Evidence That the Cortical Motor Command for the Initiation of Dynamic Plantarflexion Consists of Excitation followed by Inhibition
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{"title"=>"Evidence that the cortical motor command for the initiation of dynamic plantarflexion consists of excitation followed by inhibition", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Wolfgang", "last_name"=>"Taube", "scopus_author_id"=>"8241995200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jesper", "last_name"=>"Lundbye-Jensen", "scopus_author_id"=>"14008322700"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Schubert", "scopus_author_id"=>"35248900200"}, {"first_name"=>"Albert", "last_name"=>"Gollhofer", "scopus_author_id"=>"55851165900"}, {"first_name"=>"Christian", "last_name"=>"Leukel", "scopus_author_id"=>"23980441900"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80053895730", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0025657", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"362721129", "sgr"=>"80053895730", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22003402"}, "id"=>"d833c8bb-4e73-3317-a4b1-8f94778ccab0", "abstract"=>"At the onset of dynamic movements excitation of the motor cortex (M1) is spatially restricted to areas representing the involved muscles whereas adjacent areas are inhibited. The current study elucidates whether the cortical motor command for dynamic contractions is also restricted to a certain population of cortical neurons responsible for the fast corticospinal projections. Therefore, corticospinal transmission was assessed with high temporal resolution during dynamic contractions after both, magnetic stimulation over M1 and the brainstem. The high temporal resolution could be obtained by conditioning the soleus H-reflex with different interstimulus intervals by cervicomedullary stimulation (CMS-conditioning) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of M1 (M1-conditioning). This technique provides a precise time course of facilitation and inhibition. CMS- and M1-conditioning produced an 'early facilitation' of the H-reflex, which occurred around 3 ms earlier with CMS-conditioning. The early facilitation is believed to be caused by activation of direct monosynaptic projections to the spinal motoneurons. CMS-conditioning resulted in a subsequent 'late facilitation', which is considered to reflect activity of slow-conducting and/or indirect corticospinal pathways. In contrast, M1-conditioning produced a 'late dis-facilitation' or even 'late inhibition'. As the late dis-facilitation was only seen following M1- but not CMS-conditioning, it is argued that cortical activation during dynamic tasks is restricted to fast, direct corticospinal projections whereas corticomotoneurons responsible for slow and/or indirectly projecting corticospinal pathways are inhibited. The functional significance of restricting the descending cortical drive to fast corticospinal pathways may be to ensure a temporally focused motor command during the execution of dynamic movements.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/evidence-cortical-motor-command-initiation-dynamic-plantarflexion-consists-excitation-followed-inhib", "reader_count"=>38, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>3, "Unspecified"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>6, "Sports and Recreations"=>14}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>8}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>6}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>14}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>3}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/726354"], "description"=>"<p>EMG traces of the soleus muscle of one single subject during conditioning of the H-reflex with cortical stimulation (M1; <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025657#pone-0025657-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure <b>1A</b></a>) and brainstem stimulation (CMS; <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025657#pone-0025657-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure <b>1B</b></a>) at the onset of dynamic plantarflexion. Each trace represents the mean out of 10 recorded conditioning trials. 1<b>A</b>, displayed are conditioned H-reflexes for all measured interstimulus intervals (ISIs) as well as the control (unconditioned) H-reflex (CON HR). Minus values indicate that the peripheral nerve stimulation preceded the TMS. The stimulus artefact for the electrical stimulation is marked as “S”. For every individual subject, the conditioned H-reflexes at each ISI were compared with the control H-reflexes. A significantly facilitated ISI was indicated by an * whereas a significant reduction was highlighted as #. 1<b>B</b>, conditioning effects after cervicomedullary stimulation (M1-conditioning) are illustrated for all measured ISIs in the same way as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025657#pone-0025657-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1A</a> (S = stimulus artefact; CON HR = control H-reflex). <b>1C</b>, to better illustrate the time course of conditioning effects, average ISI curves after M1- (○) and CMS-conditioning (⧫) are plotted in an additional graph. Each dot represents the mean out of 10 recorded conditioning trials. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025657#pone-0025657-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. <b>1A</b>, <b>B</b>, and <b>C</b></a> display data from one and the same subject.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["conditioning"], "article_id"=>396707, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Wolfgang Taube", "Jesper Lundbye-Jensen", "Martin Schubert", "Albert Gollhofer", "Christian Leukel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025657.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_H_reflex_conditioning_in_one_representative_subject_/396707", "title"=>"H-reflex conditioning in one representative subject.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 13:57:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/726422"], "description"=>"<p>Time courses of the soleus H-reflex conditioned with magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (○; M1-conditioning) or stimulation of the corticospinal tract (⧫; CMS-conditioning) during dynamic (<b>A</b>) and sustained isometric plantarflexion (<b>B</b>) are displayed. Dynamic plantarflexion produced an early facilitation followed by a late dis-facilitation or even inhibition (inhibition significant in 3 subjects) after M1-conditioning (data of all 8 tested subjects are displayed). In contrast, CMS-conditioning showed a late facilitation (<b>A</b>). The ISI curves after sustained isometric contraction resembled the ones obtained at rest: the early facilitation was followed by a late facilitation after both M1- and CMS-conditioning (<b>B</b>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["h-reflex"], "article_id"=>396785, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Wolfgang Taube", "Jesper Lundbye-Jensen", "Martin Schubert", "Albert Gollhofer", "Christian Leukel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025657.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_data_of_the_H_reflex_conditioning_/396785", "title"=>"Mean data of the H-reflex conditioning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 13:57:55"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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Relative Metric

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