Mainstreams of Horizontal Gene Exchange in Enterobacteria: Consideration of the Outbreak of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli O104:H4 in Germany in 2011
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{"title"=>"Mainstreams of horizontal gene exchange in enterobacteria: Consideration of the outbreak of enterohemorrhagic E. coli O104:H4 in Germany in 2011", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Oliver", "last_name"=>"Bezuidt", "scopus_author_id"=>"37088257300"}, {"first_name"=>"Rian", "last_name"=>"Pierneef", "scopus_author_id"=>"53464012400"}, {"first_name"=>"Kingdom", "last_name"=>"Mncube", "scopus_author_id"=>"53463961000"}, {"first_name"=>"Gipsi", "last_name"=>"Lima-Mendez", "scopus_author_id"=>"15020891500"}, {"first_name"=>"Oleg N.", "last_name"=>"Reva", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701594610"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22022434", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80054090399", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0025702", "sgr"=>"80054090399", "pui"=>"362755867"}, "id"=>"c60de61e-e54e-3a01-a44f-3896d6d1cd8d", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli O104:H4 caused a severe outbreak in Europe in 2011. The strain TY-2482 sequenced from this outbreak allowed the discovery of its closest relatives but failed to resolve ways in which it originated and evolved. On account of the previous statement, may we expect similar upcoming outbreaks to occur recurrently or spontaneously in the future? The inability to answer these questions shows limitations of the current comparative and evolutionary genomics methods.\\n\\nPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study revealed oscillations of gene exchange in enterobacteria, which originated from marine γ-Proteobacteria. These mobile genetic elements have become recombination hotspots and effective 'vehicles' ensuring a wide distribution of successful combinations of fitness and virulence genes among enterobacteria. Two remarkable peculiarities of the strain TY-2482 and its relatives were observed: i) retaining the genetic primitiveness by these strains as they somehow avoided the main fluxes of horizontal gene transfer which effectively penetrated other enetrobacteria; ii) acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes in a plasmid genomic island of β-Proteobacteria origin which ontologically is unrelated to the predominant genomic islands of enterobacteria.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Oscillations of horizontal gene exchange activity were reported which result from a counterbalance between the acquired resistance of bacteria towards existing mobile vectors and the generation of new vectors in the environmental microflora. We hypothesized that TY-2482 may originate from a genetically primitive lineage of E. coli that has evolved in confined geographical areas and brought by human migration or cattle trade onto an intersection of several independent streams of horizontal gene exchange. Development of a system for monitoring the new and most active gene exchange events was proposed.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/mainstreams-horizontal-gene-exchange-enterobacteria-consideration-outbreak-enterohemorrhagic-e-coli", "reader_count"=>43, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>2, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Chile"=>1, "Kenya"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/369847", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/369909", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/370012"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p><em>Escherichia coli</em> O104:H4 caused a severe outbreak in Europe in 2011. The strain TY-2482 sequenced from this outbreak allowed the discovery of its closest relatives but failed to resolve ways in which it originated and evolved. On account of the previous statement, may we expect similar upcoming outbreaks to occur recurrently or spontaneously in the future? The inability to answer these questions shows limitations of the current comparative and evolutionary genomics methods.</p> <h3>Principal Findings</h3><p>The study revealed oscillations of gene exchange in enterobacteria, which originated from marine γ-Proteobacteria. These mobile genetic elements have become recombination hotspots and effective ‘vehicles’ ensuring a wide distribution of successful combinations of fitness and virulence genes among enterobacteria. Two remarkable peculiarities of the strain TY-2482 and its relatives were observed: i) retaining the genetic primitiveness by these strains as they somehow avoided the main fluxes of horizontal gene transfer which effectively penetrated other enetrobacteria; ii) acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes in a plasmid genomic island of β-Proteobacteria origin which ontologically is unrelated to the predominant genomic islands of enterobacteria.