Moth Wing Scales Slightly Increase the Absorbance of Bat Echolocation Calls
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{"title"=>"Moth wing scales slightly increase the absorbance of bat echolocation calls", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jinyao", "last_name"=>"Zeng", "scopus_author_id"=>"54419347900"}, {"first_name"=>"Ning", "last_name"=>"Xiang", "scopus_author_id"=>"57196673229"}, {"first_name"=>"Lei", "last_name"=>"Jiang", "scopus_author_id"=>"56422845100"}, {"first_name"=>"Gareth", "last_name"=>"Jones", "scopus_author_id"=>"55215755200"}, {"first_name"=>"Yongmei", "last_name"=>"Zheng", "scopus_author_id"=>"57198813718"}, {"first_name"=>"Bingwan", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7408689945"}, {"first_name"=>"Shuyi", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"35212214400"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362888167", "sgr"=>"80655141584", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22096534", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80655141584", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0027190", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"c97bfebc-b623-3878-97a2-e20663755fd5", "abstract"=>"Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies, we found that moth scales are composed of honeycomb-like hollows similar to sound-absorbing material, but these were absent from butterfly scales. Micro-reverberation chamber experiments revealed that moth wings were more absorbent at the frequencies emitted by many echolocating bats (40-60 kHz) than butterfly wings. Furthermore, moth wings lost absorbance at these frequencies when scales were removed, which suggests that some moths have evolved stealth tactics to reduce their conspicuousness to echolocating bats. Although the benefits to moths are relatively small in terms of reducing their target strengths, scales may nonetheless confer survival advantages by reducing the detection distances of moths by bats by 5-6%.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/moth-wing-scales-slightly-increase-absorbance-bat-echolocation-calls", "reader_count"=>64, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>18, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>18, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>3, "Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>44, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Psychology"=>2, "Computer Science"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>44}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Czech Republic"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Serbia and Montenegro"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714595"], "description"=>"<p>Showing the arrangement of ground scales (gs) and cover scales (cs) on the wing. (<i>A</i>) The Tiger Moth (<i>Spilosoma niveus</i>). (<i>B</i>) The Clouded Buff (<i>Rhyparioides amurensis</i>). (<i>C</i>) The Indian Cabbage White Butterfly (<i>Pieris canidia</i>). (<i>D</i>) The Asian Pale Clouded Yellow (<i>Colias erate</i>). Scale bar, 100 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["images", "hind"], "article_id"=>384949, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jinyao Zeng", "Ning Xiang", "Lei Jiang", "Gareth Jones", "Yongmei Zheng", "Bingwan Liu", "Shuyi Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027190.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_SEM_images_of_a_tiny_section_of_the_hind_wing_/384949", "title"=>"SEM images of a tiny section of the hind wing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 11:51:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714990"], "description"=>"<p>The ultrasonic source is deployed in a chamber corner, and the ultrasonic microphone can be moved from the lid up-and-down to warrant spatial averages. Many semi-spherical scatters are also deployed on the interior surfaces to achieve a diffuse sound field within the frequency range of interest. Medium exchange by nitrogen is carried out by one of the gas inlet/outlets.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ultrasonic", "absorption"], "article_id"=>385345, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jinyao Zeng", "Ning Xiang", "Lei Jiang", "Gareth Jones", "Yongmei Zheng", "Bingwan Liu", "Shuyi Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027190.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reverberation_chamber_used_for_the_ultrasonic_absorption_measurements_/385345", "title"=>"Reverberation chamber used for the ultrasonic absorption measurements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 11:54:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/715142"], "description"=>"<p>Values are expressed as mean ± SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scales", "moths"], "article_id"=>385500, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jinyao Zeng", "Ning Xiang", "Lei Jiang", "Gareth Jones", "Yongmei Zheng", "Bingwan Liu", "Shuyi Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027190.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_cover_scales_and_ground_scales_in_the_moths_and_butterflies_/385500", "title"=>"Characteristics of cover scales and ground scales in the moths and butterflies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 11:54:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714837"], "description"=>"<p><i>Spilosoma niveus</i> (<i>S.n.</i>), <i>Rhyparioides amurensis</i> (<i>R.a.</i>), <i>Pieris canidia</i> (<i>P.c.</i>) and <i>Colias erate</i> (<i>C.e.</i>). (<i>A</i>) Moths with scales differed significantly in absorption factors compared with moths without scales, and from butterflies with and without scales (<i>P</i><0.001). Absorption factors of moths without scales did not differ from those of butterflies either with or without scales (<i>P</i><0.05). (<i>B</i>) The absorption factors of butterfly wings with or without scales did not differ significantly (<i>P</i>>0.05). Experiments were performed in triplicate, and the SEM is indicated by the error bars, and <i>n</i> = 15 for all samples.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wings", "scales", "moths", "butterflies", "20", "khz", "100"], "article_id"=>385189, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jinyao Zeng", "Ning Xiang", "Lei Jiang", "Gareth Jones", "Yongmei Zheng", "Bingwan Liu", "Shuyi Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027190.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Absorption_factor_of_wings_with_and_without_scales_of_moths_and_butterflies_from_20_kHz_to_100_kHz_/385189", "title"=>"Absorption factor of wings with and without scales of moths and butterflies from 20 kHz to 100 kHz.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 11:53:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714714"], "description"=>"<p>Showing the complicated upper lamina and the interior of a scale. Ridges (R), lamellae (l), microribs (mr) and crossribs (r) are indicated distinctly. (<i>A</i> and <i>B</i>) Multiform trabeculae (T) connect with each other and form various mesh between the upper and bottom laminae within the scale of <i>Spilosoma niveus</i> (<i>A</i>) and <i>Rhyparioides amurensis</i> (<i>B</i>). Scale bar, 1 µm. (<i>C</i> and <i>D</i>) These meshworks all run into one another within the scale. Ridges and microribs form many close and regular windows, and pigment granules (p) could be seen in <i>Pieris canidia</i> (<i>C</i>) and <i>Colias erate</i> (<i>D</i>) scales, although trabeculae were not apparent. Scale bars, 1 µm (<i>C</i>), 100 nm (<i>D</i>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["images"], "article_id"=>385071, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jinyao Zeng", "Ning Xiang", "Lei Jiang", "Gareth Jones", "Yongmei Zheng", "Bingwan Liu", "Shuyi Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027190.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_SEM_images_of_a_scale_fragment_/385071", "title"=>"SEM images of a scale fragment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 11:52:34"}

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Relative Metric

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