Resource Wars and Conflict Ivory: The Impact of Civil Conflict on Elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo - The Case of the Okapi Reserve
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{"title"=>"Resource wars and conflict ivory: The impact of civil conflict on elephants in the democratic republic of Congo - the case of the Okapi reserve", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Rene L.", "last_name"=>"Beyers", "scopus_author_id"=>"35742850200"}, {"first_name"=>"John A.", "last_name"=>"Hart", "scopus_author_id"=>"55319293600"}, {"first_name"=>"Anthony R.E.", "last_name"=>"Sinclair", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202756245"}, {"first_name"=>"Falk", "last_name"=>"Grossmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"16241461800"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian", "last_name"=>"Klinkenberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603878036"}, {"first_name"=>"Simeon", "last_name"=>"Dino", "scopus_author_id"=>"54412102200"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"80655132037", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0027129", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"362888171", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0027129", "pmid"=>"22096529", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80655132037"}, "id"=>"2d707e5e-d928-33ce-b48f-56b78f56abca", "abstract"=>"Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/resource-wars-conflict-ivory-impact-civil-conflict-elephants-democratic-republic-congo-case-okapi-re", "reader_count"=>106, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Other"=>9, "Student > Master"=>23, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Other"=>9, "Student > Master"=>23, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>27, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>50, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Philosophy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>8, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>8}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>50}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>27}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Kenya"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714006"], "description"=>"<p>Number of poaching operations observed (left map), number of bushmeat markets observed (middle map) and estimation of elephant hunting intensity (right map).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bushmeat", "ivory", "markets", "poaching"], "article_id"=>384365, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Rene L. Beyers", "John A. Hart", "Anthony R. E. Sinclair", "Falk Grossmann", "Brian Klinkenberg", "Simeon Dino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027129.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Poaching_operations_bushmeat_and_ivory_markets_and_poaching_intensity_in_the_RFO_2002_8211_2003_/384365", "title"=>"Poaching operations, bushmeat and ivory markets and poaching intensity in the RFO, 2002–2003.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:12:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714367"], "description"=>"(1)<p>Digitized from Landsat images by the Department of Geography, University of Ghent (<a href=\"http://geoweb.ugent.be/sygiap/\" target=\"_blank\">http://geoweb.ugent.be/sygiap/</a>).</p>(2)<p>Database of the Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE, <a href=\"http://carpe.umd.edu/\" target=\"_blank\">http://carpe.umd.edu/</a>).</p>(3)<p>Carpe Decadal Forest Change Mapping project (CARPE Decadal Forest Change Mapping (DFCM) Project, <a href=\"http://carpe.umd.edu/resources/dfcm\" target=\"_blank\">http://carpe.umd.edu/resources/dfcm</a>) and South Dakota State University (Erik Lindquist).</p>(4)<p>Space Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRT Seamless Data Distribution System, Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), <a href=\"http://seamless.usgs.gov\" target=\"_blank\">http://seamless.usgs.gov</a>).</p>(5)<p>Obtained from Landsat 7 images (2002) and field data from transects and classified into the following ‘ecozone’ categories: mixed hill forest, rocky outcrops (inselbergs), savanna-forest ecotone, mixed forest, mono-dominant forest consisting of <i>Gilbertiodendron dewrevei</i>, swamp forest and non-forested area.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["covariates", "included", "spatial", "models", "1995"], "article_id"=>384716, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Rene L. Beyers", "John A. Hart", "Anthony R. E. Sinclair", "Falk Grossmann", "Brian Klinkenberg", "Simeon Dino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027129.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Candidate_covariates_included_in_the_spatial_models_for_1995_and_2006_/384716", "title"=>"Candidate covariates included in the spatial models for 1995 and 2006.