Human Evolution and Osteoporosis-Related Spinal Fractures
Publication Date
October 19, 2011
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Meghan M. Cotter, David A. Loomis, Scott W. Simpson, Bruce Latimer, et al
Volume
6
Issue
10
Pages
e26658
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026658
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0026658
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22028933
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3197574
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22028933
Web of Science
000296507500104
Scopus
80054787921
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/human-evolution-osteoporosisrelated-spinal-fractures
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Human evolution and osteoporosis-related spinal fractures", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Meghan M.", "last_name"=>"Cotter", "scopus_author_id"=>"34867792500"}, {"first_name"=>"David A.", "last_name"=>"Loomis", "scopus_author_id"=>"34868372300"}, {"first_name"=>"Scott W.", "last_name"=>"Simpson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201800065"}, {"first_name"=>"Bruce", "last_name"=>"Latimer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003514125"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher J.", "last_name"=>"Hernandez", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202905217"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80054787921", "sgr"=>"80054787921", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0026658", "pmid"=>"22028933", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"362778128"}, "id"=>"1e0be96a-9259-3c35-935f-5c6636f99e17", "abstract"=>"<p>The field of evolutionary medicine examines the possibility that some diseases are the result of trade-offs made in human evolution. Spinal fractures are the most common osteoporosis-related fracture in humans, but are not observed in apes, even in cases of severe osteopenia. In humans, the development of osteoporosis is influenced by peak bone mass and strength in early adulthood as well as age-related bone loss. Here, we examine the structural differences in the vertebral bodies (the portion of the vertebra most commonly involved in osteoporosis-related fractures) between humans and apes before age-related bone loss occurs. Vertebrae from young adult humans and chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and gibbons (T8 vertebrae, n = 8–14 per species, male and female, humans: 20–40 years of age) were examined to determine bone strength (using finite element models), bone morphology (external shape), and trabecular microarchitecture (micro-computed tomography). The vertebrae of young adult humans are not as strong as those from apes after accounting for body mass (p<0.01). Human vertebrae are larger in size (volume, cross-sectional area, height) than in apes with a similar body mass. Young adult human vertebrae have significantly lower trabecular bone volume fraction (0.26±0.04 in humans and 0.37±0.07 in apes, mean ± SD, p<0.01) and thinner vertebral shells than apes (after accounting for body mass, p<0.01). Since human vertebrae are more porous and weaker than those in apes in young adulthood (after accounting for bone mass), even modest amounts of age-related bone loss may lead to vertebral fracture in humans, while in apes, larger amounts of bone loss would be required before a vertebral fracture becomes likely. We present arguments that differences in vertebral bone size and shape associated with reduced bone strength in humans is linked to evolutionary adaptations associated with bipedalism.</p>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/human-evolution-osteoporosisrelated-spinal-fractures", "reader_count"=>67, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>6, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>6, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>8, "Unspecified"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Materials Science"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>12, "Arts and Humanities"=>4, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>8, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>8}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>4}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>12}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>8}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Kenya"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/723437"], "description"=>"<p>*Specimens indicated by HTB or HTH are from the Physical Anthropology Collection at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, Ohio. Specimens indicated by FMNH are from the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois. Specimens indicated by NMNH are from the Mammal Collection at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC. Sex of Hylobates specimens was not available in museum records and could not be determined from skeletal analysis. Ancestry characterized at time of death (B - Black, W – White, A – Asian). NM – Not Measured because micro-computed tomography images were not taken of this specimen.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["specimens", "finite", "modeling", "micro-computed", "tomography", "experiments", "shown", "subset", "noted"], "article_id"=>393787, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Meghan M. Cotter", "David A. Loomis", "Scott W. Simpson", "Bruce Latimer", "Christopher J. Hernandez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026658.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>13, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Details_of_specimens_used_in_finite_element_modeling_and_micro_computed_tomography_experiments_are_shown_All_specimens_used_in_finite_element_modeling_subset_of_specimens_used_in_micro_computed_tomography_analysis_noted_in_table_/393787", "title"=>"Details of specimens used in finite element modeling and micro-computed tomography experiments are shown (All specimens used in finite element modeling, subset of specimens used in micro-computed tomography analysis noted in table).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:39:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/723413"], "description"=>"+<p>See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0026658#pone-0026658-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a> for analysis of covariance accounting for differences in body mass.</p><p>*Significantly different from all other species (p<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vertebral", "dimensions", "humans", "apes", "shown"], "article_id"=>393767, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Meghan M. Cotter", "David A. Loomis", "Scott W. Simpson", "Bruce Latimer", "Christopher J. Hernandez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026658.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measures_of_young_adult_vertebral_body_dimensions_and_density_in_humans_and_apes_are_shown_n_8202_8202_8_8211_14_per_species_Mean_177_SD_/393767", "title"=>"Measures of young adult vertebral body dimensions and density in humans and apes are shown (n = 8–14 per species, Mean ± SD).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:39:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/722956"], "description"=>"<p>In transverse cross-sectional slices of the vertebrae, the boundary between the vertebral shell and the trabecular bone was traced. Here, an orange line denotes that boundary in a human vertebral body. Characteristics of the bone such as orientation of the bone and relative thickness of the shell and trabecular bone helped determine the placement of the boundary.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vertebral", "trabecular"], "article_id"=>393320, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Meghan M. Cotter", "David A. Loomis", "Scott W. Simpson", "Bruce Latimer", "Christopher J. Hernandez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026658.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Delineation_of_vertebral_shell_and_trabecular_bone_boundary_/393320", "title"=>"Delineation of vertebral shell and trabecular bone boundary.