Disturbances in Body Ownership in Schizophrenia: Evidence from the Rubber Hand Illusion and Case Study of a Spontaneous Out-of-Body Experience
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{"title"=>"Disturbances in body ownership in schizophrenia: Evidence from the rubber hand illusion and case study of a spontaneous out-of-body experience", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Katharine N.", "last_name"=>"Thakkar", "scopus_author_id"=>"8881143000"}, {"first_name"=>"Heathman S.", "last_name"=>"Nichols", "scopus_author_id"=>"54403563700"}, {"first_name"=>"Lindsey G.", "last_name"=>"McIntosh", "scopus_author_id"=>"54403382600"}, {"first_name"=>"Sohee", "last_name"=>"Park", "scopus_author_id"=>"7501834137"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"80055118499", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0027089", "pui"=>"362837192", "pmid"=>"22073126", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80055118499", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"b46ef086-3812-3302-84c5-3ad41a884b31", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: A weakened sense of self may contribute to psychotic experiences. Body ownership, one component of self-awareness, can be studied with the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Watching a rubber hand being stroked while one's unseen hand is stroked synchronously can lead to a sense of ownership over the rubber hand, a shift in perceived position of the real hand, and a limb-specific drop in stimulated hand temperature. We aimed to assess the RHI in schizophrenia using quantifiable measures: proprioceptive drift and stimulation-dependent changes in hand temperature.\\n\\nMETHODS: The RHI was elicited in 24 schizophrenia patients and 21 matched controls by placing their unseen hand adjacent to a visible rubber hand and brushing real and rubber hands synchronously or asynchronously. Perceived finger location was measured before and after stimulation. Hand temperature was taken before and during stimulation. Subjective strength of the illusion was assessed by a questionnaire.\\n\\nRESULTS: Across groups, the RHI was stronger during synchronous stimulation, indicated by self-report and proprioceptive drift. Patients reported a stronger RHI than controls. Self-reported strength of RHI was associated with schizotypy in controls Proprioceptive drift was larger in patients, but only following synchronous stimulation. Further, we observed stimulation-dependent changes in skin temperature. During right hand stimulation, temperature dropped in the stimulated hand and rose in the unstimulated hand. Interestingly, induction of RHI led to an out-of-body experience in one patient, linking body disownership and psychotic experiences.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: The RHI is quantitatively and qualitatively stronger in schizophrenia. These findings suggest that patients have a more flexible body representation and weakened sense of self, and potentially indicate abnormalities in temporo-parietal networks implicated in body ownership. Further, results suggest that these body ownership disturbances might be at the heart of a subset of the pathognomonic delusions of passivity.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/disturbances-body-ownership-schizophrenia-evidence-rubber-hand-illusion-case-study-spontaneous-outof", "reader_count"=>194, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>20, "Researcher"=>29, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>49, "Student > Postgraduate"=>18, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>29, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>20, "Researcher"=>29, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>49, "Student > Postgraduate"=>18, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>29, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>16, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10, "Philosophy"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Engineering"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>22, "Neuroscience"=>19, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Psychology"=>101, "Social Sciences"=>7, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>22}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>101}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>16}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>19}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Japan"=>1, "Taiwan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Italy"=>4, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>9}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/718152"], "description"=>"<p>Mean rating for each item in the self-report questionnaire for each group following synchronous and asynchronous tactile stimulation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["self-report", "synchronous", "asynchronous", "tactile"], "article_id"=>388510, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Katharine N. Thakkar", "Heathman S. Nichols", "Lindsey G. McIntosh", "Sohee Park"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027089.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_rating_for_each_item_in_the_self_report_questionnaire_for_each_group_following_synchronous_and_asynchronous_tactile_stimulation_/388510", "title"=>"Mean rating for each item in the self-report questionnaire for each group following synchronous and asynchronous tactile stimulation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-31 02:21:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/363601"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>A weakened sense of self may contribute to psychotic experiences. Body ownership, one component of self-awareness, can be studied with the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Watching a rubber hand being stroked while one's unseen hand is stroked synchronously can lead to a sense of ownership over the rubber hand, a shift in perceived position of the real hand, and a limb-specific drop in stimulated hand temperature. We aimed to assess the RHI in schizophrenia using quantifiable measures: proprioceptive drift and stimulation-dependent changes in hand temperature.