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:18:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714451"], "description"=>"<p>“(L)” denotes a linear term and the “+” or “-” sign denotes a positive correlation or a negative correlation with the linear term. Other variables are smoothed and the nature of their relationship with the predictor is dependent on the value of the predictor and is shown on their respective gam plots (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0027129#pone-0027129-g004\" target=\"_blank\">figure 4</a>) * denotes a significant difference with the null model. Only significant habitat variables are given.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dung", "densities", "okapi", "1995"], "article_id"=>384809, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Rene L. Beyers", "John A. Hart", "Anthony R. E. Sinclair", "Falk Grossmann", "Brian Klinkenberg", "Simeon Dino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027129.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_GAM_s_of_elephant_dung_densities_in_the_Okapi_reserve_in_1995_and_2006_/384809", "title"=>"GAM's of elephant dung densities in the Okapi reserve in 1995 and 2006.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:20:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/362043"], "description"=>"<div><p>Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wars", "elephants", "congo", "okapi"], "article_id"=>131573, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Rene L. Beyers", "John A. Hart", "Anthony R. E. Sinclair", "Falk Grossmann", "Brian Klinkenberg", "Simeon Dino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027129", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Resource_Wars_and_Conflict_Ivory_The_Impact_of_Civil_Conflict_on_Elephants_in_the_Democratic_Republic_of_Congo_The_Case_of_the_Okapi_Reserve/131573", "title"=>"Resource Wars and Conflict Ivory: The Impact of Civil Conflict on Elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo - The Case of the Okapi Reserve", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 00:26:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714109"], "description"=>"<p>A. Dung density surface (dung per hectare) in 1995. B. Dung density surface (dung per hectare) in 2006.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["maps", "1995", "2006", "derived"], "article_id"=>384468, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Rene L. Beyers", "John A. Hart", "Anthony R. E. Sinclair", "Falk Grossmann", "Brian Klinkenberg", "Simeon Dino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027129.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Elephant_density_surface_maps_for_1995_and_2006_derived_using_Ordinary_Kriging_/384468", "title"=>"Elephant density surface maps for 1995 and 2006 derived using Ordinary Kriging.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:14:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/713914"], "description"=>"<p>A. Boundaries of the reserve, roads, main towns, park headquarters and sampling locations. B. Geographic location in Central Africa.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["okapi", "faunal", "sampling"], "article_id"=>384271, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Rene L. Beyers", "John A. Hart", "Anthony R. E. Sinclair", "Falk Grossmann", "Brian Klinkenberg", "Simeon Dino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027129.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_the_Okapi_Faunal_Reserve_with_sampling_locations_/384271", "title"=>"Map of the Okapi Faunal Reserve with sampling locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:11:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714321"], "description"=>"(1)<p>Hart, JA (2003) Conflict Ivory: Elephant Poaching and Ivory Traffic in the Ituri forest during the Congolese Civil War: 1996–2004. A Collaborative Documentation: ICCN, WCS, MIKE and Gilman Intl Conservation, US Fish and Wildlife Service. Unpublished presentation.</p>(2)<p>Apopo CA (2004) Rapport sur le braconnage à l'Eléphant et sur la commerce de l'ivoire dans et à la_périphérie de la Réserve de Faune à Okapis. Inventory and Monitoring Unit, Rapport No 3, December 2004, Widlife Conservation Society, Democratic Republic of Congo, 33 p.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ivory", "rfo"], "article_id"=>384682, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Rene L. Beyers", "John A. Hart", "Anthony R. E. Sinclair", "Falk Grossmann", "Brian Klinkenberg", "Simeon Dino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027129.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reported_ivory_in_the_RFO_during_the_conflict_/384682", "title"=>"Reported ivory in the RFO during the conflict.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:18:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714290"], "description"=>"<p>CV (n/L)  =  coefficient of variation for dung encounter rates (dung piles per km), ESW  =  effective strip width, D  =  dung density per hectare, CV (D)  =  coefficient of variation for dung density per hectare, CI  =  confidence interval for dung density per hectare.