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Oscillations of horizontal gene exchange activity were reported which result from a counterbalance between the acquired resistance of bacteria towards existing mobile vectors and the generation of new vectors in the environmental microflora. We hypothesized that TY-2482 may originate from a genetically primitive lineage of <em>E. coli</em> that has evolved in confined geographical areas and brought by human migration or cattle trade onto an intersection of several independent streams of horizontal gene exchange. Development of a system for monitoring the new and most active gene exchange events was proposed.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mainstreams", "horizontal", "outbreak", "enterohemorrhagic", "germany", "2011"], "article_id"=>133081, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Oliver Bezuidt", "Rian Pierneef", "Kingdom Mncube", "Gipsi Lima-Mendez", "Oleg N. Reva"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Mainstreams_of_Horizontal_Gene_Exchange_in_Enterobacteria_Consideration_of_the_Outbreak_of_Enterohemorrhagic_E_coli_O104_H4_in_Germany_in_2011/133081", "title"=>"Mainstreams of Horizontal Gene Exchange in Enterobacteria: Consideration of the Outbreak of Enterohemorrhagic <em>E. coli</em> O104:H4 in Germany in 2011", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-10-14 00:51:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/723810"], "description"=>"<p>Despite DNA similarity detected by bl2seq, the prediction of coding genes shown as green bars is not consistent. More information about these GIs is available at <a href=\"http://anjie.bi.up.ac.za/geidb/geidb-home.php\" target=\"_blank\">http://anjie.bi.up.ac.za/geidb/geidb-home.php</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dna", "sequences", "pairs", "homologous", "gis", "enterobacterial"], "article_id"=>394154, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Oliver Bezuidt", "Rian Pierneef", "Kingdom Mncube", "Gipsi Lima-Mendez", "Oleg N. Reva"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_DNA_sequences_of_three_pairs_of_homologous_GIs_found_in_different_enterobacterial_genomes_/394154", "title"=>"Comparison of DNA sequences of three pairs of homologous GIs found in different enterobacterial genomes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-14 01:09:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/723929"], "description"=>"<p>Distribution of GIs in the genomes of commensal <i>E. coli</i> K12 and enterohemorrhagic <i>E. coli</i> 55989 as predicted by SeqWord Sniffer with parameters set as: D > = 1.5 sigmas; GRV/RV > = 1.5.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gis", "genomes", "commensal", "k12", "enterohemorrhagic", "55989", "seqword", "sniffer", "parameters"], "article_id"=>394267, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Oliver Bezuidt", "Rian Pierneef", "Kingdom Mncube", "Gipsi Lima-Mendez", "Oleg N. Reva"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_GIs_in_the_genomes_of_commensal_E_coli_K12_and_enterohemorrhagic_E_coli_55989_as_predicted_by_SeqWord_Sniffer_with_parameters_set_as_D__1_5_sigmas_GRV_RV__1_5_/394267", "title"=>"Distribution of GIs in the genomes of commensal <i>E. coli</i> K12 and enterohemorrhagic <i>E. coli</i> 55989 as predicted by SeqWord Sniffer with parameters set as: D > = 1.5 sigmas; GRV/RV > = 1.5.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-14 01:11:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724025"], "description"=>"<p>The threshold value used for clustering of GIs is depicted by a vertical red line.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["blastn", "hits", "scores", "calculated", "pairs", "gis", "ranked", "compositional"], "article_id"=>394368, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Oliver Bezuidt", "Rian Pierneef", "Kingdom Mncube", "Gipsi Lima-Mendez", "Oleg N. Reva"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_blastn_hits_and_average_scores_calculated_for_pairs_of_GIs_ranked_by_compositional_similarity_values_/394368", "title"=>"Percentage of blastn hits and average scores calculated for pairs of GIs ranked by compositional similarity values.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-14 01:12:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724110"], "description"=>"<p>Each node corresponds to one GI. Two nodes of GIs that share 75% or more compositional similarity are linked by a black edge. Grey edges represent similarity below 75%. Links between nodes of GIs which were confirmed by blastn to share similarity in sequence are highlighted in green.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gis", "sharing", "ou"], "article_id"=>394460, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Oliver Bezuidt", "Rian Pierneef", "Kingdom Mncube", "Gipsi Lima-Mendez", "Oleg N. Reva"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clusters_of_GIs_sharing_OU_pattern_similarity_/394460", "title"=>"Clusters of GIs sharing OU pattern similarity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-14 01:14:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724208"], "description"=>"<p>Layout of GIs is the same as in Fig. 4. Gradient colours depict divergences of GI patterns from the complete genome OU patterns of their host organisms. The older inserts are depicted by lighter colours, as their OU patterns are much closer to their hosts. Known pathogenicity islands from PAI DB are mapped on the plot.