Talk to the Virtual Hands: Self-Animated Avatars Improve Communication in Head-Mounted Display Virtual Environments
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{"title"=>"Talk to the virtual hands: Self-animated avatars improve communication in head-mounted display virtual environments", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Trevor J.", "last_name"=>"Dodds", "scopus_author_id"=>"24724306100"}, {"first_name"=>"Betty J.", "last_name"=>"Mohler", "scopus_author_id"=>"10239373300"}, {"first_name"=>"Heinrich H.", "last_name"=>"Bülthoff", "scopus_author_id"=>"35511854700"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"80053983462", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0025759", "pui"=>"362735247", "pmid"=>"22022442", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80053983462", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"8de708d0-6281-3b2f-a49b-d9ca13066048", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: When we talk to one another face-to-face, body gestures accompany our speech. Motion tracking technology enables us to include body gestures in avatar-mediated communication, by mapping one's movements onto one's own 3D avatar in real time, so the avatar is self-animated. We conducted two experiments to investigate (a) whether head-mounted display virtual reality is useful for researching the influence of body gestures in communication; and (b) whether body gestures are used to help in communicating the meaning of a word. Participants worked in pairs and played a communication game, where one person had to describe the meanings of words to the other.\\n\\nPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In experiment 1, participants used significantly more hand gestures and successfully described significantly more words when nonverbal communication was available to both participants (i.e. both describing and guessing avatars were self-animated, compared with both avatars in a static neutral pose). Participants 'passed' (gave up describing) significantly more words when they were talking to a static avatar (no nonverbal feedback available). In experiment 2, participants' performance was significantly worse when they were talking to an avatar with a prerecorded listening animation, compared with an avatar animated by their partners' real movements. In both experiments participants used significantly more hand gestures when they played the game in the real world.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the studies show how (a) virtual reality can be used to systematically study the influence of body gestures; (b) it is important that nonverbal communication is bidirectional (real nonverbal feedback in addition to nonverbal communication from the describing participant); and (c) there are differences in the amount of body gestures that participants use with and without the head-mounted display, and we discuss possible explanations for this and ideas for future investigation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/talk-virtual-hands-selfanimated-avatars-improve-communication-headmounted-display-virtual-environmen", "reader_count"=>58, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>5, "Unspecified"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Design"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>17, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>26}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>17}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>26}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Japan"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725062"], "description"=>"<p>The mean number of words passed when the guesser was static and self-animated, in first- and third-person perspectives. Error bars represent 1 standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["passed"], "article_id"=>395424, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Trevor J. Dodds", "Betty J. Mohler", "Heinrich H. Bülthoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025759.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Words_passed_in_experiment_1_/395424", "title"=>"Words passed in experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 13:50:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725459"], "description"=>"<p>Extract of prerecorded animation. Left to right: (1) Neutral pose; (2) with hands together; (3) looking down; (4) turning right; (5) turning left.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["animation"], "article_id"=>395821, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Trevor J. Dodds", "Betty J. Mohler", "Heinrich H. Bülthoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025759.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prerecorded_animation_in_experiment_2_/395821", "title"=>"Prerecorded animation in experiment 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 13:52:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725509"], "description"=>"<p>The mean and standard deviation of the speed of the describer's dominant hand for each condition in experiment 2. The VR manipulations were of the guesser's avatar only.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "computer science"], "article_id"=>395867, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Trevor J. Dodds", "Betty J. Mohler", "Heinrich H. Bülthoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025759.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Movement_analysis_for_experiment_2_/395867", "title"=>"Movement analysis for experiment 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 13:53:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725327"], "description"=>"<p>Participants wore an eMagin HMD mounted in goggles, so they could see the virtual world and not the real world.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "computer science"], "article_id"=>395689, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Trevor J. Dodds", "Betty J. Mohler", "Heinrich H. Bülthoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025759.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Head_mounted_display_/395689", "title"=>"Head-mounted display.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 13:52:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725261"], "description"=>"<p>Left: The participants wore a total of six tracked objects ( hands, feet, backpack and helmet). Right: the corresponding virtual environment, showing the avatars in the self-animated third-person perspective.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "computer science"], "article_id"=>395629, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Trevor J. Dodds", "Betty J. Mohler", "Heinrich H. Bülthoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025759.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_experimental_setup_/395629", "title"=>"The experimental setup.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 13:51:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724914"], "description"=>"<p>Interaction effect between nonverbal communication and camera perspective, for describers' hand movement. Error bars represent 1 standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "computer science"], "article_id"=>395272, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Trevor J. Dodds", "Betty J. Mohler", "Heinrich H. Bülthoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025759.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_1_interactions_/395272", "title"=>"Experiment 1 interactions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 13:49:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724833"], "description"=>"<p>Mean describer hand movement in each condition. The hand icon is representative of the availability of body gestures for the describer/guesser (see legend). For example, condition 1 is bidirectional nonverbal communication, conditions 2+3 are unidirectional, and in 4 no nonverbal communication is available to either the describer or the guesser. Similar for conditions 5 through 8 (third-person perspective). Conditions 9 and 10 represent no vision (black screen) and real world (without HMD). Error bars represent 1 standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "computer science"], "article_id"=>395188, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Trevor J. Dodds", "Betty J. Mohler", "Heinrich H. Bülthoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025759.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Movement_analysis_for_experiment_1_/395188", "title"=>"Movement analysis for experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 13:49:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725190"], "description"=>"<p>Example of first-person perspective, looking down at the avatar's body.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "computer science"], "article_id"=>395554, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Trevor J. Dodds", "Betty J. Mohler", "Heinrich H. Bülthoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025759.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_First_person_self_avatar_/395554", "title"=>"First-person self-avatar.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 13:51:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725531"], "description"=>"<p>Mean and standard deviation of the describers' and guessers' dominant hand movement across both experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["describer", "guesser"], "article_id"=>395896, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Trevor J. Dodds", "Betty J. Mohler", "Heinrich H. Bülthoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025759.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Overall_describer_and_guesser_hand_movement_/395896", "title"=>"Overall describer and guesser hand movement.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 13:53:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725408"], "description"=>"<p>An example of before and after filtering motion data. The first 100 seconds (x axis) from one participant is shown. The y axis represents the speed of movement of their dominant hand.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "computer science"], "article_id"=>395767, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Trevor J. Dodds", "Betty J. Mohler", "Heinrich H. Bülthoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025759.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Movement_analysis_method_/395767", "title"=>"Movement analysis method.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 13:52:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725123"], "description"=>"<p>Mean number of words correctly described. The VR conditions manipulated the guesser only (the describer could gesture throughout). The hand icons represent body gestures with mapping, normal mapping, and body gestures from a prerecorded animation. Error bars represent 1 standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "computer science"], "article_id"=>395480, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Trevor J. Dodds", "Betty J. Mohler", "Heinrich H. Bülthoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025759.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Task_performance_analysis_for_experiment_2_/395480", "title"=>"Task performance analysis for experiment 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 13:50:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724984"], "description"=>"<p>Mean number of words successfully described in each experimental condition. Conditions are labeled similarly to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025759#pone-0025759-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>. Conditions 1 through 4 are first-person perspective. Conditions 5 though 8 are third-person. Error bars represent 1 standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "computer science"], "article_id"=>395347, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Trevor J. Dodds", "Betty J. Mohler", "Heinrich H. Bülthoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025759.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Task_performance_analysis_for_experiment_1_/395347", "title"=>"Task performance analysis for experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 13:50:17"}

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Relative Metric

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