Analysis of Patterns of Bushmeat Consumption Reveals Extensive Exploitation of Protected Species in Eastern Madagascar
Publication Date
December 14, 2011
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Richard K. B. Jenkins, Aidan Keane, Andrinajoro R. Rakotoarivelo, Victor Rakotomboavonjy, et al
Volume
6
Issue
12
Pages
e27570
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027570
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0027570
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22194787
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3237412
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22194787
Web of Science
000298369100007
Scopus
83355173012
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/analysis-patterns-bushmeat-consumption-reveals-extensive-exploitation-protected-species-eastern-mada
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Analysis of patterns of bushmeat consumption reveals extensive exploitation of protected species in eastern madagascar", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Richard K.B.", "last_name"=>"Jenkins", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402400220"}, {"first_name"=>"Aidan", "last_name"=>"Keane", "scopus_author_id"=>"23990561700"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrinajoro R.", "last_name"=>"Rakotoarivelo", "scopus_author_id"=>"54682254000"}, {"first_name"=>"Victor", "last_name"=>"Rakotomboavonjy", "scopus_author_id"=>"54682379200"}, {"first_name"=>"Felicien H.", "last_name"=>"Randrianandrianina", "scopus_author_id"=>"14009033300"}, {"first_name"=>"H. Julie", "last_name"=>"Razafimanahaka", "scopus_author_id"=>"16304982000"}, {"first_name"=>"Sylvain R.", "last_name"=>"Ralaiarimalala", "scopus_author_id"=>"54682261700"}, {"first_name"=>"Julia P.G.", "last_name"=>"Jones", "scopus_author_id"=>"55388537800"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-83355173012", "sgr"=>"83355173012", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0027570", "pmid"=>"22194787", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"363076137"}, "id"=>"fac81dee-3186-3e61-bc9c-0713eabf229f", "abstract"=>"Understanding the patterns of wild meat consumption from tropical forests is important for designing approaches to address this major threat to biodiversity and mitigate potential pathways for transmission of emerging diseases. Bushmeat consumption has been particularly poorly studied in Madagascar, one of the world’s hottest biodiversity hotspots. Studying bushmeat consumption is challenging as many species are protected and researchers must consider the incentives faced by informants. Using interviews with 1154 households in 12 communes in eastern Madagascar, as well as local monitoring data, we investigated the importance of socio-economic variables, taste preference and traditional taboos on consumption of 50 wild and domestic species. The majority of meals contain no animal protein. However, respondents consume a wide range of wild species and 95% of respondents have eaten at least one protected species (and nearly 45% have eaten more than 10). The rural/urban divide and wealth are important predictors of bushmeat consumption, but the magnitude and direction of the effect varies between species. Bushmeat species are not preferred and are considered inferior to fish and domestic animals. Taboos have provided protection to some species, particularly the Endangered Indri, but we present evidence that this taboo is rapidly eroding. By considering a variety of potential influences on consumption in a single study we have improved understanding of who is eating bushmeat and why. Evidence that bushmeat species are not generally preferred meats suggest that projects which increase the availability of domestic meat and fish may have success at reducing demand. We also suggest that enforcement of existing wildlife and firearm laws should be a priority, particularly in areas undergoing rapid social change. The issue of hunting as an important threat to biodiversity in Madagascar is only now being fully recognised. Urgent action is required to ensure that heavily hunted species are adequately protected.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/analysis-patterns-bushmeat-consumption-reveals-extensive-exploitation-protected-species-eastern-mada", "reader_count"=>181, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>41, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>41, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>22, "Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. 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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/702927"], "description"=>"<p>Points indicate the mean of the predictions and solid black lines show the range of variability attributable parameter uncertainty. Dashed grey lines indicate the variability attributable to additional heterogeneity between respondents.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predictive", "comparisons", "diademed", "Madagascar", "illustrating", "contrasting", "modelled", "variables", "individuals", "eaten"], "article_id"=>373280, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Richard K. B. Jenkins", "Aidan Keane", "Andrinajoro R. Rakotoarivelo", "Victor Rakotomboavonjy", "Felicien H. Randrianandrianina", "H. Julie Razafimanahaka", "Sylvain R. Ralaiarimalala", "Julia P. G. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027570.