The Intestinal Flora Is Required to Support Antibody Responses to Systemic Immunization in Infant and Germ Free Mice
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{"title"=>"The intestinal flora is required to support antibody responses to systemic immunization in infant and germ free mice", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Esi S.", "last_name"=>"Lamousé-Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602643023"}, {"first_name"=>"Alice", "last_name"=>"Tzeng", "scopus_author_id"=>"56073895600"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael N.", "last_name"=>"Starnbach", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701345663"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84860587715", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0027662", "pui"=>"362939820", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22114681", "sgr"=>"84860587715"}, "id"=>"62c953a5-29ed-3f63-871e-9765c7af5657", "abstract"=>"The presence of a complex and diverse intestinal flora is functionally important for regulating intestinal mucosal immune responses. However, the extent to which a balanced intestinal flora regulates systemic immune responses is still being defined. In order to specifically examine whether the acquisition of a less complex flora influences responses to immunization in the pre-weaning stages of life, we utilize a model in which infant mice acquire an intestinal flora from their mothers that has been altered by broad-spectrum antibiotics. In this model, pregnant dams are treated with a cocktail of antibiotics that alters both the density and microbial diversity of the intestinal flora. After challenge with a subcutaneous immunization, the antibiotic altered flora infant mice have lower antigen specific antibody titers compared to control age-matched mice. In a second model, we examined germ free (GF) mice to analyze how the complete lack of flora influences the ability to mount normal antibody responses following subcutaneous immunization. GF mice do not respond well to immunization and introduction of a normal flora into GF mice restores the capacity of these mice to respond. These results indicate that a gastrointestinal flora reduced in density and complexity at critical time points during development adversely impacts immune responses to systemic antigens.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/intestinal-flora-required-support-antibody-responses-systemic-immunization-infant-germ-free-mice", "reader_count"=>46, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/360521"], "description"=>"<div><p>The presence of a complex and diverse intestinal flora is functionally important for regulating intestinal mucosal immune responses. However, the extent to which a balanced intestinal flora regulates systemic immune responses is still being defined. In order to specifically examine whether the acquisition of a less complex flora influences responses to immunization in the pre-weaning stages of life, we utilize a model in which infant mice acquire an intestinal flora from their mothers that has been altered by broad-spectrum antibiotics. In this model, pregnant dams are treated with a cocktail of antibiotics that alters both the density and microbial diversity of the intestinal flora. After challenge with a subcutaneous immunization, the antibiotic altered flora infant mice have lower antigen specific antibody titers compared to control age-matched mice. In a second model, we examined germ free (GF) mice to analyze how the complete lack of flora influences the ability to mount normal antibody responses following subcutaneous immunization. GF mice do not respond well to immunization and introduction of a normal flora into GF mice restores the capacity of these mice to respond. These results indicate that a gastrointestinal flora reduced in density and complexity at critical time points during development adversely impacts immune responses to systemic antigens.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intestinal", "flora", "antibody", "responses", "systemic", "immunization", "germ", "mice"], "article_id"=>131259, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Ecology", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Esi S. Lamousé-Smith", "Alice Tzeng", "Michael N. Starnbach"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027662", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Intestinal_Flora_Is_Required_to_Support_Antibody_Responses_to_Systemic_Immunization_in_Infant_and_Germ_Free_Mice/131259", "title"=>"The Intestinal Flora Is Required to Support Antibody Responses to Systemic Immunization in Infant and Germ Free Mice", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-17 00:20:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/711686"], "description"=>"<p>Twelve week old control, GF, and GF mice colonized with flora (cGF) derived from strain matched mice were immunized with PBS + CFA (Sham) or with Ova+CFA (Ova). Ten days later serum was collected and analyzed for ova-specific IgG (A) and total serum IgG (B). In the representative experiment shown, serum titers are from one sham-immunized and 3 ova-immunized mice. cGF mice were allowed to rest for four weeks following colonization with flora.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["responses", "systemic", "immunization", "gf", "mice", "cgf"], "article_id"=>382042, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Ecology", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Esi S. Lamousé-Smith", "Alice Tzeng", "Michael N. Starnbach"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027662.