Fate of Transgenic DNA from Orally Administered Bt MON810 Maize and Effects on Immune Response and Growth in Pigs
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{"title"=>"Fate of transgenic DNA from orally administered Bt MON810 maize and effects on immune response and growth in pigs", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Maria C.", "last_name"=>"Walsh", "scopus_author_id"=>"16199939600"}, {"first_name"=>"Stefan G.", "last_name"=>"Buzoianu", "scopus_author_id"=>"54779566000"}, {"first_name"=>"Gillian E.", "last_name"=>"Gardiner", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004990687"}, {"first_name"=>"Mary C.", "last_name"=>"Rea", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102602662"}, {"first_name"=>"Eva", "last_name"=>"Gelencsér", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602080968"}, {"first_name"=>"Anna", "last_name"=>"Jánosi", "scopus_author_id"=>"14623763000"}, {"first_name"=>"Michelle M.", "last_name"=>"Epstein", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402534976"}, {"first_name"=>"R. Paul", "last_name"=>"Ross", "scopus_author_id"=>"55664948500"}, {"first_name"=>"Peadar G.", "last_name"=>"Lawlor", "scopus_author_id"=>"35563655400"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22132091", "pui"=>"362968029", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-81855203270", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0027177", "isbn"=>"19326203 (ISSN)", "sgr"=>"81855203270"}, "id"=>"36fa673f-d974-3fe4-9707-221dd8cf0ee5", "abstract"=>"We assessed the effect of short-term feeding of genetically modified (GM: Bt MON810) maize on immune responses and growth in weanling pigs and determined the fate of the transgenic DNA and protein in-vivo. Pigs were fed a diet containing 38.9% GM or non-GM isogenic parent line maize for 31 days. We observed that IL-12 and IFNγ production from mitogenic stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased (P<0.10) following 31 days of GM maize exposure. While Cry1Ab-specific IgG and IgA were not detected in the plasma of GM maize-fed pigs, the detection of the cry1Ab gene and protein was limited to the gastrointestinal digesta and was not found in the kidneys, liver, spleen, muscle, heart or blood. Feeding GM maize to weanling pigs had no effect on growth performance or body weight. IL-6 and IL-4 production from isolated splenocytes were increased (P<0.05) in response to feeding GM maize while the proportion of CD4(+) T cells in the spleen decreased. In the ileum, the proportion of B cells and macrophages decreased while the proportion of CD4(+) T cells increased in GM maize-fed pigs. IL-8 and IL-4 production from isolated intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes were also increased (P<0.05) in response to feeding GM maize. In conclusion, there was no evidence of cry1Ab gene or protein translocation to the organs and blood of weaning pigs. The growth of pigs was not affected by feeding GM maize. Alterations in immune responses were detected; however, their biologic relevance is questionable.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/fate-transgenic-dna-orally-administered-bt-mon810-maize-effects-immune-response-growth-pigs", "reader_count"=>47, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4, "Unspecified"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4, "Unspecified"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>30, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>4, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>4}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>30}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Vietnam"=>1, "United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Paraguay"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709248"], "description"=>"<p>PCR products from liver samples of 10 pigs (<b>Expt. 1)</b> fed either GM maize (G) or control maize (C), for each of the target gene fragments; (a) <i>cry1Ab</i>, (b) <i>SW</i> (endogenous porcine) and (C) <i>Sh2</i> (endogenous maize). Arrows indicate the expected size of PCR products. Reactions without template DNA (no DNA) and with purified genomic DNA from MON810 maize and isogenic parent line maize were included as controls. A DNA isolation control which did not contain any sample material was also used. M = molecular weight marker.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transgenic", "dna", "orally", "administered", "bt", "mon810", "maize"], "article_id"=>379592, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria C. Walsh", "Stefan G. Buzoianu", "Gillian E. Gardiner", "Mary C. Rea", "Eva Gelencsér", "Anna Jánosi", "Michelle M. Epstein", "R. Paul Ross", "Peadar G. Lawlor"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027177.