Deterioration of the Gαo Vomeronasal Pathway in Sexually Dimorphic Mammals
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{"title"=>"Deterioration of the Gαo vomeronasal pathway in sexually dimorphic mammals", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Rodrigo", "last_name"=>"Suárez", "scopus_author_id"=>"8426672200"}, {"first_name"=>"Pedro", "last_name"=>"Fernández-Aburto", "scopus_author_id"=>"53864894700"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul R.", "last_name"=>"Manger", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003480638"}, {"first_name"=>"Jorge", "last_name"=>"Mpodozis", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602399265"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84857465380", "sgr"=>"84857465380", "pui"=>"362778160", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22039487", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0026436"}, "id"=>"b045a01d-bb28-3ede-9c9c-f8b0043dbd43", "abstract"=>"In mammals, social and sexual behaviours are largely mediated by the vomeronasal system (VNS). The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) is the first synaptic locus of the VNS and ranges from very large in Caviomorph rodents, small in carnivores and ungulates, to its complete absence in apes, elephants, most bats and aquatic species. Two pathways have been described in the VNS of mammals. In mice, vomeronasal neurons expressing Gαi2 protein project to the rostral portion of the AOB and respond mostly to small volatile molecules, whereas neurons expressing Gαo project to the caudal AOB and respond mostly to large non-volatile molecules. However, the Gαo-expressing pathway is absent in several species (horses, dogs, musk shrews, goats and marmosets) but no hypotheses have been proposed to date to explain the loss of that pathway. We noted that the species that lost the Gαo pathway belong to Laurasiatheria and Primates lineages, both clades with ubiquitous sexual dimorphisms across species. To assess whether similar events of Gαo pathway loss could have occurred convergently in dimorphic species we studied G-protein expression in the AOB of two species that independently evolved sexually dimorphic traits: the California ground squirrel Spermophilus beecheyi (Rodentia; Sciurognathi) and the cape hyrax Procavia capensis (Afrotheria; Hyracoidea). We found that both species show uniform expression of Gαi2-protein throughout AOB glomeruli, while Gαo expression is restricted to main olfactory glomeruli only. Our results suggest that the degeneration of the Gαo-expressing vomeronasal pathway has occurred independently at least four times in Eutheria, possibly related to the emergence of sexual dimorphisms and the ability of detecting the gender of conspecifics at distance.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/deterioration-g%CE%B1o-vomeronasal-pathway-sexually-dimorphic-mammals", "reader_count"=>15, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/721953"], "description"=>"<p>Sagittal sections through the olfactory bulb reveal that the AOB is located dorsocaudal to the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and expresses Gαi2 throughout its rostrocaudal extent (A, B), at the vomeronasal nerve layer (VN) and glomerular layer (Gl) but not in glomeruli of the MOB (C). Gαo expression is restricted to MOB glomeruli (D, F) and deep layers of the AOB, including some expression at the Gl, but not at the VN, layers (E). Panels G, H, and I correspond to cresyl violet stained sections, where cell layering and relative sizes of AOB and MOB can be appreciated. EP, external plexiform layer; Gr, granule cell layer; LOT, lateral olfactory tract; M/T, mitral/tufted cell layer. Dorsal is to the top and anterior is to the right. Scale bar: 500 µm in A, D and G; 200 µm in B, C, E, F, H and I.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["accessory", "olfactory", "squirrel"], "article_id"=>392310, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Rodrigo Suárez", "Pedro Fernández-Aburto", "Paul R. Manger", "Jorge Mpodozis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026436.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Patterns_of_G_i2_and_G_o_expression_in_the_accessory_olfactory_bulb_AOB_of_the_ground_squirrel_Spermophilus_beecheyi_/392310", "title"=>"Patterns of Gαi2 and Gαo expression in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of the ground squirrel <i>Spermophilus beecheyi</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-19 00:38:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/722099"], "description"=>"<p>Similar to <i>S. beecheyi</i>, the AOB of <i>Procavia capensis</i> is located dorsocaudal to the main olfactory bulb (MOB) as shown in sagittal sections. Throughout its dorsocaudal extent, the AOB express Gαi2 (A, B) but not Gαo (D, E). MOB glomeruli express Gαo (F), but not Gαi2 (C). Interestingly, cell layering at the AOB (G, H) is not as clear as in rodents or as in its MOB (I). The dashed area in E shows the vomeronasal afferences; although Gαo is expressed to some extent at the glomerular layer (Gl) of the AOB, the vomeronasal nerve (VN) shows no Gαo expression. EP, external plexiform layer; Gr, granule cell layer; LOT, lateral olfactory tract; M/T, mitral/tufted cell layer. Dorsal is to the top and anterior is to the right. Scale bar: 500 µm in A, D and C; 200 µm in B, E and F; 100 µm in C, F and I.