</p> <h3>Methods</h3><p>The RHI was elicited in 24 schizophrenia patients and 21 matched controls by placing their unseen hand adjacent to a visible rubber hand and brushing real and rubber hands synchronously or asynchronously. Perceived finger location was measured before and after stimulation. Hand temperature was taken before and during stimulation. Subjective strength of the illusion was assessed by a questionnaire.</p> <h3>Results</h3><p>Across groups, the RHI was stronger during synchronous stimulation, indicated by self-report and proprioceptive drift. Patients reported a stronger RHI than controls. Self-reported strength of RHI was associated with schizotypy in controls Proprioceptive drift was larger in patients, but only following synchronous stimulation. Further, we observed stimulation-dependent changes in skin temperature. During right hand stimulation, temperature dropped in the stimulated hand and rose in the unstimulated hand. Interestingly, induction of RHI led to an out-of-body experience in one patient, linking body disownership and psychotic experiences.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>The RHI is quantitatively and qualitatively stronger in schizophrenia. These findings suggest that patients have a more flexible body representation and weakened sense of self, and potentially indicate abnormalities in temporo-parietal networks implicated in body ownership. Further, results suggest that these body ownership disturbances might be at the heart of a subset of the pathognomonic delusions of passivity.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disturbances", "spontaneous", "out-of-body"], "article_id"=>131867, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Katharine N. Thakkar", "Heathman S. Nichols", "Lindsey G. McIntosh", "Sohee Park"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027089", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>13, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Disturbances_in_Body_Ownership_in_Schizophrenia_Evidence_from_the_Rubber_Hand_Illusion_and_Case_Study_of_a_Spontaneous_Out_of_Body_Experience/131867", "title"=>"Disturbances in Body Ownership in Schizophrenia: Evidence from the Rubber Hand Illusion and Case Study of a Spontaneous Out-of-Body Experience", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-31 00:31:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/718299"], "description"=>"<p>Vertical bars denote standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["unstimulated", "stimulated", "stimulation", "patients"], "article_id"=>388660, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Katharine N. Thakkar", "Heathman S. Nichols", "Lindsey G. McIntosh", "Sohee Park"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027089.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_change_in_skin_temperature_in_both_the_unstimulated_and_stimulated_hand_during_right_and_left_hand_stimulation_for_patients_and_controls_/388660", "title"=>"Mean change in skin temperature in both the unstimulated and stimulated hand during right and left hand stimulation for patients and controls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-31 02:24:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/718238"], "description"=>"<p>Vertical bars denote standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["proprioceptive", "synchronous", "asynchronous", "tactile"], "article_id"=>388601, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Katharine N. Thakkar", "Heathman S. Nichols", "Lindsey G. McIntosh", "Sohee Park"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027089.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_proprioceptive_drift_for_each_group_following_synchronous_and_asynchronous_tactile_stimulation_/388601", "title"=>"Mean proprioceptive drift for each group following synchronous and asynchronous tactile stimulation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-31 02:23:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/718359"], "description"=>"1<p>The Phi value is the result of a Fishers exact test.</p>2<p>Edinburgh handedness inventory : −100 completely sinistral to +100 completely dextral.</p>3<p>Chlorpromazine (CPZ) equivalent dose of antipsychotic medication (mg/kg/day).</p><p>N/A  =  not applicable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics"], "article_id"=>388723, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Katharine N. Thakkar", "Heathman S. Nichols", "Lindsey G. McIntosh", "Sohee Park"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027089.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demographic_characteristics_of_the_patient_and_control_groups_/388723", "title"=>"Demographic characteristics of the patient and control groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-31 02:25:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/718087"], "description"=>"<p>Experimental set-up.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>388452, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Katharine N. Thakkar", "Heathman S. Nichols", "Lindsey G. McIntosh", "Sohee Park"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027089.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_set_up_/388452", "title"=>"Experimental set-up.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-31 02:20:52"}

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Relative Metric

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