Characterization of Organics Consistent with β-Chitin Preserved in the Late Eocene Cuttlefish Mississaepia mississippiensis
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{"title"=>"Characterization of organics consistent with β-chitin preserved in the Late Eocene cuttlefish Mississaepia mississippiensis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Patricia G.", "last_name"=>"Weaver", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101664498"}, {"first_name"=>"Larisa A.", "last_name"=>"Doguzhaeva", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602448767"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel R.", "last_name"=>"Lawver", "scopus_author_id"=>"49061103400"}, {"first_name"=>"R. Christopher", "last_name"=>"Tacker", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602414985"}, {"first_name"=>"Charles N.", "last_name"=>"Ciampaglio", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603345616"}, {"first_name"=>"Jon M.", "last_name"=>"Crate", "scopus_author_id"=>"54400704900"}, {"first_name"=>"Wenxia", "last_name"=>"Zheng", "scopus_author_id"=>"24081955600"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"362967316", "pmid"=>"22132239", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0028195", "sgr"=>"81755184098", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-81755184098"}, "id"=>"098fb5d4-434e-3b2a-8765-e98453ab71e7", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Preservation of original organic components in fossils across geological time is controversial, but the potential such molecules have for elucidating evolutionary processes and phylogenetic relationships is invaluable. Chitin is one such molecule. Ancient chitin has been recovered from both terrestrial and marine arthropods, but prior to this study had not been recovered from fossil marine mollusks.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Organics consistent with β-chitin are recovered in cuttlebones of Mississaepia mississippiensis from the Late Eocene (34.36 million years ago) marine clays of Hinds County, Mississippi, USA. These organics were determined and characterized through comparisons with extant taxa using Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM/EDS), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (Hyperprobe), Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC).\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study presents the first evidence for organics consistent with chitin from an ancient marine mollusk and discusses how these organics have been degraded over time. As mechanisms for their preservation, we propose that the inorganic/organic lamination of the cuttlebone, combined with a suboxic depositional environment with available free Fe(2+) ions, inhibited microbial or enzymatic degradation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/characterization-organics-consistent-%CE%B2chitin-preserved-late-eocene-cuttlefish-mississaepia-mississip", "reader_count"=>19, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>2, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>2, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Chemistry"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/710261"], "description"=>"<p>a) spectrum lacks Amide I and Amide II peaks, b) for comparison, spectrum shows the Amide I peak at 1656 cm<sup>−1</sup> and Amide II peak at 1545 cm<sup>−1</sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ftir", "spectra"], "article_id"=>380617, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Patricia G. Weaver", "Larisa A. Doguzhaeva", "Daniel R. Lawver", "R. Christopher Tacker", "Charles N. Ciampaglio", "Jon M. Crate", "Wenxia Zheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028195.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_two_FTIR_spectra_of_M_mississippiensis_MGS_1951_/380617", "title"=>"Comparison of two FTIR spectra of <i>M</i>. <i>mississippiensis</i> (MGS 1951).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 00:10:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/710324"], "description"=>"<p>Peak positions (cm<sup>−1</sup>) from spectral decomposition using Peakfit®.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["positions", "spectral", "decomposition"], "article_id"=>380675, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Patricia G. Weaver", "Larisa A. Doguzhaeva", "Daniel R. Lawver", "R. Christopher Tacker", "Charles N. Ciampaglio", "Jon M. Crate", "Wenxia Zheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028195.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Peak_positions_cm_8722_1_from_spectral_decomposition_using_Peakfit_174_/380675", "title"=>"Peak positions (cm<sup>−1</sup>) from spectral decomposition using Peakfit®.