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:36:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/722858"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Three-dimensional images of vertebral bodies (a chimpanzee vertebra shown) were converted into finite element models for biomechanical analysis. (B) Finite element models were loaded in compression (arrows). Differences in the color of the bone elements represent different regional density and elastic modulus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["modeling"], "article_id"=>393222, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Meghan M. Cotter", "David A. Loomis", "Scott W. Simpson", "Bruce Latimer", "Christopher J. Hernandez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026658.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Biomechanical_modeling_to_determine_bone_strength_/393222", "title"=>"Biomechanical modeling to determine bone strength.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:35:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/723117"], "description"=>"<p>(A) A positive correlation between body mass and bone mass (measured as bone mineral content) of the T8 vertebral body was observed that was similar in all species. (B) A positive correlation between bone mass and compressive strength of the T8 vertebral body was observed. Vertebrae from humans displayed reduced strength relative to bone mass (ANCOVA: p<0.01). (C) Although body mass was positively correlated with bone strength across species, vertebrae from humans showed reduced strength as compared to apes with similar body mass (ANCOVA: p = 0.04).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships"], "article_id"=>393479, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Meghan M. Cotter", "David A. Loomis", "Scott W. Simpson", "Bruce Latimer", "Christopher J. Hernandez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026658.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_relationships_between_body_mass_bone_mass_and_bone_strength_/393479", "title"=>"The relationships between body mass, bone mass and bone strength.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:37:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/722747"], "description"=>"<p>The study included thoracic vertebrae from five genera including <i>Hylobates</i> (gibbons), <i>Pongo</i> (orangutan), <i>Gorilla</i>, <i>Pan</i> (chimpanzee) and <i>Homo</i> (humans). The scale bar next to each representative specimen is one centimeter in length.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["examined"], "article_id"=>393105, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Meghan M. Cotter", "David A. Loomis", "Scott W. Simpson", "Bruce Latimer", "Christopher J. Hernandez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026658.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Specimens_examined_in_the_study_/393105", "title"=>"Specimens examined in the study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:35:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/723393"], "description"=>"<p>*Multiple comparisons among all species are shown such that species that do not share a letter are significantly different from one another (p<0.05, Tukey post-hoc).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["covariance", "measures", "vertebral", "bodies", "covariate"], "article_id"=>393751, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Meghan M. Cotter", "David A. Loomis", "Scott W. Simpson", "Bruce Latimer", "Christopher J. Hernandez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026658.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_covariance_is_used_to_compare_measures_of_vertebral_bodies_with_body_mass_as_a_covariate_n_8202_8202_8_8211_14_per_species_/393751", "title"=>"Analysis of covariance is used to compare measures of vertebral bodies with body mass as a covariate (n = 8–14 per species).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:39:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/723202"], "description"=>"<p>Interval plots displaying mean (filled circle) and 95% confidence interval (bars) of (A) bone volume fraction and (B) vertebral shell thickness corresponding to the five transverse subregions of the vertebral bodies are shown. A line connects the means symbols to better visualize the trend in bone volume fraction within the vertebral bodies of each species. Stars indicate subregions that are significantly different within species (p<0.05). Humans displayed a reduced overall bone volume fraction as compared to apes (p<0.01).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trabecular"], "article_id"=>393560, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Meghan M. Cotter", "David A. Loomis", "Scott W. Simpson", "Bruce Latimer", "Christopher J. Hernandez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026658.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cranial_Caudal_variation_in_trabecular_bone_volume_fraction_and_shell_thickness_/393560", "title"=>"Cranial-Caudal variation in trabecular bone volume fraction and shell thickness.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:37:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/723049"], "description"=>"<p>A micro-computed tomography image of a human vertebral body is shown. Images were divided into (A) trabecular bone and (B) vertebral shell. Variation in trabecular microarchitecture within the vertebral body was examined by considering variation in microarchitecture in (C) dorsal-ventral subregions, (D) transverse subregions and (E) across 12 anatomically determined subregions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trabecular"], "article_id"=>393412, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Meghan M. Cotter", "David A. Loomis", "Scott W. Simpson", "Bruce Latimer", "Christopher J. Hernandez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026658.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_trabecular_microarchitecture_/393412", "title"=>"Analysis of trabecular microarchitecture.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:36:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/723319"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Vertebral shell thickness was positively correlated with body mass among the species but humans have thinner vertebral shells relative to body mass (ANCOVA: p<0.01). (B) A positive correlation between compressive strength and vertebral shell thickness was shown. No differences were observed among species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships"], "article_id"=>393682, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Meghan M. Cotter", "David A. Loomis", "Scott W. Simpson", "Bruce Latimer", "Christopher J. Hernandez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026658.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_relationships_between_shell_thickness_body_mass_and_whole_bone_strength_/393682", "title"=>"The relationships between shell thickness, body mass and whole bone strength.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:38:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/723370"], "description"=>"<p>+ Inter-quartile range is determined using measures of bone volume fraction in the 12 anatomically defined subregions shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0026658#pone-0026658-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3E</a>.</p><p>*Significantly different from all other species (p<0.05).</p>#<p>Significantly greater than zero (p<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trabecular", "microarchitecture", "vertebral", "shown", "humans", "apes"], "article_id"=>393727, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Meghan M. Cotter", "David A. Loomis", "Scott W. Simpson", "Bruce Latimer", "Christopher J. Hernandez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026658.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measures_of_trabecular_microarchitecture_in_the_young_adult_vertebral_body_are_shown_for_humans_and_apes_n_8202_8202_8_8211_10_per_species_Mean_177_SD_/393727", "title"=>"Measures of trabecular microarchitecture in the young adult vertebral body are shown for humans and apes (n = 8–10 per species, Mean ± SD).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 12:38:54"}

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Relative Metric

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