The Protective Role of Coastal Marshes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
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{"title"=>"The protective role of coastal marshes: A systematic review and meta-analysis", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Christine C.", "last_name"=>"Shepard", "scopus_author_id"=>"54401787500"}, {"first_name"=>"Caitlin M.", "last_name"=>"Crain", "scopus_author_id"=>"6604066942"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael W.", "last_name"=>"Beck", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402768918"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362967384", "sgr"=>"81755166540", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22132099", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-81755166540", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0027374", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"4d296468-7dbd-39ae-bfba-ce5ea765fe2a", "abstract"=>"Background Salt marshes lie between many human communities and the coast and have been presumed to protect these communities from coastal hazards by providing important ecosystem services. However, previous characterizations of these ecosystem services have typically been based on a small number of historical studies, and the consistency and extent to which marshes provide these services has not been investigated. Here, we review the current evidence for the specific processes of wave attenuation, shoreline stabilization and floodwater attenuation to determine if and under what conditions salt marshes offer these coastal protection services. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a thorough search and synthesis of the literature with reference to these processes. Seventy-five publications met our selection criteria, and we conducted meta-analyses for publications with sufficient data available for quantitative analysis. We found that combined across all studies (n = 7), salt marsh vegetation had a significant positive effect on wave attenuation as measured by reductions in wave height per unit distance across marsh vegetation. Salt marsh vegetation also had a significant positive effect on shoreline stabilization as measured by accretion, lateral erosion reduction, and marsh surface elevation change (n = 30). Salt marsh characteristics that were positively correlated to both wave attenuation and shoreline stabilization were vegetation density, biomass production, and marsh size. Although we could not find studies quantitatively evaluating floodwater attenuation within salt marshes, there are several studies noting the negative effects of wetland alteration on water quantity regulation within coastal areas. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that salt marshes have value for coastal hazard mitigation and climate change adaptation. Because we do not yet fully understand the magnitude of this value, we propose that decision makers employ natural systems to maximize the benefits and ecosystem services provided by salt marshes and exercise caution when making decisions that erode these services.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/protective-role-coastal-marshes-systematic-review-metaanalysis-3", "reader_count"=>294, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Researcher"=>54, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>70, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>70, "Other"=>18, "Student > Bachelor"=>33, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Researcher"=>54, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>70, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>70, "Other"=>18, "Student > Bachelor"=>33, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>19, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>75, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>36, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>5, "Engineering"=>20, "Environmental Science"=>119, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Design"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>9}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>19}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>119}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>20}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>36}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>75}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "United States"=>10, "United Kingdom"=>5, "Spain"=>2, "Netherlands"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Mexico"=>3, "South Africa"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>24}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709017"], "description"=>"<p>Average effect size of marsh vegetation (<i>d</i>) for meta-analyses on a.) wave attenuation and b.) shoreline stabilization as measured by increases in accretion/marsh surface elevation change or decreases in lateral erosion.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["marsh", "vegetation", "meta-analyses", "attenuation", "shoreline", "stabilization", "increases", "elevation", "decreases", "lateral"], "article_id"=>379373, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Christine C. Shepard", "Caitlin M. Crain", "Michael W. Beck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027374.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_effect_size_of_marsh_vegetation_d_for_meta_analyses_on_a_wave_attenuation_and_b_shoreline_stabilization_as_measured_by_increases_in_accretion_marsh_surface_elevation_change_or_decreases_in_lateral_erosion_/379373", "title"=>"Average effect size of marsh vegetation (<i>d</i>) for meta-analyses on a.) wave attenuation and b.) shoreline stabilization as measured by increases in accretion/marsh surface elevation change or decreases in lateral erosion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 02:36:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709300"], "description"=>"<p>The numbers of outcomes associated with each trend are plotted for each measure of shoreline stabilization and also all measures combined: gray bars represent a negative effect on the process, white bars represent no effect or mixed results and black bars represent a positive effect on the process. P value above the combined bars is significance value for chi square test. P values not reported for individual measures of effect due to insufficient frequency cell counts.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["outcomes", "shoreline", "stabilization", "publications", "comparing", "erosion", "marsh", "elevation", "vegetated", "unvegetated"], "article_id"=>379655, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Christine C. Shepard", "Caitlin M. Crain", "Michael W. Beck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027374.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reported_outcomes_from_all_shoreline_stabilization_publications_comparing_accretion_erosion_reduction_or_marsh_surface_elevation_change_in_both_vegetated_and_unvegetated_salt_marsh_areas_/379655", "title"=>"Reported outcomes from all shoreline stabilization publications comparing accretion, erosion reduction, or marsh surface elevation change in both vegetated and unvegetated salt marsh areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 02:40:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709489"], "description"=>"<p>(<i>d</i>) is found by calculating the difference between the means of the vegetated and unvegetated groups divided by the pooled standard deviation and weighted by a correction factor that adjusts for small sample size bias. Positive values of <i>d</i> indicate that marsh vegetation increases shoreline stabilization. Measures of shoreline stabilization include AC = Accretion, SEL = Marsh surface elevation change, ER = Lateral Erosion. The sign of <i>d</i> was reversed for studies that reported lateral erosion. Full citations are available in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0027374#pone.0027374.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["weighted", "sizes", "studies", "included", "shoreline", "stabilization"], "article_id"=>379848, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Christine C. Shepard", "Caitlin M. Crain", "Michael W. Beck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027374.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_and_weighted_effect_sizes_of_studies_included_in_the_shoreline_stabilization_meta_analysis_/379848", "title"=>"Characteristics and weighted effect sizes of studies included in the shoreline stabilization meta-analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 02:44:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709451"], "description"=>"<p>The four studies suggest that natural or unaltered coastal marshes drain water more quickly and effectively. Increased drainage in marsh areas (either to coastal water bodies or into the ground) may help store and drain waters away from adjacent developed areas. Full citations are available in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0027374#pone.0027374.