A Circadian Clock in Antarctic Krill: An Endogenous Timing System Governs Metabolic Output Rhythms in the Euphausid Species Euphausia superba
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{"title"=>"A circadian clock in antarctic krill: An endogenous timing system governs metabolic output rhythms in the euphausid species Euphausia superba", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mathias", "last_name"=>"Teschke", "scopus_author_id"=>"16402985500"}, {"first_name"=>"Sabrina", "last_name"=>"Wendt", "scopus_author_id"=>"26423450800"}, {"first_name"=>"So", "last_name"=>"Kawaguchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202990282"}, {"first_name"=>"Achim", "last_name"=>"Kramer", "scopus_author_id"=>"26642995900"}, {"first_name"=>"Bettina", "last_name"=>"Meyer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402073250"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362721095", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0026090", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22022521", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80053912443", "sgr"=>"80053912443"}, "id"=>"39aeb779-00d2-39a7-9da5-2171915760b0", "abstract"=>"Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, shapes the structure of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Its central position in the food web, the ongoing environmental changes due to climatic warming, and increasing commercial interest on this species emphasize the urgency of understanding the adaptability of krill to its environment. Krill has evolved rhythmic physiological and behavioral functions which are synchronized with the daily and seasonal cycles of the complex Southern Ocean ecosystem. The mechanisms, however, leading to these rhythms are essentially unknown. Here, we show that krill possesses an endogenous circadian clock that governs metabolic and physiological output rhythms. We found that expression of the canonical clock gene cry2 was highly rhythmic both in a light-dark cycle and in constant darkness. We detected a remarkable short circadian period, which we interpret as a special feature of the krill's circadian clock that helps to entrain the circadian system to the extreme range of photoperiods krill is exposed to throughout the year. Furthermore, we found that important key metabolic enzymes of krill showed bimodal circadian oscillations (∼9-12 h period) in transcript abundance and enzymatic activity. Oxygen consumption of krill showed ∼9-12 h oscillations that correlated with the temporal activity profile of key enzymes of aerobic energy metabolism. Our results demonstrate the first report of an endogenous circadian timing system in Antarctic krill and its likely link to metabolic key processes. Krill's circadian clock may not only be critical for synchronization to the solar day but also for the control of seasonal events. This study provides a powerful basis for the investigation into the mechanisms of temporal synchronization in this marine key species and will also lead to the first comprehensive analyses of the circadian clock of a polar marine organism through the entire photoperiodic cycle.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/circadian-clock-antarctic-krill-endogenous-timing-system-governs-metabolic-output-rhythms-euphausid", "reader_count"=>80, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>8, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>55, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>55}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>8}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Venezuela"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Italy"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "France"=>2, "Germany"=>4, "Iceland"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/726654"], "description"=>"<p>Transcript levels and enzyme activity of metabolic key enzymes were measured under light-dark (LD) conditions and at the third consecutive day in constant darkness (DD; 24 hour time course experiment in 2008, see Material and Methods). (<b>A</b>) Citrate synthase (CS), (<b>B</b>) trypsin (TRY), and (<b>C</b>) aldo-keto reductase (AK) show bimodal circadian oscillations (∼9–12 h period) in transcript abundance (LD; p<.05 for <i>cs</i>, p<0.01 for <i>try</i>, p<0.05 for <i>ak</i>, DD; p<.01 for <i>try</i>, p<0.01 for <i>ak</i>, CircWave see Material and Methods) and enzymatic activity (LD; p<0.01 for CS, p<0.001 for TRY, DD; p<0.05 for CS, p = 0.05 for TRY). No enzyme activity assay was available for AK. Note that CS, TRY and AK oscillations show a similar phase relationship which is in sharp contrast to (<b>D</b>) β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGase). White and black bars refer to light and dark periods. Grey bars refer to the previous light periods. Shown are means ± SEM (n = 3–7).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rhythms", "metabolic", "enzymes"], "article_id"=>397009, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Biological Sciences", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Mathias Teschke", "Sabrina Wendt", "So Kawaguchi", "Achim Kramer", "Bettina Meyer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026090.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Oscillatory_rhythms_of_metabolic_key_enzymes_in_krill_/397009", "title"=>"Oscillatory rhythms of metabolic key enzymes in krill.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-07 01:56:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/726727"], "description"=>"<p>Temporal profiles of oxygen consumption of individual krill were determined under light-dark (LD) conditions and at the third consecutive day in constant darkness (DD; 24 hour time course experiment in 2008, see Material and Methods). Oxygen consumption shows ∼9–12 h oscillations that correlate with the temporal activity profile of citrate synthase (CS). White and black bars refer to light and dark periods. Grey bars refer to the previous light periods. Shown are means ± SEM (n = 3–7).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rhythms"], "article_id"=>397085, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Biological Sciences", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Mathias Teschke", "Sabrina Wendt", "So Kawaguchi", "Achim Kramer", "Bettina Meyer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026090.