Incidence of Influenza in Healthy Adults and Healthcare Workers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
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{"title"=>"Incidence of influenza in healthy adults and healthcare workers: A systematic review and meta-analysis", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Stefan P.", "last_name"=>"Kuster", "scopus_author_id"=>"25031971100"}, {"first_name"=>"Prakesh S.", "last_name"=>"Shah", "scopus_author_id"=>"24345434200"}, {"first_name"=>"Brenda L.", "last_name"=>"Coleman", "scopus_author_id"=>"37074381300"}, {"first_name"=>"Po Po", "last_name"=>"Lam", "scopus_author_id"=>"36094595900"}, {"first_name"=>"Agnes", "last_name"=>"Tong", "scopus_author_id"=>"24081624600"}, {"first_name"=>"Anne", "last_name"=>"Wormsbecker", "scopus_author_id"=>"35303707500"}, {"first_name"=>"Allison", "last_name"=>"McGeer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006664445"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80054720813", "sgr"=>"80054720813", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0026239", "pmid"=>"22028840", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"362772508"}, "id"=>"67d172b8-9ca3-3a53-8ff5-3cfdd4dfc876", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Working in healthcare is often considered a risk factor for influenza; however, this risk has not been quantified. We aimed to systematically review evidence describing the annual incidence of influenza among healthy adults and healthcare workers (HCWs).\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched OVID MEDLINE (1950 to 2010), EMBASE (1947 to 2010) and reference lists of identified articles. Observational studies or randomized trials reporting full season or annual influenza infection rates for healthy, working age adult subjects and HCWs were included. Influenza infection was defined as a four-fold rise in antibody titer, or positive viral culture or polymerase chain reaction. From 24,707 citations, 29 studies covering 97 influenza seasons with 58,245 study participants were included. Pooled influenza incidence rates (IR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) per 100 HCWs per season and corresponding incidence rate ratios (IRR) (95% CI) as compared to healthy adults were as follows. All infections: IR 18.7 (95% CI, 15.8 to 22.1), IRR 3.4 (95% CI, 1.2 to 5.7) in unvaccinated HCWs; IR 6.5 (95% CI, 4.6 to 9.1), IRR 5.4 (95% CI, 2.8 to 8.0) in vaccinated HCWs. Symptomatic infections: IR 7.5 (95% CI, 4.9 to 11.7), IRR 1.5 (95% CI, 0.4 to 2.5) in unvaccinated HCWs, IR 4.8 (95% CI, 3.2 to 7.2), IRR 1.6 (95% CI, 0.5 to 2.7) in vaccinated HCWs.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Compared to adults working in non-healthcare settings, HCWs are at significantly higher risk of influenza.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/incidence-influenza-healthy-adults-healthcare-workers-systematic-review-metaanalysis", "reader_count"=>55, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>9, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>9, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>34, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>34}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Vietnam"=>1, "Hong Kong"=>1, "United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "France"=>2}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/723256"], "description"=>"<p>Squares and horizontal lines through the squares represent incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations: IV, inverse variance; CI, confidence interval; PCR, polymerase chain reaction.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["influenza", "incidence", "rates", "adults", "sharing", "households"], "article_id"=>393613, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Stefan P. Kuster", "Prakesh S. Shah", "Brenda L. Coleman", "Po-Po Lam", "Agnes Tong", "Anne Wormsbecker", "Allison McGeer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026239.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_plot_of_influenza_incidence_rates_in_adults_sharing_their_households_with_children_/393613", "title"=>"Forest plot of influenza incidence rates in adults sharing their households with children.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-18 01:00:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/723147"], "description"=>"<p>Squares and horizontal lines through the squares represent incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations: IV, inverse variance; CI, confidence interval; PCR, polymerase chain reaction.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["influenza", "incidence", "rates", "adults", "non-healthcare"], "article_id"=>393499, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Stefan P. Kuster", "Prakesh S. Shah", "Brenda L. Coleman", "Po-Po Lam", "Agnes Tong", "Anne Wormsbecker", "Allison McGeer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026239.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_plot_of_influenza_incidence_rates_in_adults_working_in_non_healthcare_settings_/393499", "title"=>"Forest plot of influenza incidence rates in adults working in non-healthcare settings.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-18 00:58:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/723342"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; NA, not applicable; HCWs, healthcare workers.</p>1<p>Working-age adults living in households with children.