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fate_of_transgenic_DNA_from_orally_administered_Bt_MON810_maize_in_pigs_/379592", "title"=>"Fate of transgenic DNA from orally administered Bt MON810 maize in pigs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 11:22:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709385"], "description"=>"<p>Cry1Ab specific IgG antibody was not detected in any of the samples assayed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["feeding", "non-gm", "maize", "gm", "non-maize", "pigs", "31", "days", "plasma", "cry1ab", "igg", "antibody"], "article_id"=>379722, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria C. Walsh", "Stefan G. Buzoianu", "Gillian E. Gardiner", "Mary C. Rea", "Eva Gelencsér", "Anna Jánosi", "Michelle M. Epstein", "R. Paul Ross", "Peadar G. Lawlor"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027177.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_feeding_non_GM_maize_9830_GM_maize_9633_or_non_maize_feed_9652_to_pigs_for_31_days_on_plasma_concentration_of_Cry1Ab_specific_IgG_antibody_Expt_1_/379722", "title"=>"Effect of feeding non-GM maize (♦), GM maize (□) or non-maize feed (▴) to pigs for 31 days on plasma concentration of Cry1Ab specific IgG antibody (Expt. 1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 11:23:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709461"], "description"=>"<p>Cry1Ab specific IgA antibody was not detected in any of the samples assayed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["feeding", "non-gm", "maize", "gm", "non-maize", "pigs", "31", "days", "plasma", "cry1ab", "iga", "antibody"], "article_id"=>379804, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria C. Walsh", "Stefan G. Buzoianu", "Gillian E. Gardiner", "Mary C. Rea", "Eva Gelencsér", "Anna Jánosi", "Michelle M. Epstein", "R. Paul Ross", "Peadar G. Lawlor"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027177.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_feeding_non_GM_maize_9830_GM_maize_9633_or_non_maize_feed_9652_to_pigs_for_31_days_on_plasma_concentration_of_Cry1Ab_specific_IgA_antibody_Expt_1_/379804", "title"=>"Effect of feeding non-GM maize (♦), GM maize (□) or non-maize feed (▴) to pigs for 31 days on plasma concentration of Cry1Ab specific IgA antibody (Expt. 1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 11:23:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709552"], "description"=>"<p>Mean values±SEM were calculated as a percentage of the total lamina propria and intra-epithelial lymphocyte populations. * Significance at <i>P</i><0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["leukocyte", "populations", "ileum", "pigs", "fed", "non-gm", "gm", "maize", "35", "days"], "article_id"=>379896, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria C. Walsh", "Stefan G. Buzoianu", "Gillian E. Gardiner", "Mary C. Rea", "Eva Gelencsér", "Anna Jánosi", "Michelle M. Epstein", "R. Paul Ross", "Peadar G. Lawlor"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027177.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_the_proportion_of_different_leukocyte_populations_in_the_ileum_of_pigs_fed_non_GM_9633_or_GM_9642_maize_for_a_period_of_35_days_Expt_2_/379896", "title"=>"Changes in the proportion of different leukocyte populations in the ileum of pigs fed non-GM (□) or GM (▪) maize for a period of 35 days (Expt. 2).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 11:24:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709636"], "description"=>"<p>Mean values±SEM were calculated as a percentage of the total splenocyte population. †Tendency for a significance at <i>P</i><0.10.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["leukocytes", "populations", "spleen", "pigs", "fed", "non-gm", "gm", "maize", "35", "days"], "article_id"=>379976, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria C. Walsh", "Stefan G. Buzoianu", "Gillian E. Gardiner", "Mary C. Rea", "Eva Gelencsér", "Anna Jánosi", "Michelle M. Epstein", "R. Paul Ross", "Peadar G. Lawlor"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027177.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_the_proportion_of_different_leukocytes_populations_in_the_spleen_of_pigs_fed_non_GM_9633_or_GM_9642_maize_for_a_period_of_35_days_Expt_2_/379976", "title"=>"Changes in the proportion of different leukocytes populations in the spleen of pigs fed non-GM (□) or GM (▪) maize for a period of 35 days (Expt. 2).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 11:24:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709747"], "description"=>"1<p>Number of samples that tested positive for the gene of interest out of 10 samples analyzed. One sample was tested per pig (<i>n</i>  = 10 pigs per treatment).</p>2<p>GM treatments; - denotes non-GM maize-fed pigs and + denotes GM maize-fed pigs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["endogenous", "maize", "porcine", "genes", "transgenic", "cells", "pigs", "fed", "gm", "non-gm", "31", "days"], "article_id"=>380087, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria C. Walsh", "Stefan G. Buzoianu", "Gillian E. Gardiner", "Mary C. Rea", "Eva Gelencsér", "Anna Jánosi", "Michelle M. Epstein", "R. Paul Ross", "Peadar G. Lawlor"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027177.