Specialization in Plant-Hummingbird Networks Is Associated with Species Richness, Contemporary Precipitation and Quaternary Climate-Change Velocity
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{"title"=>"Specialization in plant-hummingbird networks is associated with species richness, contemporary precipitation and quaternary climate-change velocity", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Bo", "last_name"=>"Dalsgaard", "scopus_author_id"=>"24167981800"}, {"first_name"=>"Else", "last_name"=>"Magård", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507003201"}, {"first_name"=>"Jon", "last_name"=>"Fjeldså", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003758673"}, {"first_name"=>"Ana M.Martín", "last_name"=>"González", "scopus_author_id"=>"55455349200"}, {"first_name"=>"Carsten", "last_name"=>"Rahbek", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602128406"}, {"first_name"=>"Jens M.", "last_name"=>"Olesen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202911635"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeff", "last_name"=>"Ollerton", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701637825"}, {"first_name"=>"Ruben", "last_name"=>"Alarcón", "scopus_author_id"=>"15019169700"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrea Cardoso", "last_name"=>"Araujo", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202091963"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter A.", "last_name"=>"Cotton", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201850554"}, {"first_name"=>"Carlos", "last_name"=>"Lara", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003822924"}, {"first_name"=>"Caio Graco", "last_name"=>"Machado", "scopus_author_id"=>"14219429800"}, {"first_name"=>"Ivan", "last_name"=>"Sazima", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004254585"}, {"first_name"=>"Marlies", "last_name"=>"Sazima", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603904264"}, {"first_name"=>"Allan", "last_name"=>"Timmermann", "scopus_author_id"=>"56457903000"}, {"first_name"=>"Stella", "last_name"=>"Watts", "scopus_author_id"=>"22136882300"}, {"first_name"=>"Brody", "last_name"=>"Sandel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004075629"}, {"first_name"=>"William J.", "last_name"=>"Sutherland", "scopus_author_id"=>"56804497000"}, {"first_name"=>"Jens Christian", "last_name"=>"Svenning", "scopus_author_id"=>"55010991900"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80053605229", "sgr"=>"80053605229", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0025891", "pmid"=>"21998716", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"362707042"}, "id"=>"86a3f2c2-575e-3074-8ce6-262df935a3aa", "abstract"=>"Large-scale geographical patterns of biotic specialization and the underlying drivers are poorly understood, but it is widely believed that climate plays an important role in determining specialization. As climate-driven range dynamics should diminish local adaptations and favor generalization, one hypothesis is that contemporary biotic specialization is determined by the degree of past climatic instability, primarily Quaternary climate-change velocity. Other prominent hypotheses predict that either contemporary climate or species richness affect biotic specialization. To gain insight into geographical patterns of contemporary biotic specialization and its drivers, we use network analysis to determine the degree of specialization in plant-hummingbird mutualistic networks sampled at 31 localities, spanning a wide range of climate regimes across the Americas. We found greater biotic specialization at lower latitudes, with latitude explaining 20-22% of the spatial variation in plant-hummingbird specialization. Potential drivers of specialization--contemporary climate, Quaternary climate-change velocity, and species richness--had superior explanatory power, together explaining 53-64% of the variation in specialization. Notably, our data provides empirical evidence for the hypothesized roles of species richness, contemporary precipitation and Quaternary climate-change velocity as key predictors of biotic specialization, whereas contemporary temperature and seasonality seem unimportant in determining specialization. These results suggest that both ecological and evolutionary processes at Quaternary time scales can be important in driving large-scale geographical patterns of contemporary biotic specialization, at least for co-evolved systems such as plant-hummingbird networks.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/specialization-planthummingbird-networks-associated-species-richness-contemporary-precipitation-quat", "reader_count"=>257, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>64, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>51, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>47, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>27, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>16}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>64, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. 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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/727435"], "description"=>"<p>Predictor estimates are for each model given as standardized regression coefficients. Predictors included in the best-fit multiple regression models are: network size, i.e, species richness in the network (SIZE); mean annual precipitation (MAP); Quaternary climate-change velocity (VELOCITY). None of the other predictors included in the analysis - length of study period (DAYS); mean annual temperature (MAT); precipitation seasonality (SEAS<sub>P</sub>); temperature seasonality (SEAS<sub>T</sub>) - were included in any of the best-fit models, and are therefore not included here. Moran's I and VIF/CN show that neither positive spatial autocorrelation nor multicollinearity was a problem in our models. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025891#pone.0025891.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Tables S2</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025891#pone.0025891.s003\" target=\"_blank\">S3</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025891#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a> for modelling approach.</p><p>**P<0.01,</p><p>*P<0.05,</p>NS<p>P>0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regression", "models", "predicting", "specialization", "plant-hummingbird"], "article_id"=>397768, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Bo Dalsgaard", "Else Magård", "Jon Fjeldså", "Ana M. Martín González", "Carsten Rahbek", "Jens M. Olesen", "Jeff Ollerton", "Ruben Alarcón", "Andrea Cardoso Araujo", "Peter A. Cotton", "Carlos Lara", "Caio Graco Machado", "Ivan Sazima", "Marlies Sazima", "Allan Timmermann", "Stella Watts", "Brody Sandel", "William J. Sutherland", "Jens-Christian Svenning"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025891.