Fossil Plotopterid Seabirds from the Eo-Oligocene of the Olympic Peninsula (Washington State, USA): Descriptions and Functional Morphology
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{"title"=>"Fossil plotopterid seabirds from the eo-oligocene of the Olympic Peninsula (Washington state, USA): Descriptions and functional morphology", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Gareth J.", "last_name"=>"Dyke", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004335670"}, {"first_name"=>"Xia", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"36970376400"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael B.", "last_name"=>"Habib", "scopus_author_id"=>"24398857600"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80055103604", "sgr"=>"80055103604", "pui"=>"362837237", "pmid"=>"22065992", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0025672"}, "id"=>"10460fc0-4ff3-348a-afdc-19df582beba1", "abstract"=>"The plotopterids (Aves, Plotopteridae) were a group of extinct wing-propelled marine birds that are known from Paleogene-aged sediments (Eocene to Miocene), mostly around the Pacific Rim (especially Japan and the northwest coast of North America). While these birds exhibit a strikingly similar wing morphology to penguins (Spheniscidae), they also share derived characters with pelecaniform birds that are absent in penguins and exhibit apparently superficial similarities with auks (Alcidae: Charadriiformes). Despite quite an abundant fossil record, these birds have been little studied, and in particular their functional morphology remains little understood. Here we present osteological overviews of specimens from the northwest coast of Washington state (USA). We give an amended diagnosis for the well-represented North American genus, Tonsala Olson, 1980, describe a new large species, and examine the functional morphology of plotopterids showing that the ratio of humeral strength to femoral strength is quite low in one well-represented species Tonsala buchanani sp.nov., relative to both extant penguins and alcids. While the femoral strength of Tonsala buchanani is 'penguin-grade', its humeral strength is more 'alcid-grade'. These results have implications for understanding the mode-of-locomotion of these extinct marine birds. Although not related to Spheniscidae, our descriptions and functional results suggest that Tonsala buchanani sustained similar loads in walking, but slightly lower humeral loads during swimming, than a modern penguin. This suggests a swimming mode that is more similar to living alcids, than to the highly-specialised locomotor strategy of living and fossil penguins.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/fossil-plotopterid-seabirds-eooligocene-olympic-peninsula-washington-state-usa-descriptions-function", "reader_count"=>23, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>11, "Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>11}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "Chile"=>2}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/718133"], "description"=>"<p>A, Pterygoid in ventral view, UWBM 86869. B, left mandible in ventral view, UWBM 86869. C–E, thoracic vertebrae with ribs and pars hepatica of sternum side view, UWBM 86875. F, left coracoid in dorsal view, UWBM 86869. G–H, left coracoid in dorsal (G) and ventral views (H), UWBM 86871. I–J, left humerus in cranial (I) and caudal (J) views, UWBM 86871. K–L, distal left humerus in cranial (K) and caudal view (L), UWBM 86869. M, radius in proximal view, UWBM 86871. N–O, right carpometacarpus in ventral (N) and dorsal (O) view, UWBM 86869. P–Q, right femur in cranial (P) and caudal (Q) view, UWBM 86871. R–S, right (R) and left (S) femur in cranial view, UWBM 86875. T, tibiotarsus in proximal view, UWBM 86871. U–V, left tarsometatarsus in ventral (U) and dorsal (V) view, UWBM 86870. Scale bar is 2 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["referred"], "article_id"=>388499, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Gareth J. Dyke", "Xia Wang", "Michael B. Habib"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025672.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fossil_material_referred_to_Tonsala_buchanani_/388499", "title"=>"Fossil material referred to <i>Tonsala buchanani</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-31 02:21:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/717895"], "description"=>"<p>A–D, dentary in dorsal (A) and ventral (B) views, UWBM 86874. C–D, cervical vertebrate in dorsal (C) and ventral (D) view, UWBM 86874. E–F, pelvis in dorsal (E) and ventral (F) view, UWBM 86873. G–H, right femur in cranial (G) and caudal (H) view, UWBM 86873. I, right tibiotarsus in caudal view, UWBM 86873. Scale bar is 2 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["referred"], "article_id"=>388261, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Gareth J. Dyke", "Xia Wang", "Michael B. Habib"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025672.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fossil_material_referred_to_Tonsala_hildegardae_/388261", "title"=>"Fossil material referred to <i>Tonsala hildegardae</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-31 02:17:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/363555"], "description"=>"<div><p>The plotopterids (Aves, Plotopteridae) were a group of extinct wing-propelled marine birds that are known from Paleogene-aged sediments (Eocene to Miocene), mostly around the Pacific Rim (especially Japan and the northwest coast of North America). While these birds exhibit a strikingly similar wing morphology to penguins (Spheniscidae), they also share derived characters with pelecaniform birds that are absent in penguins and exhibit apparently superficial similarities with auks (Alcidae: Charadriiformes). Despite quite an abundant fossil record, these birds have been little studied, and in particular their functional morphology remains little understood. Here we present osteological overviews of specimens from the northwest coast of Washington state (USA). We give an amended diagnosis for the well-represented North American genus, <em>Tonsala</em> Olson, 1980, describe a new large species, and examine the functional morphology of plotopterids showing that the ratio of humeral strength to femoral strength is quite low in one well-represented species <em>Tonsala buchanani</em> sp.nov., relative to both extant penguins and alcids. While the femoral strength of <em>Tonsala buchanani</em> is ‘penguin-grade’, its humeral strength is more ‘alcid-grade’. These results have implications for understanding the mode-of-locomotion of these extinct marine birds. Although not related to Spheniscidae, our descriptions and functional results suggest that <em>Tonsala buchanani</em> sustained similar loads in walking, but slightly lower humeral loads during swimming, than a modern penguin. This suggests a swimming mode that is more similar to living alcids, than to the highly-specialised locomotor strategy of living and fossil penguins.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fossil", "plotopterid", "seabirds", "eo-oligocene", "olympic", "peninsula", "descriptions", "morphology"], "article_id"=>131854, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Gareth J. Dyke", "Xia Wang", "Michael B. Habib"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025672", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Fossil_Plotopterid_Seabirds_from_the_Eo_Oligocene_of_the_Olympic_Peninsula_Washington_State_USA_Descriptions_and_Functional_Morphology/131854", "title"=>"Fossil Plotopterid Seabirds from the Eo-Oligocene of the Olympic Peninsula (Washington State, USA): Descriptions and Functional Morphology", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-31 00:30:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/718313"], "description"=>"<p>Measurements of selected Olympic Peninsula plotopterid bones (in mm) (partly based on <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025672#pone.0025672-Olson2\" target=\"_blank\">[4]</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025672#pone.0025672-Goedert2\" target=\"_blank\">[8]</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["olympic", "peninsula", "plotopterid", "bones"], "article_id"=>388679, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Gareth J. Dyke", "Xia Wang", "Michael B. Habib"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025672.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_selected_Olympic_Peninsula_plotopterid_bones_in_mm_partly_based_on_4_and_8_/388679", "title"=>"Measurements of selected Olympic Peninsula plotopterid bones (in mm) (partly based on [4] and [8]).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-31 02:24:39"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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