Competing Conservation Objectives for Predators and Prey: Estimating Killer Whale Prey Requirements for Chinook Salmon
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{"title"=>"Competing conservation objectives for predators and prey: Estimating killer whale prey requirements for chinook salmon", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Rob", "last_name"=>"Williams", "scopus_author_id"=>"7409603707"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Krkošek", "scopus_author_id"=>"8921821500"}, {"first_name"=>"Erin", "last_name"=>"Ashe", "scopus_author_id"=>"34967746100"}, {"first_name"=>"Trevor A.", "last_name"=>"Branch", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701718865"}, {"first_name"=>"Steve", "last_name"=>"Clark", "scopus_author_id"=>"12753737700"}, {"first_name"=>"Philip S.", "last_name"=>"Hammond", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202553774"}, {"first_name"=>"Erich", "last_name"=>"Hoyt", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003764380"}, {"first_name"=>"Dawn P.", "last_name"=>"Noren", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602682467"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Rosen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202022602"}, {"first_name"=>"Arliss", "last_name"=>"Winship", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507267078"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"80655139020", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0026738", "pui"=>"362888188", "pmid"=>"22096495", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80655139020", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"5822b3bc-15d2-3527-bb4f-b0c6db120ef6", "abstract"=>"Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada-US) ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/361959", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/362119", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/362168", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/362221", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/362289", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/362341"], "description"=>"<div><p>Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (<em>Orcinus orca</em>) and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (<em>Oncorhynchus tshawytscha</em>). Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada–US) ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. Prey requirements of southern resident killer whales are difficult to reconcile with fisheries and conservation objectives for Chinook salmon, because the number of fish required is large relative to annual returns and fishery catches. For instance, a U.S. recovery goal (2.3% annual population growth of killer whales over 28 years) implies a 75% increase in energetic requirements. Reducing salmon fisheries may serve as a temporary mitigation measure to allow time for management actions to improve salmon productivity to take effect. As ecosystem-based fishery management becomes more prevalent, trade-offs between conservation objectives for predators and prey will become increasingly necessary. Our approach offers scenarios to compare relative influence of various sources of uncertainty on the resulting consumption estimates to prioritise future research efforts, and a general approach for assessing the extent of conflict between conservation objectives for threatened or protected wildlife where the interaction between affected species can be quantified.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["competing", "objectives", "predators", "estimating", "prey", "requirements", "chinook"], "article_id"=>131550, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Rob Williams", "Martin Krkošek", "Erin Ashe", "Trevor A. Branch", "Steve Clark", "Philip S. Hammond", "Erich Hoyt", "Dawn P. Noren", "David Rosen", "Arliss Winship"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026738.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026738.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026738.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026738.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026738.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026738.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Competing_Conservation_Objectives_for_Predators_and_Prey_Estimating_Killer_Whale_Prey_Requirements_for_Chinook_Salmon/131550", "title"=>"Competing Conservation Objectives for Predators and Prey: Estimating Killer Whale Prey Requirements for Chinook Salmon", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 00:25:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714385"], "description"=>"<p>Males achieve a greater asymptotic length than females.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plots", "predictions", "captive", "whales", "seaworld"], "article_id"=>384734, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Rob Williams", "Martin Krkošek", "Erin Ashe", "Trevor A. Branch", "Steve Clark", "Philip S. Hammond", "Erich Hoyt", "Dawn P. Noren", "David Rosen", "Arliss Winship"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026738.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Length_at_age_plots_dots_represent_each_monthly_measurement_with_model_predictions_grey_line_for_male_and_female_captive_whales_from_SeaWorld_records_/384734", "title"=>"Length at age plots (dots represent each monthly measurement), with model predictions (grey line) for male and female captive whales from SeaWorld records.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:18:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714457"], "description"=>"<p>Icelandic killer whales (black circles); northeast Pacific “northern resident” killer whales (grey squares); northeast Pacific “southern resident” killer whales (open circle); and northeast Pacific “transient” killer whales (triangles) from historic live-capture fisheries.