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enterobacterial", "gi"], "article_id"=>394563, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Oliver Bezuidt", "Rian Pierneef", "Kingdom Mncube", "Gipsi Lima-Mendez", "Oleg N. Reva"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stratigraphic_analysis_of_enterobacterial_GI_inserts_/394563", "title"=>"Stratigraphic analysis of enterobacterial GI inserts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-14 01:16:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724315"], "description"=>"<p>X axis shows the distance between host chromosomes depicted by dark green circles. Shaded green areas around circles outline intergenomic variability of local OU patterns. Shaded light green areas around genome circles and an intermediate grey vertical line depict the half-distance between chromosomal OU patterns. GIs of the organisms on the left and right are shown as red and blue circles, respectively. Y values for the GIs are based on the distance values calculated between OU patterns of these GIs and their host chromosomes as explained in ‘<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and methods</a>’. GI IDs are as in GEI-DB. A) Comparison of GIs NC_007954:14 and NC_006511:5 from <i>S. denitrificans</i> OS217 (3177400..3199999) and <i>S. enterica</i> ATCC 9150 (858550..886299). Distance values used in the calculations are shown. B) Comparison of GIs NC_004631:28 and NC_007712:6 from <i>S. enterica</i> Ty2 (2847050.. 2866799) and <i>S. glossindus</i> morsitans (1186850.. 1242349). C) Comparison of GIs NC_007954:14 and NC_007712:6 from <i>S. denitrificans</i> OS217 and <i>S. glossindus</i> morsitans.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships", "gis"], "article_id"=>394676, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Oliver Bezuidt", "Rian Pierneef", "Kingdom Mncube", "Gipsi Lima-Mendez", "Oleg N. Reva"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Donor_recipient_relationships_determined_for_GIs_from_Salmonella_Shewanella_and_Sodalis_/394676", "title"=>"Donor recipient relationships determined for GIs from <i>Salmonella</i>, <i>Shewanella</i> and <i>Sodalis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-14 01:17:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724521"], "description"=>"<p>Layout of GIs is the same as in Figs. 4 and 5.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patterns", "genes", "groups", "gis"], "article_id"=>394875, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Oliver Bezuidt", "Rian Pierneef", "Kingdom Mncube", "Gipsi Lima-Mendez", "Oleg N. Reva"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_illustration_of_distribution_patterns_of_genes_of_different_functional_groups_of_the_GIs_which_were_identified_in_enterobacteria_/394875", "title"=>"The illustration of distribution patterns of genes of different functional groups of the GIs which were identified in enterobacteria.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-14 01:21:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724641"], "description"=>"<p>Protein coding genes are shown by green bars, hypothetical genes by grey bars and drug resistance operons are depicted by yellow bars and labels: Mer for mercury resistance operon; Tet for tetracycline resistance gene and BL for beta-lactamase. The red horizontal lines separate plasmid genes by their direction of transcription. Blast hits between two plasmids are depicted by blue connecting stripes. Predicted GIs in plasmid sequences are framed and named respectively. Corresponding positions of the contigs of TY-2482 which were mapped against plasmid sequences by blastn are depicted by black bars.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["graphical", "bl2seq", "comparative", "conducted", "sequences", "pathogenicity", "plasmids", "psd_88"], "article_id"=>394981, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Oliver Bezuidt", "Rian Pierneef", "Kingdom Mncube", "Gipsi Lima-Mendez", "Oleg N. Reva"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_graphical_representation_of_the_bl2seq_comparative_analysis_conducted_for_the_sequences_of_pathogenicity_plasmids_pSD_88_and_55989p_/394981", "title"=>"A graphical representation of the bl2seq comparative analysis conducted for the sequences of pathogenicity plasmids pSD_88 and 55989p.