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Detection_of_endogenous_maize_and_porcine_genes_and_transgenic_cry1Ab_gene_in_tissue_and_white_blood_cells_of_pigs_fed_GM_maize_versus_pigs_fed_a_non_GM_maize_diet_for_31_days_Expt_1_1_/380087", "title"=>"Detection of endogenous maize and porcine genes and transgenic <i>cry1Ab</i> gene in tissue and white blood cells of pigs fed GM maize versus pigs fed a non-GM maize diet for 31 days (<b>Expt. 1</b>)<sup>1</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 11:25:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709819"], "description"=>"1<p>Number of samples that tested positive for the gene of interest out of 10 samples analyzed. One sample was tested per pig (<i>n</i>  = 10 pigs per treatment).</p>2<p>GM treatments; - denotes non-GM maize-fed pigs and + denotes GM maize-fed pigs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["endogenous", "maize", "porcine", "genes", "transgenic", "ileal", "cecal", "digesta", "colon", "samples", "pigs", "fed", "gm", "non-gm", "31", "days"], "article_id"=>380148, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria C. Walsh", "Stefan G. Buzoianu", "Gillian E. Gardiner", "Mary C. Rea", "Eva Gelencsér", "Anna Jánosi", "Michelle M. Epstein", "R. Paul Ross", "Peadar G. Lawlor"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027177.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Detection_of_endogenous_maize_and_porcine_genes_and_transgenic_cry1Ab_gene_in_stomach_ileal_and_cecal_digesta_and_colon_samples_of_pigs_fed_GM_maize_versus_pigs_fed_a_non_GM_maize_diet_for_31_days_Expt_1_1_/380148", "title"=>"Detection of endogenous maize and porcine genes and transgenic <i>cry1Ab</i> gene in stomach, ileal and cecal digesta and colon samples of pigs fed GM maize versus pigs fed a non-GM maize diet for 31 days (<b>Expt. 1</b>)<sup>1</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 11:25:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709868"], "description"=>"1<p>Number of samples that tested positive for the Cry1Ab protein out of 10 samples analyzed. One sample was tested per pig (<i>n</i> = 10 pigs per treatment).</p>2<p>Percentage of samples positive for the Cry1Ab protein taken from GM maize fed pigs i.e. (number of positive samples/number of samples tested) ×100.</p>3<p>BDL = below detectable levels.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transgenic", "cry1ab", "plasma", "gastrointestinal", "digesta", "pigs", "fed", "gm", "non-gm"], "article_id"=>380213, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria C. Walsh", "Stefan G. Buzoianu", "Gillian E. Gardiner", "Mary C. Rea", "Eva Gelencsér", "Anna Jánosi", "Michelle M. Epstein", "R. Paul Ross", "Peadar G. Lawlor"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027177.t006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Detection_of_the_transgenic_Cry1Ab_protein_in_tissue_plasma_and_gastrointestinal_digesta_of_pigs_fed_GM_and_non_GM_maize_/380213", "title"=>"Detection of the transgenic Cry1Ab protein in tissue, plasma and gastrointestinal digesta of pigs fed GM and non-GM maize.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 11:25:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709923"], "description"=>"<p>ADG: average daily gain, ADFI; average daily feed intake, FCE; feed conversion efficiency = feed intake (g)/body weight (g), BW; body weight.</p>1<p><i>n</i> = 12 pigs in control group and 11 pigs in the GM maize-fed group.</p>2<p>Data analysis was performed using one factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the GLM procedure of SAS.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["feeding", "gm", "non-gm", "maize", "35", "days", "weanling"], "article_id"=>380264, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria C. Walsh", "Stefan G. Buzoianu", "Gillian E. Gardiner", "Mary C. Rea", "Eva Gelencsér", "Anna Jánosi", "Michelle M. Epstein", "R. Paul Ross", "Peadar G. Lawlor"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027177.t007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effects_of_feeding_GM_or_non_GM_maize_for_35_days_on_weanling_pig_growth_performance_Expt_2_1_/380264", "title"=>"The effects of feeding GM or non-GM maize for 35 days on weanling pig growth performance (<b>Expt. 2</b>)<sup>1</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 11:25:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709961"], "description"=>"1<p>Non-GM starter diet fed to pigs (Expt. 1) for 6 days post-weaning.</p>2<p>Experimental GM and non-GM maize diets fed to pigs in Expt. 1 for 31 days and Expt. 2 for 35 days.</p>3<p>Lactofeed 70 contains 70% lactose, 11.5% protein, 0.5% oil, 7.5% ash and 0.5% fibre (Volac, Cambridge, UK).</p>4<p>Immunopro 25 is a whey protein powder product containing 35% protein (Volac, Cambridge, UK).