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Antibody_responses_following_systemic_immunization_of_GF_mice_and_cGF_mice_/382042", "title"=>"Antibody responses following systemic immunization of GF mice and cGF mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-17 00:34:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/711369"], "description"=>"<p>A) Fecal microbiota composition is altered by antibiotic treatment and partially recovers 3 weeks after antibiotic withdrawal. Total bacterial genomic DNA was isolated from the stool of adult control (black bars) and antibiotic treated (grey bars) mice at specific time points during and after antibiotic treatment, and the abundance of bacterial groups was detected by qPCR. Fecal pellets were collected on days 3, 5, 7, 14 and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after discontinuing antibiotics (rw1, rw2, rw3). N = 3 mice per group per time point. The data is representative of 3 independent experiments. B) Fecal stool pellets are a proxy for cecal stool. DNA was isolated from fecal pellets, cecal tissue, and cecal stool from adult control and mice treated with antibiotics for 14 days and analyzed by qPCR for total bacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Enterobacteriaceae phylotypes. N = 2 control and n = 3 Abx treated mice. The data is representative of 3 independent experiments. *P<0.01 compared to untreated controls (determined by Student's t test).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mice", "intestinal", "microbial"], "article_id"=>381730, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Ecology", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Esi S. Lamousé-Smith", "Alice Tzeng", "Michael N. Starnbach"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027662.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Antibiotic_treatment_of_mice_reduces_the_density_and_diversity_of_intestinal_microbial_flora_/381730", "title"=>"Antibiotic treatment of mice reduces the density and diversity of intestinal microbial flora.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-17 00:28:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/711599"], "description"=>"<p>Ten days after subcutaneous immunization with ovalbumin and CFA, serum was collected from mice immunized as adults (>6 weeks old), at 14 days of age, or at 7 days of age. Ova-specific IgG titers were detected by ELISA. Total serum IgG was equivalent among groups. Representative data of three experiments are shown (3–7 mice per group). *p<0.05, unpaired student t-test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["igg", "titers", "antibiotic", "treated", "non-antibiotic", "mice"], "article_id"=>381949, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Ecology", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Esi S. Lamousé-Smith", "Alice Tzeng", "Michael N. Starnbach"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027662.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ova_specific_IgG_titers_in_antibiotic_treated_and_non_antibiotic_treated_control_mice_following_immunization_/381949", "title"=>"Ova-specific IgG titers in antibiotic treated and non-antibiotic treated control mice following immunization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-17 00:32:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/711463"], "description"=>"<p>Fecal pellets were collected from dams and from the cecal contents of their pups. Data are pooled from 3 individual experiments: n = 3 dams, n = 17 ctrl pups and n = 12 abx pups. Cecal stool contents were collected from male and female pups at ages 18–21. *P≤0.05 comparing antibiotic treated adult with control adult and antibiotic exposed pups with control pups, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["alters", "bacterial", "colonization"], "article_id"=>381829, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Ecology", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Esi S. Lamousé-Smith", "Alice Tzeng", "Michael N. Starnbach"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027662.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Antibiotic_treatment_of_the_mouse_dam_alters_bacterial_colonization_of_her_litter_/381829", "title"=>"Antibiotic treatment of the mouse dam alters bacterial colonization of her litter.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-17 00:30:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/711293"], "description"=>"<p>Pregnant dams were treated with antibiotics in the drinking water during the last 3–5 days of gestation. Antibiotics were supplied throughout the duration of the experimental period. Infant mice born to control (no antibiotics) or treated (with antibiotics) mice were immunized by subcutaneous injection at ages specified. Ten days following immunization, serum and stool were collected from immunized mice for analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["antibiotic", "exposed"], "article_id"=>381654, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Ecology", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Esi S. Lamousé-Smith", "Alice Tzeng", "Michael N. Starnbach"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027662.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Generation_of_antibiotic_exposed_infant_mice_/381654", "title"=>"Generation of antibiotic exposed infant mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-17 00:27:34"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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