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Oscillatory_rhythms_of_oxygen_consumption_in_krill_/397085", "title"=>"Oscillatory rhythms of oxygen consumption in krill.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-07 01:58:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/726776"], "description"=>"<p>Primer sequences used in qPCR.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sequences"], "article_id"=>397133, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Biological Sciences", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Mathias Teschke", "Sabrina Wendt", "So Kawaguchi", "Achim Kramer", "Bettina Meyer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026090.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primer_sequences_used_in_qPCR_/397133", "title"=>"Primer sequences used in qPCR.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-07 01:58:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/367324"], "description"=>"<div><p>Antarctic krill, <em>Euphausia superba</em>, shapes the structure of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Its central position in the food web, the ongoing environmental changes due to climatic warming, and increasing commercial interest on this species emphasize the urgency of understanding the adaptability of krill to its environment. Krill has evolved rhythmic physiological and behavioral functions which are synchronized with the daily and seasonal cycles of the complex Southern Ocean ecosystem. The mechanisms, however, leading to these rhythms are essentially unknown. Here, we show that krill possesses an endogenous circadian clock that governs metabolic and physiological output rhythms. We found that expression of the canonical clock gene <em>cry</em>2 was highly rhythmic both in a light-dark cycle and in constant darkness. We detected a remarkable short circadian period, which we interpret as a special feature of the krill's circadian clock that helps to entrain the circadian system to the extreme range of photoperiods krill is exposed to throughout the year. Furthermore, we found that important key metabolic enzymes of krill showed bimodal circadian oscillations (∼9–12 h period) in transcript abundance and enzymatic activity. Oxygen consumption of krill showed ∼9–12 h oscillations that correlated with the temporal activity profile of key enzymes of aerobic energy metabolism. Our results demonstrate the first report of an endogenous circadian timing system in Antarctic krill and its likely link to metabolic key processes. Krill's circadian clock may not only be critical for synchronization to the solar day but also for the control of seasonal events. This study provides a powerful basis for the investigation into the mechanisms of temporal synchronization in this marine key species and will also lead to the first comprehensive analyses of the circadian clock of a polar marine organism through the entire photoperiodic cycle.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["circadian", "antarctic", "endogenous", "governs", "metabolic", "rhythms", "euphausid"], "article_id"=>132574, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Biological Sciences", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Mathias Teschke", "Sabrina Wendt", "So Kawaguchi", "Achim Kramer", "Bettina Meyer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026090", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Circadian_Clock_in_Antarctic_Krill_An_Endogenous_Timing_System_Governs_Metabolic_Output_Rhythms_in_the_Euphausid_Species_Euphausia_superba_/132574", "title"=>"A Circadian Clock in Antarctic Krill: An Endogenous Timing System Governs Metabolic Output Rhythms in the Euphausid Species <em>Euphausia superba</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-07 00:42:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/726589"], "description"=>"<p>Transcript levels of <i>cry</i>2 in krill heads were measured by quantitative PCR from two independent time course experiments, in 2008: Full 24 hour cycle under (<b>A</b>) light-dark (LD) conditions and (<b>C</b>) at the third consecutive day in constant darkness (DD), and 2010: Full 48 hour cycle at the first and second consecutive day in DD (<b>B</b>). Significant oscillations were observed in LD conditions (24 h period with p<.01, CircWave see material and Methods) and at the third day in DD (∼18 h period with p<0.05). Fisher's LSD post-hoc analysis of <i>cry</i>2 oscillatory rhythms indicate the following significant (p<0.05) differences among time points: <i>cry</i>2 expression under LD conditions at 9:00, 12:00, and 15:00 h was significantly elevated compared to expression at 6:00, 18:00, 21:00, 24:00, and 3:00 h, and expression at 24:00 and 3:00 h was significantly reduced compared to expression at 6:00, 9:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00, and 21:00 h; <i>cry</i>2 expression during the first day in DD at 16:00 h was significantly elevated compared to expression at 8:00, 12:00, 20:00, 24:00, and 4:00 h, and expression at 8:00 h (second time point) was significantly elevated compared to expression at 12:00, 20:00, 24:00, and 4:00 h; <i>cry</i>2 expression during the second day in DD at 8:00, 24:00 and 4:00 h was significantly elevated compared to expression at 12:00, 16:00, and 20:00 h, and expression at 8:00 h (second time point) was significantly elevated compared to expression at 8:00 (first time point), 12:00, 16:00, 20:00, 24:00 and 4:00 h; <i>cry</i>2 expression during the third day in DD at 6:00 (first time point), 9:00, and 24:00 h was significantly elevated compared to expression at 12:00, 15:00, 18:00, 21:00, 3:00, and 6:00 h (second time point). White and black bars refer to light and dark periods. Grey bars refer to the previous light periods. Shown are means ± SEM (n 3–7).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rhythms"], "article_id"=>396943, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Biological Sciences", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Mathias Teschke", "Sabrina Wendt", "So Kawaguchi", "Achim Kramer", "Bettina Meyer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026090.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Oscillatory_rhythms_of_cry_2_in_krill_/396943", "title"=>"Oscillatory rhythms of <i>cry</i>2 in krill.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-07 01:55:43"}

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Relative Metric

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