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["accessory", "olfactory", "cape", "hyrax", "expresses"], "article_id"=>392459, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Rodrigo Suárez", "Pedro Fernández-Aburto", "Paul R. Manger", "Jorge Mpodozis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026436.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_accessory_olfactory_bulb_AOB_of_the_cape_hyrax_expresses_G_945_i2_but_not_G_945_o_/392459", "title"=>"The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of the cape hyrax expresses Gαi2 but not Gαo.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-19 00:40:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/721839"], "description"=>"<p>Males and females differ in body size and/or shape (A, elephant seal <i>Mirounga leonina</i>, Phocidae; B, lion <i>Panthera leo</i>, Felidae), presence of accessories such as horns or tusks (C, Impala <i>Aepyceros melampus</i>, Bovidae) and/or fur pattern/colouration (D, Gibbon <i>Nomascus leucogenys</i>, Hylobatidae). Pictures by Mike Baird (A), Vince Smith (B,C), and Linda Brosens (D) under a creative commons license.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimorphisms", "laurasiatheria"], "article_id"=>392196, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Rodrigo Suárez", "Pedro Fernández-Aburto", "Paul R. Manger", "Jorge Mpodozis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026436.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sexual_dimorphisms_in_Laurasiatheria_and_Primates_/392196", "title"=>"Sexual dimorphisms in Laurasiatheria and Primates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-19 00:36:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/722214"], "description"=>"<p>At least four independent events of deterioration of the Gαo -pathway in mammals may have occurred in the lineages leading to hyraxes, squirrels, Primates and Laurasiatheres (orange lines). Note that the species that lost the complete VNS (blank silhouettes and dashed lines) are nested in lineages that first lost the Gαo-pathway. Green silhouettes represent species with both Gαi2 and Gαo vomeronasal pathways.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eutheria", "approximate", "divergence", "times"], "article_id"=>392578, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Rodrigo Suárez", "Pedro Fernández-Aburto", "Paul R. Manger", "Jorge Mpodozis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026436.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_tree_of_Eutheria_showing_approximate_divergence_times_based_on_refs_44_45_46_/392578", "title"=>"Phylogenetic tree of Eutheria showing approximate divergence times based on refs. [<b>44]</b>, [45], [46<b> </b>].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-19 00:42:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/365329", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/365422"], "description"=>"<div><p>In mammals, social and sexual behaviours are largely mediated by the vomeronasal system (VNS). The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) is the first synaptic locus of the VNS and ranges from very large in Caviomorph rodents, small in carnivores and ungulates, to its complete absence in apes, elephants, most bats and aquatic species. Two pathways have been described in the VNS of mammals. In mice, vomeronasal neurons expressing Gαi2 protein project to the rostral portion of the AOB and respond mostly to small volatile molecules, whereas neurons expressing Gαo project to the caudal AOB and respond mostly to large non-volatile molecules. However, the Gαo-expressing pathway is absent in several species (horses, dogs, musk shrews, goats and marmosets) but no hypotheses have been proposed to date to explain the loss of that pathway. We noted that the species that lost the Gαo pathway belong to Laurasiatheria and Primates lineages, both clades with ubiquitous sexual dimorphisms across species. To assess whether similar events of Gαo pathway loss could have occurred convergently in dimorphic species we studied G-protein expression in the AOB of two species that independently evolved sexually dimorphic traits: the California ground squirrel <em>Spermophilus beecheyi</em> (Rodentia; Sciurognathi) and the cape hyrax <em>Procavia capensis</em> (Afrotheria; Hyracoidea). We found that both species show uniform expression of Gαi2-protein throughout AOB glomeruli, while Gαo expression is restricted to main olfactory glomeruli only. Our results suggest that the degeneration of the Gαo-expressing vomeronasal pathway has occurred independently at least four times in Eutheria, possibly related to the emergence of sexual dimorphisms and the ability of detecting the gender of conspecifics at distance.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deterioration", "vomeronasal", "pathway", "dimorphic", "mammals"], "article_id"=>132218, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Rodrigo Suárez", "Pedro Fernández-Aburto", "Paul R. Manger", "Jorge Mpodozis"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026436.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026436.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Deterioration_of_the_G_o_Vomeronasal_Pathway_in_Sexually_Dimorphic_Mammals/132218", "title"=>"Deterioration of the Gαo Vomeronasal Pathway in Sexually Dimorphic Mammals", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-10-19 00:36:58"}

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Relative Metric

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