S-type terminals (T) containing sphere vesicles make asymmetric synapses with dendrites (D) of HRP-labeled premotor neurons (a). BDA-labeled terminal forms asymmetric synapses with two HRP-labeled dendrites(D1, D2)and one negative spine (S) (b). BDA-labeled terminal makes asymmetric synapse with neuronal cell body of HRP-labeled premotor neurons (Soma) (c). One BDA-labeled terminal (T1) and one BDA-negative terminal (T2) synapse simultaneously with dendrite of HRP-labeled premotor neurons, and empty-arrowhead indicates the dense-core vesicle in the negative terminal (d). The arrowheads indicate postsynaptic specializations; N means nucleus of the cell body. a–d are taken from gigantocellular reticular formation, the dorsal medullary reticular formation, parvicellular reticular formation and supratrigeminal nucleus, respectively. Scale bars = 0.3 µm in a; 0.45 in b and d and 0.5 µm in c.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["micrograph", "bda-labeled", "terminals", "wga-hrp-labeled", "soma", "dendrites", "brainstem"], "article_id"=>401096, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Yulin Dong", "Jinlian Li", "Fuxing Zhang", "Yunqing Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025615.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Electron_micrograph_showing_BDA_labeled_terminals_and_WGA_HRP_labeled_soma_and_dendrites_in_the_brainstem_of_a_rat_/401096", "title"=>"Electron micrograph showing BDA-labeled terminals and WGA-HRP-labeled soma and dendrites in the brainstem of a rat.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:20:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/730527"], "description"=>"<p>a, b and c, digital images showing the close appositions (arrows) between axonal terminals of the Vc neurons and FG/TMR retrograde-double-labeled neuronal cell bodies (a, b) or dendrite (c) after FG injection into the VII, TMR-DA into the XII and BDA into ipsilateral Vc. Immunoreactivities for FG, Fos and BDA are visualized with FITC (green), Cy5 (blue), and Rh (red), respectively. d, BDA-labeled axonal fibers and terminals making close apposition to dendrite or neuronal cell bodies of FG-labeled premotor neurons expressing Fos-like immunoreactivities. e, FG/TMR/Fos triple-labeled neurons after FG injection into the VII, TMR-DA into the XII combined with the formalin ipsilaterally subcutaneous stimulation. a, b, d and e are taken from the ventral medullary reticular formation, and c is from the parvicellular reticular formation. Scale bars = 10 µm in a, c and d; 15 µm in b and 5 µm in e.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nociceptive", "projections", "vc", "making", "appositions", "premotor", "neurons", "axons", "vii", "xii", "means", "axon"], "article_id"=>400872, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Yulin Dong", "Jinlian Li", "Fuxing Zhang", "Yunqing Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025615.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_nociceptive_projections_from_the_Vc_making_close_appositions_to_the_premotor_neurons_which_send_axons_simultaneously_to_the_VII_and_XII_by_means_of_axon_collaterals_/400872", "title"=>"The nociceptive projections from the Vc making close appositions to the premotor neurons which send axons simultaneously to the VII and XII by means of axon collaterals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:19:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731006"], "description"=>"<p>The orofacial nociceptive afferents converge onto the neurons of the Vc. The Vc projecting (glutamatergic excitatory axons) act on the motoneurons of the VII or XII via inhibitory premotor neurons (N1, N2 and N3) in the brainstem, and then the tonic orofacial nociceptive reflexes are decreased. Real lines represent excitatory, and the dotted lines are inhibitory. ? represents other inhibitory neurotransmitters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuronal", "networks"], "article_id"=>401363, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biochemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Yulin Dong", "Jinlian Li", "Fuxing Zhang", "Yunqing Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025615.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_representation_of_one_possibly_neuronal_networks_model_of_ONR_/401363", "title"=>"Schematic representation of one possibly neuronal networks model of ONR.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 14:22:11"}

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