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["providing", "floodwater", "attenuation"], "article_id"=>379814, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Christine C. Shepard", "Caitlin M. Crain", "Michael W. Beck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027374.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Studies_providing_support_for_the_floodwater_attenuation_capacity_of_coastal_marshes_/379814", "title"=>"Studies providing support for the floodwater attenuation capacity of coastal marshes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 02:43:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709153"], "description"=>"<p>In most cases, the initial wave recorder was located at the marsh edge although some initial measurements were made just inside of the marsh edge. (H = wave height).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["attenuation", "rates", "marsh", "vegetation", "transect"], "article_id"=>379511, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Christine C. Shepard", "Caitlin M. Crain", "Michael W. Beck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027374.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reported_wave_attenuation_rates_through_salt_marsh_vegetation_versus_marsh_transect_length_/379511", "title"=>"Reported wave attenuation rates through salt marsh vegetation versus marsh transect length.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 02:38:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709366"], "description"=>"<p>An effect is positive if an increase in the factor results in an increase in shoreline stabilization as measured by increases in accretion or marsh surface height or a reduction in lateral erosion. The effect of an increase in each factor on shoreline stabilization is indicated by the bar fill.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["factors", "quoted", "shoreline", "stabilization"], "article_id"=>379727, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Christine C. Shepard", "Caitlin M. Crain", "Michael W. Beck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027374.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_factors_most_commonly_quoted_as_being_of_importance_to_the_shoreline_stabilization_capacity_of_salt_marshes_/379727", "title"=>"The factors most commonly quoted as being of importance to the shoreline stabilization capacity of salt marshes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 02:42:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/708918"], "description"=>"<p>Global distribution of field studies evaluating coastal protection services provided by salt marshes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies", "evaluating", "services"], "article_id"=>379280, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Christine C. Shepard", "Caitlin M. Crain", "Michael W. Beck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027374.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Global_distribution_of_field_studies_evaluating_coastal_protection_services_provided_by_salt_marshes_/379280", "title"=>"Global distribution of field studies evaluating coastal protection services provided by salt marshes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 02:34:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709516"], "description"=>"<p>(<i>d</i>) is found by calculating the difference between the means of the vegetated and unvegetated groups divided by the pooled standard deviation and weighted by a correction factor that adjusts for small sample size bias. Positive values indicate that marsh vegetation increases wave attenuation. Full citations are available in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0027374#pone.0027374.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S2</a>.</p><p>* = Given the small number of studies evaluating wave attenuation, we included one freshwater study evaluating a species that can be found in coastal marshes. This species is also morphologically similar to many salt marsh species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["weighted", "sizes", "studies", "included", "attenuation"], "article_id"=>379883, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Christine C. Shepard", "Caitlin M. Crain", "Michael W. Beck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027374.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_and_weighted_effect_sizes_of_studies_included_in_the_wave_attenuation_meta_analysis_/379883", "title"=>"Characteristics and weighted effect sizes of studies included in the wave attenuation meta-analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 02:44:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/359868", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/359945"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Salt marshes lie between many human communities and the coast and have been presumed to protect these communities from coastal hazards by providing important ecosystem services. However, previous characterizations of these ecosystem services have typically been based on a small number of historical studies, and the consistency and extent to which marshes provide these services has not been investigated. Here, we review the current evidence for the specific processes of wave attenuation, shoreline stabilization and floodwater attenuation to determine if and under what conditions salt marshes offer these coastal protection services.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We conducted a thorough search and synthesis of the literature with reference to these processes. Seventy-five publications met our selection criteria, and we conducted meta-analyses for publications with sufficient data available for quantitative analysis. We found that combined across all studies (n = 7), salt marsh vegetation had a significant positive effect on wave attenuation as measured by reductions in wave height per unit distance across marsh vegetation. Salt marsh vegetation also had a significant positive effect on shoreline stabilization as measured by accretion, lateral erosion reduction, and marsh surface elevation change (n = 30). Salt marsh characteristics that were positively correlated to both wave attenuation and shoreline stabilization were vegetation density, biomass production, and marsh size. Although we could not find studies quantitatively evaluating floodwater attenuation within salt marshes, there are several studies noting the negative effects of wetland alteration on water quantity regulation within coastal areas.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Our results show that salt marshes have value for coastal hazard mitigation and climate change adaptation. Because we do not yet fully understand the magnitude of this value, we propose that decision makers employ natural systems to maximize the benefits and ecosystem services provided by salt marshes and exercise caution when making decisions that erode these services.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["systematic", "meta-analysis"], "article_id"=>131127, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Christine C. Shepard", "Caitlin M. Crain", "Michael W. Beck"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027374.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027374.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Protective_Role_of_Coastal_Marshes_A_Systematic_Review_and_Meta_analysis/131127", "title"=>"The Protective Role of Coastal Marshes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 00:18:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709215"], "description"=>"<p>The height of each bar indicates the number of author statements or conclusions regarding each factor and the bar fill indicates the effect of an increase in each factor on wave attenuation. For example, four studies showed that increasing marsh width increases wave attenuation indicating a positive relationship (black fill) between marsh width and wave attenuation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["factors", "quoted", "attenuation", "marsh"], "article_id"=>379574, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Christine C. Shepard", "Caitlin M. Crain", "Michael W. Beck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027374.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_factors_most_commonly_quoted_as_being_of_importance_to_the_wave_attenuation_capacity_of_salt_marsh_vegetation_/379574", "title"=>"The factors most commonly quoted as being of importance to the wave attenuation capacity of salt marsh vegetation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 02:39:34"}

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Relative Metric

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