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incidence", "rates", "diagnostic", "methods", "vaccination"], "article_id"=>393698, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Stefan P. Kuster", "Prakesh S. Shah", "Brenda L. Coleman", "Po-Po Lam", "Agnes Tong", "Anne Wormsbecker", "Allison McGeer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026239.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Influenza_incidence_rates_according_to_subpopulation_diagnostic_methods_and_vaccination_status_/393698", "title"=>"Influenza incidence rates according to subpopulation, diagnostic methods and vaccination status.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-18 01:01:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/365645", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/365710", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/365784", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/365828", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/365905", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/365965"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Working in healthcare is often considered a risk factor for influenza; however, this risk has not been quantified. We aimed to systematically review evidence describing the annual incidence of influenza among healthy adults and healthcare workers (HCWs).</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>We searched OVID MEDLINE (1950 to 2010), EMBASE (1947 to 2010) and reference lists of identified articles. Observational studies or randomized trials reporting full season or annual influenza infection rates for healthy, working age adult subjects and HCWs were included. Influenza infection was defined as a four-fold rise in antibody titer, or positive viral culture or polymerase chain reaction.</p> <p>From 24,707 citations, 29 studies covering 97 influenza seasons with 58,245 study participants were included. Pooled influenza incidence rates (IR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) per 100 HCWs per season and corresponding incidence rate ratios (IRR) (95% CI) as compared to healthy adults were as follows. All infections: IR 18.7 (95% CI, 15.8 to 22.1), IRR 3.4 (95% CI, 1.2 to 5.7) in unvaccinated HCWs; IR 6.5 (95% CI, 4.6 to 9.1), IRR 5.4 (95% CI, 2.8 to 8.0) in vaccinated HCWs. Symptomatic infections: IR 7.5 (95% CI, 4.9 to 11.7), IRR 1.5 (95% CI, 0.4 to 2.5) in unvaccinated HCWs, IR 4.8 (95% CI, 3.2 to 7.2), IRR 1.6 (95% CI, 0.5 to 2.7) in vaccinated HCWs.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Compared to adults working in non-healthcare settings, HCWs are at significantly higher risk of influenza.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incidence", "influenza", "adults", "healthcare", "systematic", "meta-analysis"], "article_id"=>132283, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Stefan P. Kuster", "Prakesh S. Shah", "Brenda L. Coleman", "Po-Po Lam", "Agnes Tong", "Anne Wormsbecker", "Allison McGeer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026239.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026239.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026239.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026239.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026239.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026239.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Incidence_of_Influenza_in_Healthy_Adults_and_Healthcare_Workers_A_Systematic_Review_and_Meta_Analysis/132283", "title"=>"Incidence of Influenza in Healthy Adults and Healthcare Workers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-10-18 00:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/723322"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: HCWs, healthcare workers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "incidence", "ratios", "influenza", "healthcare", "workers", "non-healthcare", "subgroup", "vaccination", "diagnostic"], "article_id"=>393669, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Stefan P. Kuster", "Prakesh S. Shah", "Brenda L. Coleman", "Po-Po Lam", "Agnes Tong", "Anne Wormsbecker", "Allison McGeer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026239.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Incidence_rates_and_incidence_rate_ratios_of_influenza_infection_of_healthcare_workers_and_non_healthcare_workers_from_subgroup_meta_analyses_according_to_vaccination_status_and_diagnostic_methods_/393669", "title"=>"Incidence rates and incidence rate ratios of influenza infection of healthcare workers and non-healthcare workers from subgroup meta-analyses, according to vaccination status and diagnostic methods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-18 01:01:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/722990"], "description"=>"<p>Squares and horizontal lines through the squares represent incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations: IV, inverse variance; CI, confidence interval; HCWs, healthcare workers; PCR, polymerase chain reaction.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["influenza", "incidence", "rates", "healthcare"], "article_id"=>393343, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Stefan P. Kuster", "Prakesh S. Shah", "Brenda L. Coleman", "Po-Po Lam", "Agnes Tong", "Anne Wormsbecker", "Allison McGeer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026239.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_plot_of_influenza_incidence_rates_in_healthcare_workers_/393343", "title"=>"Forest plot of influenza incidence rates in healthcare workers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-18 00:55:43"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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