</p>5<p>Premix provided per kg of complete diet: Cu, 155 mg; Fe, 90 mg; Mn, 47 mg; Zn, 120 mg, I, 0.6 mg; Se, 0.3 mg; vitamin A, 6000 IU; vitamin D<sub>3,</sub> 1000 IU; vitamin E, 100 IU; vitamin K, 4 mg; vitamin B<sub>12,</sub> 15 µg; riboflavin, 2 mg; nicotinic acid, 12 mg; pantothenic acid, 10 mg; choline chloride, 250 mg; vitamin B<sub>1,</sub> 2 mg; vitamin B<sub>6,</sub> 3 mg; and endox, 60 mg.</p>6<p>Mycosorb is organic mycotoxin absorbent (Allech Inc. Dunboyne, Ireland).</p>7<p>Calculated values.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["acclimatization", "diets"], "article_id"=>380318, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria C. Walsh", "Stefan G. Buzoianu", "Gillian E. Gardiner", "Mary C. Rea", "Eva Gelencsér", "Anna Jánosi", "Michelle M. Epstein", "R. Paul Ross", "Peadar G. Lawlor"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027177.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Composition_of_acclimatization_starter_diet_and_experimental_diets_as_is_basis_1_2_/380318", "title"=>"Composition of acclimatization starter diet and experimental diets (as is basis, %)<sup>1</sup><sup>2</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 11:26:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/710012"], "description"=>"1<p>PCR conditions for <i>Sh</i>-F & R included 1 cycle at 94°C for 3 min, 30 cycles of 94°C for 30 s, down to 55°C for 30 s and back up to 72°C for 45 s and 1 cycle of 72°C for 5 min; <i>cry1Ab-</i>F & R; 1 cycle at 94°C for 3 min, 32 cycles of 95°C for 30 s, down to 64°C for 30 s and back up to 72°C for 30 s and 1 cycle of 72°C for 5 min; <i>SW</i>-F & R; 1 cycle at 94°C for 1 min, 30 cycles of 94°C for 30 s, down to 60°C for 30 s and back up to 72°C for 40 s and 1 cycle of 72°C for 3 min.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pcr", "reactions", "detection", "sequences", "porcine", "digesta"], "article_id"=>380362, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria C. Walsh", "Stefan G. Buzoianu", "Gillian E. Gardiner", "Mary C. Rea", "Eva Gelencsér", "Anna Jánosi", "Michelle M. Epstein", "R. Paul Ross", "Peadar G. Lawlor"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027177.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primers_used_in_PCR_reactions_for_the_detection_of_three_target_sequences_in_porcine_organ_white_blood_cell_and_digesta_samples_/380362", "title"=>"Primers used in PCR reactions for the detection of three target sequences in porcine organ, white blood cell and digesta samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 11:26:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/710070"], "description"=>"1<p><i>n</i> = 10 pigs in control group and 10 pigs in the GM maize-fed group.</p>2<p>Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from pigs fed treatments for 29 days (<b>Expt. 1</b>) and splenocytes and lamina propria & intraepithelial lymphocytes were isolated from pigs fed treatments for 35 days (<b>Expt. 2</b>).</p>3<p>All isolated cells were stimulated with PBS (- PMA/I) or 25 ng/µL phorbol myristate acetate and 2 mg/mL ionomycin (+ PMA/I) for 18 h at 37<sup>o</sup>C in a 5% (v/v) CO<sub>2</sub> humidified atmosphere.</p>4<p>Data analysis was performed using two factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with interactions to determine if differences in cytokine production varied by treatment and mitogen stimulation. Baseline values measured on day 0 were included as covariates in the model.</p>5<p>Data analysis was performed using two factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with interactions to determine if differences in cytokine production varied by treatment and mitogen stimulation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["feeding", "gm", "maize", "non-gm", "mitogenic", "stimulation", "cytokine", "porcine", "peripheral", "mononuclear", "cells", "splenocytes", "lamina", "propria", "intraepithelial", "lymphocytes"], "article_id"=>380405, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Maria C. Walsh", "Stefan G. Buzoianu", "Gillian E. Gardiner", "Mary C. Rea", "Eva Gelencsér", "Anna Jánosi", "Michelle M. Epstein", "R. Paul Ross", "Peadar G. Lawlor"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027177.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effects_of_feeding_GM_maize_or_non_GM_maize_with_or_without_mitogenic_stimulation_on_cytokine_production_from_porcine_isolated_peripheral_blood_mononuclear_cells_Expt_1_splenocytes_and_lamina_propria_and_intraepithelial_lymphocytes_Expt_2_1_2_/380405", "title"=>"The effects of feeding GM maize or non-GM maize with or without mitogenic stimulation on cytokine production from porcine isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (<b>Expt. 1</b>), splenocytes and lamina propria and intraepithelial lymphocytes (<b>Expt. 2</b>) <sup>1</sup><sup>2</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 11:26:39"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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