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 00:11:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709857"], "description"=>"<p>A) Hyperprobe analysis of HCL de-mineralized fossil (MGS 1951) mapped for nitrogen (red). B) Hyperprobe analysis of HCL de-mineralized extant cuttlebone mapped for nitrogen (red).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hcl", "de-mineralized", "extant"], "article_id"=>380212, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Patricia G. Weaver", "Larisa A. Doguzhaeva", "Daniel R. Lawver", "R. Christopher Tacker", "Charles N. Ciampaglio", "Jon M. Crate", "Wenxia Zheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028195.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hyperprobe_comparison_of_HCL_de_mineralized_M_mississippiensis_and_extant_Sepia_sp_/380212", "title"=>"Hyperprobe comparison of HCL de-mineralized <i>M</i>. <i>mississippiensis</i> and extant <i>Sepia</i> sp.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 00:03:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/710372"], "description"=>"<p>Band assignments (cm<sup>−1</sup>) for fossil and extant materials.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["assignments", "fossil", "extant"], "article_id"=>380721, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Patricia G. Weaver", "Larisa A. Doguzhaeva", "Daniel R. Lawver", "R. Christopher Tacker", "Charles N. Ciampaglio", "Jon M. Crate", "Wenxia Zheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028195.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Band_assignments_cm_8722_1_for_fossil_and_extant_materials_/380721", "title"=>"Band assignments (cm<sup>−1</sup>) for fossil and extant materials.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 00:12:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/710128"], "description"=>"<p>A,C,E,G,I, fossil <i>M</i>. <i>mississipiensis</i> (MGS 1951); B,D,F,H,J, extant <i>Sepia</i> sp. A, B) Fossil/extant incubated in chitin antibody and secondary antibody, show antibody/antigen binding. C,D) Fossil/extant incubated in secondary antibody only, no antibody/antigen binding. E,F) Fossil/extant incubated in chitinase, chitin anti-body and secondary antibody. Tissues have been digested by the chitinase giving a much reduced immunological signal. G,H) Fossil/extant incubated in chitinase, chitin antibody and secondary antibody. Tissues in these samples were not completely digested by the chitinase, eptiopes were unmasked, and show enhanced antibody/antigen retrieval. I,J) Fossil/extant incubated in human testosterone antibody and secondary antibody, shows no antibody/antigen binding.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hcl", "de-mineralized"], "article_id"=>380482, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Patricia G. Weaver", "Larisa A. Doguzhaeva", "Daniel R. Lawver", "R. Christopher Tacker", "Charles N. Ciampaglio", "Jon M. Crate", "Wenxia Zheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028195.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_IHC_comparison_of_HCL_de_mineralized_M_mississippiensis_and_Sepia_sp_/380482", "title"=>"IHC comparison of HCL de-mineralized <i>M</i>. <i>mississippiensis</i> and <i>Sepia</i> sp.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 00:08:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709652"], "description"=>"<p>Fragmentary preserved cuttlebone of <i>M</i>. <i>mississippiensis</i> (MGS 1951), late Eocene, Mississippi, USA: A, B – left lateral and ventral view, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["preserved", "cuttlebone"], "article_id"=>380010, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Patricia G. Weaver", "Larisa A. Doguzhaeva", "Daniel R. Lawver", "R. Christopher Tacker", "Charles N. Ciampaglio", "Jon M. Crate", "Wenxia Zheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028195.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fragmentary_preserved_cuttlebone_of_M_mississippiensis_MGS_1951_/380010", "title"=>"Fragmentary preserved cuttlebone of <i>M</i>. <i>mississippiensis</i> (MGS 1951).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 00:00:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709576"], "description"=>"<p>Generalized locality map showing sites where <i>M</i>. <i>mississipiensis</i> were collected and the geographical extent of the Jackson Group in Mississippi.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["locality"], "article_id"=>379932, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Patricia G. Weaver", "Larisa A. Doguzhaeva", "Daniel R. Lawver", "R. Christopher Tacker", "Charles N. Ciampaglio", "Jon M. Crate", "Wenxia Zheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028195.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Generalized_locality_map_/379932", "title"=>"Generalized locality map.