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["linear"], "article_id"=>384814, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Rob Williams", "Martin Krkošek", "Erin Ashe", "Trevor A. Branch", "Steve Clark", "Philip S. Hammond", "Erich Hoyt", "Dawn P. Noren", "David Rosen", "Arliss Winship"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026738.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mass_at_length_on_a_log_left_plot_and_linear_right_plot_scale_for_each_of_four_killer_whale_ecotypes_/384814", "title"=>"Mass at length on a log (left plot) and linear (right plot) scale for each of four killer whale ecotypes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:20:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714504"], "description"=>"<p>Parameters are −3.4 for the intercept and 2.35 for the slope.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["captive"], "article_id"=>384865, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Rob Williams", "Martin Krkošek", "Erin Ashe", "Trevor A. Branch", "Steve Clark", "Philip S. Hammond", "Erich Hoyt", "Dawn P. Noren", "David Rosen", "Arliss Winship"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026738.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_daily_energy_consumption_Kcal_at_length_cm_on_natural_log_scale_predicted_from_captive_male_killer_whale_records_/384865", "title"=>"Estimated daily energy consumption (Kcal) at length (cm) on natural log scale, predicted from captive male killer whale records.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:21:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714581"], "description"=>"<p>Salmon of length 81 cm and mass 8.5 kg, the preferred size of Chinook prey of the resident killer whales <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0026738#pone.0026738-Ford1\" target=\"_blank\">[17]</a>. Energy requirements predicted for southern resident killer whale (SRKW) population assume that activity levels are equal in captivity and in the wild. The “calorie-rich” scenario assumes an average energy density of 2,200 kcal/kg [44, p. 57)]; therefore each Chinook was estimated to represent 18,700 kcal. The “lean Chinook” scenario uses the mean of 5 Chinook of unknown size, collected in the Gulf of Alaska (mean = 5.35 kJ/g = 10,869 kcal/8.5 kg fish; <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0026738#pone.0026738-Logerwell1\" target=\"_blank\">[45]</a>). Note that the row in bold type represents the most plausible estimate, based on observed body sizes from whaling records from the northeastern Pacific. The SRKW population in 2009 consisted of 87 individuals of the following age-sex classes (Center for Whale Research): females with calves (10); adult males (23); juveniles (15); calves (10); and adult females without calves (29).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prey", "requirements", "plausible", "calorie", "4-year-old", "chinook"], "article_id"=>384928, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Rob Williams", "Martin Krkošek", "Erin Ashe", "Trevor A. Branch", "Steve Clark", "Philip S. Hammond", "Erich Hoyt", "Dawn P. Noren", "David Rosen", "Arliss Winship"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026738.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_prey_requirements_of_wild_killer_whales_based_on_two_plausible_values_for_calorie_content_of_a_typical_4_year_old_Chinook_salmon_/384928", "title"=>"Estimated prey requirements of wild killer whales, based on two plausible values for calorie content of a typical, 4-year-old Chinook salmon.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:22:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714649"], "description"=>"<p>Our best estimate of body size in SRKW is based on the 80<sup>th</sup> percentile of body lengths from the IWC catch records from the North Pacific, shown in <b>bold</b>. The “100%” scenario is hypothetical and illustrative: it naively converts caloric requirement to units of fish, assuming that the diet is composed entirely of Chinook salmon. The “Summer” scenario only estimates prey requirements from May–September, based on the proportion (83%) of the diet that is estimated to come from Chinook salmon in summer <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0026738#pone.0026738-Ford1\" target=\"_blank\">[17]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0026738#pone.0026738-Hanson1\" target=\"_blank\">[18]</a>. Note that a ‘recovered’ population refers here to 155 animals in 2029 (one scenario calculated from the 2001 population of 81 animals with an estimated average annual growth of 2.3 percent over the succeeding 28 years, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0026738#pone.0026738-National2\" target=\"_blank\">[31]</a>). A recovered population will require at least 75% more energy than the values predicted here.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["energetic", "requirements", "kcal", "chinook", "hypothetical", "considering", "levels", "asymptotic", "attained", "whales"], "article_id"=>384989, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Rob Williams", "Martin Krkošek", "Erin Ashe", "Trevor A. Branch", "Steve Clark", "Philip S. Hammond", "Erich Hoyt", "Dawn P. Noren", "David Rosen", "Arliss Winship"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026738.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Daily_and_annual_energetic_requirements_in_kcal_and_number_of_Chinook_salmon_based_on_a_hypothetical_16_386_kcal_salmon_34_for_the_current_size_of_the_southern_resident_killer_whale_SRKW_population_considering_various_levels_of_asymptotic_length_and_mass/384989", "title"=>"Daily and annual energetic requirements in kcal and number of Chinook salmon (based on a hypothetical 16,386 kcal salmon, [34]) for the current size of the southern resident killer whale (SRKW) population, considering various levels of asymptotic length and mass attained by killer whales in the population.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:23:09"}

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