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-14 01:23:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724706"], "description"=>"<p>Overview of clusters of GIs from different bacterial classes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["clusters", "gis", "bacterial"], "article_id"=>395060, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Oliver Bezuidt", "Rian Pierneef", "Kingdom Mncube", "Gipsi Lima-Mendez", "Oleg N. Reva"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702.g009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Overview_of_clusters_of_GIs_from_different_bacterial_classes_/395060", "title"=>"Overview of clusters of GIs from different bacterial classes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-14 01:24:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724806"], "description"=>"<p>Each node corresponds to one GI named as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702#pone-0025702-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>. Values for OU pattern similarity shared between nodes are shown above the edges. Gradient colours depict divergences of GIs patterns from the complete genome patterns of their host organisms as in Fig. 5. Putative direction of GI transfer NC_011992 to pSD_88 is depicted by an arrow (see also Fig. 11).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ou", "relations", "gis", "mercury", "gi", "plasmid"], "article_id"=>395153, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Oliver Bezuidt", "Rian Pierneef", "Kingdom Mncube", "Gipsi Lima-Mendez", "Oleg N. Reva"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702.g010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stratigraphic_analysis_and_OU_pattern_similarity_relations_between_GIs_showing_similarity_to_the_mercury_resistance_GI_of_the_plasmid_pSD_88_/395153", "title"=>"Stratigraphic analysis and OU pattern similarity relations between GIs showing similarity to the mercury resistance GI of the plasmid pSD_88.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-14 01:25:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724891"], "description"=>"<p>Meanings of the graph elements were explained in Fig. 6.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gis", "tpsy", "typhi"], "article_id"=>395242, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Oliver Bezuidt", "Rian Pierneef", "Kingdom Mncube", "Gipsi Lima-Mendez", "Oleg N. Reva"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702.g011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Donor_recipient_relationship_determined_between_GIs_from_A_ebreus_TPSY_and_S_enterica_Typhi_CT18_/395242", "title"=>"Donor-recipient relationship determined between GIs from <i>A. ebreus</i> TPSY and <i>S. enterica</i> Typhi CT18.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-14 01:27:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724944"], "description"=>"<p>*Settings for SeqWord Sniffer were: D > = 1.5 sigma deviation per genome; GRV/RV > = 1.5 and PS < = 55%. These are the settings by default.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["programs", "gi"], "article_id"=>395300, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Oliver Bezuidt", "Rian Pierneef", "Kingdom Mncube", "Gipsi Lima-Mendez", "Oleg N. Reva"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_different_programs_of_GI_identification_/395300", "title"=>"Comparison of different programs of GI identification.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-14 01:28:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724982"], "description"=>"<p>Annotation of genes of the top 24 MCL clusters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genes", "24", "mcl"], "article_id"=>395338, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Oliver Bezuidt", "Rian Pierneef", "Kingdom Mncube", "Gipsi Lima-Mendez", "Oleg N. Reva"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Annotation_of_genes_of_the_top_24_MCL_clusters_/395338", "title"=>"Annotation of genes of the top 24 MCL clusters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-14 01:28:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725033"], "description"=>"<p>Remarks:</p><p>*mer – mercury resistance operon; βl – beta-lactamase; tet – tetracycline efflux protein.</p>†<p>S% – compositional similarity of GIs to OU pattern of GI-2 of <i>S. enterica</i> Dublin plasmid pSD_88.</p>‡<p>D% – distance between GIs' OU patterns and OU patterns of the host chromosomes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gis", "bacterial", "genomes", "showed", "gi-2", "dublin", "plasmid"], "article_id"=>395378, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Oliver Bezuidt", "Rian Pierneef", "Kingdom Mncube", "Gipsi Lima-Mendez", "Oleg N. Reva"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025702.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Blast_results_of_GIs_of_other_bacterial_genomes_which_showed_a_significant_sequence_similarity_to_GI_2_of_S_enterica_ssp_enetrica_Dublin_plasmid_pSD_88_/395378", "title"=>"Blast results of GIs of other bacterial genomes which showed a significant sequence similarity to GI-2 of <i>S. enterica</i> ssp. <i>enetrica</i> Dublin plasmid pSD_88.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-14 01:29:38"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"25", "unique-ip"=>"19", "pdf"=>"15", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"6", "unique-ip"=>"10", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
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Relative Metric

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