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 02:45:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709943"], "description"=>"<p>Spectra of <i>Sepia</i> sp. (top) and <i>M</i>. <i>mississippiensis</i> (bottom). Spectra indicate aragonite. By comparison, calcite has peaks at 848 and 876 cm<sup>−1</sup>and a singlet at 713 cm<sup>−1 </sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0028195#pone.0028195-Adler1\" target=\"_blank\">[14]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spectra", "cuttlebones"], "article_id"=>380298, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Patricia G. Weaver", "Larisa A. Doguzhaeva", "Daniel R. Lawver", "R. Christopher Tacker", "Charles N. Ciampaglio", "Jon M. Crate", "Wenxia Zheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028195.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_FTIR_spectra_of_cuttlebones_of_Sepia_sp_and_M_mississippiensis_/380298", "title"=>"FTIR spectra of cuttlebones of <i>Sepia</i> sp. and <i>M</i>. <i>mississippiensis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 00:04:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/710032"], "description"=>"<p>FTIR spectra of fossil (a) <i>M</i>. <i>mississippiensis</i> and chitin from extant (b) <i>Sepia</i> sp. and (c) <i>Loligo</i> sp. A) All spectra are consistent with beta chitin. B) FTIR spectra of the hydrogen stretching region of a, b and c showing reduction in OH of <i>M</i>. <i>mississippiensis</i>. C) FTIR spectra of a, b and c emphasizing Amide I and Amide II absorbances which are distinctive for beta chitin. D) FTIR spectra of a and b; portions of the Amide III region are missing in the fossil. Overall broadening and loss of structure of the peaks is interpreted as breakdown of chitin chains into shorter fragments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spectra", "hcl", "de-mineralized"], "article_id"=>380389, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Patricia G. Weaver", "Larisa A. Doguzhaeva", "Daniel R. Lawver", "R. Christopher Tacker", "Charles N. Ciampaglio", "Jon M. Crate", "Wenxia Zheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028195.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_FTIR_spectra_of_HCL_de_mineralized_M_mississippiensis_Sepia_sp_and_Loligo_sp_/380389", "title"=>"FTIR spectra of HCL de-mineralized <i>M</i>. <i>mississippiensis</i>, <i>Sepia</i> sp. and <i>Loligo</i> sp.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 00:06:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/359806"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Preservation of original organic components in fossils across geological time is controversial, but the potential such molecules have for elucidating evolutionary processes and phylogenetic relationships is invaluable. Chitin is one such molecule. Ancient chitin has been recovered from both terrestrial and marine arthropods, but prior to this study had not been recovered from fossil marine mollusks.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Organics consistent with β-chitin are recovered in cuttlebones of <em>Mississaepia mississippiensis</em> from the Late Eocene (34.36 million years ago) marine clays of Hinds County, Mississippi, USA. These organics were determined and characterized through comparisons with extant taxa using Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM/EDS), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (Hyperprobe), Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC).</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Our study presents the first evidence for organics consistent with chitin from an ancient marine mollusk and discusses how these organics have been degraded over time. As mechanisms for their preservation, we propose that the inorganic/organic lamination of the cuttlebone, combined with a suboxic depositional environment with available free Fe<sup>2+</sup> ions, inhibited microbial or enzymatic degradation.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characterization", "organics", "preserved", "eocene", "cuttlefish"], "article_id"=>131105, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Patricia G. Weaver", "Larisa A. Doguzhaeva", "Daniel R. Lawver", "R. Christopher Tacker", "Charles N. Ciampaglio", "Jon M. Crate", "Wenxia Zheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028195", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Characterization_of_Organics_Consistent_with_Chitin_Preserved_in_the_Late_Eocene_Cuttlefish_Mississaepia_mississippiensis_/131105", "title"=>"Characterization of Organics Consistent with β-Chitin Preserved in the Late Eocene Cuttlefish <em>Mississaepia mississippiensis</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-23 00:18:25"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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