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "dung", "densities", "rfo", "spatial"], "article_id"=>384645, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Rene L. Beyers", "John A. Hart", "Anthony R. E. Sinclair", "Falk Grossmann", "Brian Klinkenberg", "Simeon Dino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027129.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Survey_effort_encounter_rates_and_elephant_dung_densities_in_the_RFO_from_the_data_that_were_used_for_spatial_models_/384645", "title"=>"Survey effort, encounter rates and elephant dung densities in the RFO from the data that were used for spatial models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:17:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714223"], "description"=>"<p>The gam plots show the nature of the modeled relationships between the smoothed predictor and the dependent variable. The effect of the predictor on the dependent variable is shown on the y-axis for different values of the predictor (x-axis). Estimates are shown by the solid line and 95% confidence intervals by the dashed lines. A rug plot just above the X-axis indicates the density of observations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plots", "smoothed", "dung"], "article_id"=>384581, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Rene L. Beyers", "John A. Hart", "Anthony R. E. Sinclair", "Falk Grossmann", "Brian Klinkenberg", "Simeon Dino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027129.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gam_plots_of_the_effect_of_each_smoothed_variable_on_estimated_dung_densities_/384581", "title"=>"Gam plots of the effect of each smoothed variable on estimated dung densities.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:16:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714400"], "description"=>"(1)<p>the post-war survey in 2007 covered the southern core zone of the park only (2567 km<sup>2</sup>) as this was the area where remaining populations of elephants were concentrated. Very few elephants were reported outside this area.</p>(2)<p>de Merode E, Bila I, Telo J, Panziama G (2005) An aerial reconnaissance of Garamba National park with a focus on northern white rhinoceros. Technical report to ICCN and the European Union Further technical input from ACF and WWF-CARPO staff.</p>(3)<p>Emslie RH, Reid C, Tello J (2006) Report on the different target species counted and evidence of poaching activity recorded during aerial and ground surveys undertaken in southern Garamba National Park and adjoining Domaine de Chasse Gangala Na Bodio, DR Congo 17th–30th March 2006. ICCN, AP, IUCN-SSC, UNESCO.</p>(4)<p>Hillman-Smith K, Atalia M, Likango M, Smith F, Ndey A, et al. (1995) General aerial count 1995 and evaluation of the status and trends of the ecosystem. Garamba National Park Project Report. Unpublished.</p>(5)<p>estimates are informed guesses based on recce surveys in a sub-area of the protected area. Current populations may be lower. Surveys in sub-area in 2005 indicate a 150 times lower encounter rate of elephant dung than in the same area in 1992.</p>(6)<p>Nixon SC A Preliminary Survey of the Maiko National Park Southern Sector and Adjacent Forests, January-May 2005. Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International, unpublished field report.</p>(7)<p>this was not an exhaustive survey due to continued rebel presence, but the lack of elephant signs is ominous.</p>(8)<p>Hart J, Carbo M, Amsini F, Grossmann F, Kibambe C (2007) Parc National de Kahuzi-Biega, Secteur de Basse Altitude: Inventaire préliminaire de la grande faune avec une évaluation de l'impact des activités humaines et la situation sécuritaire 2004–2007. Inventory and Monitoring Unit, Rapport No7, Novembre 2007, Widlife Conservation Society, Democratic Republic of Congo.</p>(9)<p>Kujirakwinja D, Plumptre A, Moyer D, Mushemzi N (2006) Parc National des Virunga. Recensement aerien des grands mammifères. Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature, Wildlife Conservation Society, US Fish and Wildlife Service.</p>(10)<p>Matunguru J (2007) Rapport de mission sur le suivi des éléphants effectuée à Kabaraza du 17 au 19 mai 2007. Wildlife Conservation Society , PN Virungas. Unpublished field report.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["declines", "rfo", "compared", "sites"], "article_id"=>384758, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Rene L. Beyers", "John A. Hart", "Anthony R. E. Sinclair", "Falk Grossmann", "Brian Klinkenberg", "Simeon Dino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027129.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Elephant_population_declines_in_the_RFO_compared_to_other_sites_in_DRC_/384758", "title"=>"Elephant population declines in the RFO compared to other sites in DRC.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:19:18"}

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Relative Metric

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