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multiple_regression_models_predicting_contemporary_specialization_in_plant_hummingbird_networks_/397768", "title"=>"Multiple regression models predicting contemporary specialization in plant-hummingbird networks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-05 02:09:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/727336"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Linear relationship between latitude and specialization in plant-hummingbird networks (H: n = 31, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.22, Dutilleul's spatially corrected P<0.05). (B) Linear relationship between Log-transformed network size and specialization in plant-hummingbird networks (H: n = 31, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.28, Dutilleul's spatially corrected P<0.01). (C) Linear relationship between mean annual precipitation and specialization in plant-hummingbird networks (H: n = 31, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.31, Dutilleul's spatially corrected P<0.01). (D) Linear relationship between Log-transformed Quaternary climate-change velocity and specialization in plant-hummingbird networks (H: n = 31, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.25, Dutilleul's spatially corrected P<0.05). Each symbol represents a native plant-hummingbird network. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025891#pone-0025891-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Tables 1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025891#pone.0025891.s002\" target=\"_blank\">S2</a> for predictor estimates in ordinary-least-squares (OLS) multiple regression models. Likewise, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025891#pone-0025891-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Tables 1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025891#pone.0025891.s003\" target=\"_blank\">S3</a> for predictor estimates in plant-hummingbird networks containing both native and introduced species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["specialization", "latitude"], "article_id"=>397667, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Bo Dalsgaard", "Else Magård", "Jon Fjeldså", "Ana M. Martín González", "Carsten Rahbek", "Jens M. Olesen", "Jeff Ollerton", "Ruben Alarcón", "Andrea Cardoso Araujo", "Peter A. Cotton", "Carlos Lara", "Caio Graco Machado", "Ivan Sazima", "Marlies Sazima", "Allan Timmermann", "Stella Watts", "Brody Sandel", "William J. Sutherland", "Jens-Christian Svenning"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025891.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_of_contemporary_specialization_with_latitude_and_underlying_drivers_/397667", "title"=>"Relationship of contemporary specialization with latitude and underlying drivers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-05 02:07:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/368022", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/368094", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/368116", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/368137"], "description"=>"<div><p>Large-scale geographical patterns of biotic specialization and the underlying drivers are poorly understood, but it is widely believed that climate plays an important role in determining specialization. As climate-driven range dynamics should diminish local adaptations and favor generalization, one hypothesis is that contemporary biotic specialization is determined by the degree of past climatic instability, primarily Quaternary climate-change velocity. Other prominent hypotheses predict that either contemporary climate or species richness affect biotic specialization. To gain insight into geographical patterns of contemporary biotic specialization and its drivers, we use network analysis to determine the degree of specialization in plant-hummingbird mutualistic networks sampled at 31 localities, spanning a wide range of climate regimes across the Americas. We found greater biotic specialization at lower latitudes, with latitude explaining 20–22% of the spatial variation in plant-hummingbird specialization. Potential drivers of specialization - contemporary climate, Quaternary climate-change velocity, and species richness - had superior explanatory power, together explaining 53–64% of the variation in specialization. Notably, our data provides empirical evidence for the hypothesized roles of species richness, contemporary precipitation and Quaternary climate-change velocity as key predictors of biotic specialization, whereas contemporary temperature and seasonality seem unimportant in determining specialization. These results suggest that both ecological and evolutionary processes at Quaternary time scales can be important in driving large-scale geographical patterns of contemporary biotic specialization, at least for co-evolved systems such as plant-hummingbird networks.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["specialization", "plant-hummingbird", "networks", "precipitation", "quaternary", "climate-change", "velocity"], "article_id"=>132692, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Bo Dalsgaard", "Else Magård", "Jon Fjeldså", "Ana M. Martín González", "Carsten Rahbek", "Jens M. Olesen", "Jeff Ollerton", "Ruben Alarcón", "Andrea Cardoso Araujo", "Peter A. Cotton", "Carlos Lara", "Caio Graco Machado", "Ivan Sazima", "Marlies Sazima", "Allan Timmermann", "Stella Watts", "Brody Sandel", "William J. Sutherland", "Jens-Christian Svenning"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025891.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025891.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025891.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025891.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Specialization_in_Plant_Hummingbird_Networks_Is_Associated_with_Species_Richness_Contemporary_Precipitation_and_Quaternary_Climate_Change_Velocity/132692", "title"=>"Specialization in Plant-Hummingbird Networks Is Associated with Species Richness, Contemporary Precipitation and Quaternary Climate-Change Velocity", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-10-05 00:44:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/727233"], "description"=>"<p>Map of the Americas showing degree of specialization (H) in native plant-hummingbird networks. Arrows indicate studies that are difficult to see due to low specialization. The network to the left depicts an extremely specialized network (H = 0.78, P<0.05) from the Costa Rican highlands at latitude 9°N. The red nodes to the left illustrate plant species, and the green nodes to the right hummingbird species. The widths of links are scaled to interaction frequency, and node sizes to total interaction frequency. It illustrates how low Quaternary climate-change velocity, high contemporary precipitation and high species richness may cause strong contemporary biotic specialization. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025891#pone.0025891.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a> for specialization estimates for networks containing both native and introduced species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patterns", "plant-hummingbird"], "article_id"=>397570, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Bo Dalsgaard", "Else Magård", "Jon Fjeldså", "Ana M. Martín González", "Carsten Rahbek", "Jens M. Olesen", "Jeff Ollerton", "Ruben Alarcón", "Andrea Cardoso Araujo", "Peter A. Cotton", "Carlos Lara", "Caio Graco Machado", "Ivan Sazima", "Marlies Sazima", "Allan Timmermann", "Stella Watts", "Brody Sandel", "William J. Sutherland", "Jens-Christian Svenning"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025891.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Geographical_patterns_of_contemporary_plant_hummingbird_specialization_/397570", "title"=>"Geographical patterns of contemporary plant-hummingbird specialization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-05 02:06:10"}

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Relative Metric

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