Why Do Woodpeckers Resist Head Impact Injury: A Biomechanical Investigation
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{"title"=>"Why do woodpeckers resist head impact injury: A biomechanical investigation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Lizhen", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55721284600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jason Tak Man", "last_name"=>"CheungJason", "scopus_author_id"=>"53979485800"}, {"first_name"=>"Fang", "last_name"=>"Pu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006888747"}, {"first_name"=>"Deyu", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"24492077700"}, {"first_name"=>"Ming", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"35197676900"}, {"first_name"=>"Yubo", "last_name"=>"Fan", "scopus_author_id"=>"55648008700"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362825568", "sgr"=>"80055034419", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22046293", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80055034419", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0026490", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"bffcdf70-ab37-3536-9e83-23c36653a13d", "abstract"=>"Head injury is a leading cause of morbidity and death in both industrialized and developing countries. It is estimated that brain injuries account for 15% of the burden of fatalities and disabilities, and represent the leading cause of death in young adults. Brain injury may be caused by an impact or a sudden change in the linear and/or angular velocity of the head. However, the woodpecker does not experience any head injury at the high speed of 6-7 m/s with a deceleration of 1000 g when it drums a tree trunk. It is still not known how woodpeckers protect their brain from impact injury. In order to investigate this, two synchronous high-speed video systems were used to observe the pecking process, and the force sensor was used to measure the peck force. The mechanical properties and macro/micro morphological structure in woodpecker's head were investigated using a mechanical testing system and micro-CT scanning. Finite element (FE) models of the woodpecker's head were established to study the dynamic intracranial responses. The result showed that macro/micro morphology of cranial bone and beak can be recognized as a major contributor to non-impact-injuries. This biomechanical analysis makes it possible to visualize events during woodpecker pecking and may inspire new approaches to prevention and treatment of human head injury.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/woodpeckers-resist-head-impact-injury-biomechanical-investigation", "reader_count"=>140, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>41, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>25, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>41, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>25, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>47, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4, "Engineering"=>36, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Materials Science"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>18, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Design"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>2, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>4, "Psychology"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>18}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>3}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>36}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>47}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "Uruguay"=>1, "United States"=>5, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Ghana"=>1, "Canada"=>2, "Sweden"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Chile"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>8}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/719756"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Great Spotted woodpecker's head; (b) Great Spotted Woodpecker's hyoid bone; (c) Eurasian hoopoe's hyoid bone.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["structures", "hyoid"], "article_id"=>390118, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Lizhen Wang", "Jason Tak-Man Cheung", "Fang Pu", "Deyu Li", "Ming Zhang", "Yubo Fan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026490.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anatomical_structures_of_head_and_hyoid_bone_/390118", "title"=>"Anatomical structures of head and hyoid bone.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:19:14"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/719540"], "description"=>"<p>(a) 3D schematic diagram; (b) Pecking trajectory on the sagittal plane; (c) Pecking trajectory on the transverse plane; (d) Pecking trajectory on the coronal plane.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["3d", "pecking", "trajectory"], "article_id"=>389896, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Lizhen Wang", "Jason Tak-Man Cheung", "Fang Pu", "Deyu Li", "Ming Zhang", "Yubo Fan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026490.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_3D_pecking_trajectory_during_woodpecker_s_pecking_/389896", "title"=>"The 3D pecking trajectory during woodpecker's pecking.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:18:00"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/720374"], "description"=>"<p>*<i>p</i><0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parameters", "occiput", "spotted", "woodpecker", "eurasian"], "article_id"=>390727, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Lizhen Wang", "Jason Tak-Man Cheung", "Fang Pu", "Deyu Li", "Ming Zhang", "Yubo Fan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026490.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Micro_structural_parameters_of_the_occiput_of_Great_Spotted_Woodpecker_and_Eurasian_Hoopoe_/390727", "title"=>"Micro-structural parameters of the occiput of Great Spotted Woodpecker and Eurasian Hoopoe.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:22:28"}
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Relative Metric

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