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_predictive_comparisons_for_two_species_A_diademed_sifaka_B_Madagascar_flying_fox_illustrating_the_contrasting_effects_of_modelled_variables_on_the_proportion_of_individuals_predicted_to_have_eaten_the_species_/373280", "title"=>"Average predictive comparisons for two species (A; diademed sifaka, B; Madagascar flying fox) illustrating the contrasting effects of modelled variables on the proportion of individuals predicted to have eaten the species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-12-14 00:54:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/702592"], "description"=>"<p>Points mark the mean of the predictions, while the horizontal bars indicate the range into which the central 95% of predictions fall.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predictive", "comparisons", "generated", "best-fitting"], "article_id"=>372963, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Richard K. B. Jenkins", "Aidan Keane", "Andrinajoro R. Rakotoarivelo", "Victor Rakotomboavonjy", "Felicien H. Randrianandrianina", "H. Julie Razafimanahaka", "Sylvain R. Ralaiarimalala", "Julia P. G. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027570.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_predictive_comparisons_generated_from_the_best_fitting_model_for_the_three_day_recall_data_/372963", "title"=>"Average predictive comparisons generated from the best-fitting model for the three day recall data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-12-14 00:49:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/703026"], "description"=>"<p>Bold species names indicate species that are strictly protected or protected under Malagasy law. n is the number of respondents who had eaten the each species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["preferences"], "article_id"=>373390, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Richard K. B. Jenkins", "Aidan Keane", "Andrinajoro R. Rakotoarivelo", "Victor Rakotomboavonjy", "Felicien H. Randrianandrianina", "H. Julie Razafimanahaka", "Sylvain R. Ralaiarimalala", "Julia P. G. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027570.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ranking_of_species_according_to_respondents_expressed_preferences_for_meat_/373390", "title"=>"Ranking of species according to respondents' expressed preferences for meat.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-12-14 00:56:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/702790"], "description"=>"<p>The two scenarios, illustrate the variability between species, and between types of household (A; rural living in single-roomed house, B; urban living in a house with 3 or more rooms). Points indicate the mean of predictions, solid vertical black lines indicate the variability in prediction attributable to parameter uncertainty, while grey dashed lines indicate the range of variability attributable to additional heterogeneity between respondents.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["individuals", "consumed", "31", "classified", "protected", "malagasy"], "article_id"=>373145, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Richard K. B. Jenkins", "Aidan Keane", "Andrinajoro R. Rakotoarivelo", "Victor Rakotomboavonjy", "Felicien H. Randrianandrianina", "H. Julie Razafimanahaka", "Sylvain R. Ralaiarimalala", "Julia P. G. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027570.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_proportion_of_individuals_who_report_that_they_have_ever_consumed_a_sample_of_31_species_classified_as_strictly_protected_protected_or_game_under_Malagasy_law_/373145", "title"=>"Estimated proportion of individuals who report that they have ever consumed a sample of 31 species classified as strictly protected, protected or game under Malagasy law.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-12-14 00:52:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/703409"], "description"=>"<p>Although this species has been protected to some extent by traditional taboos in our study area, social change appears to eroding this taboo resulting in an increase in hunting. His face is blurred to protect his identity © Madagasikara Voakajy.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["carrying", "killed", "indri", "largest", "lemur"], "article_id"=>373765, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Richard K. B. Jenkins", "Aidan Keane", "Andrinajoro R. Rakotoarivelo", "Victor Rakotomboavonjy", "Felicien H. Randrianandrianina", "H. Julie Razafimanahaka", "Sylvain R. Ralaiarimalala", "Julia P. G. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027570.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Boy_carrying_a_recently_killed_Indri_the_largest_remaining_lemur_in_Madagascar_/373765", "title"=>"Boy carrying a recently killed Indri (the largest remaining lemur in Madagascar).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-12-14 01:02:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/703203"], "description"=>"<p>The height of the black bars therefore represents the maximum difference in consumption that could be attributable to taboos for each species. n is the number of respondents who answered questions about each species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["respondents", "reported", "taboo", "protected", "ordered", "eaten"], "article_id"=>373558, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Richard K. B. Jenkins", "Aidan Keane", "Andrinajoro R. Rakotoarivelo", "Victor Rakotomboavonjy", "Felicien H. Randrianandrianina", "H. Julie Razafimanahaka", "Sylvain R. Ralaiarimalala", "Julia P. G. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027570.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportion_of_respondents_who_reported_that_they_were_taboo_fady_black_bars_for_strictly_protected_or_protected_species_ordered_by_the_proportion_of_respondents_who_have_ever_eaten_the_species_in_question_grey_bars_/373558", "title"=>"Proportion of respondents who reported that they were taboo (<i>fady</i>, black bars) for strictly protected or protected species, ordered by the proportion of respondents who have ever eaten the species in question (grey bars).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-12-14 00:59:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/357164", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/357213", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/357275", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/357321", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/357346", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/357387", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/357422", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/357478"], "description"=>"<div><p>Understanding the patterns of wild meat consumption from tropical forests is important for designing approaches to address this major threat to biodiversity and mitigate potential pathways for transmission of emerging diseases. Bushmeat consumption has been particularly poorly studied in Madagascar, one of the world's hottest biodiversity hotspots. Studying bushmeat consumption is challenging as many species are protected and researchers must consider the incentives faced by informants. Using interviews with 1154 households in 12 communes in eastern Madagascar, as well as local monitoring data, we investigated the importance of socio-economic variables, taste preference and traditional taboos on consumption of 50 wild and domestic species. The majority of meals contain no animal protein. However, respondents consume a wide range of wild species and 95% of respondents have eaten at least one protected species (and nearly 45% have eaten more than 10). The rural/urban divide and wealth are important predictors of bushmeat consumption, but the magnitude and direction of the effect varies between species. Bushmeat species are not preferred and are considered inferior to fish and domestic animals. Taboos have provided protection to some species, particularly the Endangered Indri, but we present evidence that this taboo is rapidly eroding. By considering a variety of potential influences on consumption in a single study we have improved understanding of who is eating bushmeat and why. Evidence that bushmeat species are not generally preferred meats suggest that projects which increase the availability of domestic meat and fish may have success at reducing demand. We also suggest that enforcement of existing wildlife and firearm laws should be a priority, particularly in areas undergoing rapid social change. The issue of hunting as an important threat to biodiversity in Madagascar is only now being fully recognised. Urgent action is required to ensure that heavily hunted species are adequately protected.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patterns", "bushmeat", "reveals", "exploitation", "protected", "Madagascar"], "article_id"=>130579, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Richard K. B. Jenkins", "Aidan Keane", "Andrinajoro R. Rakotoarivelo", "Victor Rakotomboavonjy", "Felicien H. Randrianandrianina", "H. Julie Razafimanahaka", "Sylvain R. Ralaiarimalala", "Julia P. G. Jones"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027570.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027570.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027570.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027570.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027570.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027570.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027570.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027570.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>23, "page_views"=>40, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Analysis_of_Patterns_of_Bushmeat_Consumption_Reveals_Extensive_Exploitation_of_Protected_Species_in_Eastern_Madagascar/130579", "title"=>"Analysis of Patterns of Bushmeat Consumption Reveals Extensive Exploitation of Protected Species in Eastern Madagascar", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-12-14 00:09:39"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"month"=>"12", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"42", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"32", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"77", "unique-ip"=>"59", "pdf"=>"13", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"9", "unique-ip"=>"13", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"16", "unique-ip"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"7", "unique-ip"=>"10", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"7", "unique-ip"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"1", "unique-ip"=>"2", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"208", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"25", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
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Relative Metric

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