Reproductive Biology and Its Impact on Body Size: Comparative Analysis of Mammalian, Avian and Dinosaurian Reproduction
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{"title"=>"Reproductive biology and its impact on body size: Comparative analysis of mammalian, avian and dinosaurian reproduction", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jan", "last_name"=>"Werner", "scopus_author_id"=>"55547103298"}, {"first_name"=>"Eva Maria", "last_name"=>"Griebeler", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603457537"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-83355167995", "pui"=>"363076108", "pmid"=>"22194835", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0028442", "sgr"=>"83355167995"}, "id"=>"5442ddc0-22f6-3f19-a75d-ea6b144b98c8", "abstract"=>"Janis and Carrano (1992) suggested that large dinosaurs might have faced a lower risk of extinction under ecological changes than similar-sized mammals because large dinosaurs had a higher potential reproductive output than similar-sized mammals (JC hypothesis). First, we tested the assumption underlying the JC hypothesis. We therefore analysed the potential reproductive output (reflected in clutch/litter size and annual offspring number) of extant terrestrial mammals and birds (as \"dinosaur analogs\") and of extinct dinosaurs. With the exception of rodents, the differences in the reproductive output of similar-sized birds and mammals proposed by Janis and Carrano (1992) existed even at the level of single orders. Fossil dinosaur clutches were larger than litters of similar-sized mammals, and dinosaur clutch sizes were comparable to those of similar-sized birds. Because the extinction risk of extant species often correlates with a low reproductive output, the latter difference suggests a lower risk of population extinction in dinosaurs than in mammals. Second, we present a very simple, mathematical model that demonstrates the advantage of a high reproductive output underlying the JC hypothesis. It predicts that a species with a high reproductive output that usually faces very high juvenile mortalities will benefit more strongly in terms of population size from reduced juvenile mortalities (e.g., resulting from a stochastic reduction in population size) than a species with a low reproductive output that usually comprises low juvenile mortalities. Based on our results, we suggest that reproductive strategy could have contributed to the evolution of the exceptional gigantism seen in dinosaurs that does not exist in extant terrestrial mammals. Large dinosaurs, e.g., the sauropods, may have easily sustained populations of very large-bodied species over evolutionary time.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/reproductive-biology-impact-body-size-comparative-analysis-mammalian-avian-dinosaurian-reproduction", "reader_count"=>82, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>35, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>30, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>30}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>35}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Argentina"=>2, "Romania"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Germany"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/356751", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/357012", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/357073", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/357240", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/357280", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/357323", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/357360"], "description"=>"<div><p>Janis and Carrano (1992) suggested that large dinosaurs might have faced a lower risk of extinction under ecological changes than similar-sized mammals because large dinosaurs had a higher potential reproductive output than similar-sized mammals (JC hypothesis). First, we tested the assumption underlying the JC hypothesis. We therefore analysed the potential reproductive output (reflected in clutch/litter size and annual offspring number) of extant terrestrial mammals and birds (as “dinosaur analogs”) and of extinct dinosaurs. With the exception of rodents, the differences in the reproductive output of similar-sized birds and mammals proposed by Janis and Carrano (1992) existed even at the level of single orders. Fossil dinosaur clutches were larger than litters of similar-sized mammals, and dinosaur clutch sizes were comparable to those of similar-sized birds. Because the extinction risk of extant species often correlates with a low reproductive output, the latter difference suggests a lower risk of population extinction in dinosaurs than in mammals. Second, we present a very simple, mathematical model that demonstrates the advantage of a high reproductive output underlying the JC hypothesis. It predicts that a species with a high reproductive output that usually faces very high juvenile mortalities will benefit more strongly in terms of population size from reduced juvenile mortalities (e.g., resulting from a stochastic reduction in population size) than a species with a low reproductive output that usually comprises low juvenile mortalities. Based on our results, we suggest that reproductive strategy could have contributed to the evolution of the exceptional gigantism seen in dinosaurs that does not exist in extant terrestrial mammals. Large dinosaurs, e.g., the sauropods, may have easily sustained populations of very large-bodied species over evolutionary time.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reproductive", "comparative", "avian", "dinosaurian", "reproduction"], "article_id"=>130509, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jan Werner", "Eva Maria Griebeler"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028442.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028442.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028442.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028442.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028442.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028442.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028442.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Reproductive_Biology_and_Its_Impact_on_Body_Size_Comparative_Analysis_of_Mammalian_Avian_and_Dinosaurian_Reproduction/130509", "title"=>"Reproductive Biology and Its Impact on Body Size: Comparative Analysis of Mammalian, Avian and Dinosaurian Reproduction", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-12-14 00:08:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/702374"], "description"=>"<p>Potential reproductive output is measured as median clutch/litter size (A) and median annual offspring number (B). Bird orders: Tin = Tinamiformes, Gal = Galliformes, Ans = Anseriformes, Str = Struthioniformes. Mammal orders: Rod = Rodentia, Lag = Lagomorpha, Hyr = Hyracoidea, Dip = Diprotodontia, Pri = Primates, Art = Artiodactyla, Per = Perissodactyla, Pro = Proboscidea. Species orders are ordered by body mass, starting with the lowest median body mass on the left side. All studied bird orders do not differ in their median clutch size, whereas the medians of litter size of studied mammalian orders are inhomogeneous. In birds, the medians of the annual offspring number of all orders are homogeneous, except for the ratites. The medians of annual offspring number of all mammalian orders are inhomogeneous. For the detailed results of the statistical analyses, refer to the text. Box plots show medians, quartiles, minima and maxima of clutch sizes/annual offspring number.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reproductive", "orders", "mammal"], "article_id"=>372752, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jan Werner", "Eva Maria Griebeler"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028442.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_the_potential_reproductive_output_of_bird_orders_and_mammal_orders_/372752", "title"=>"Comparison of the potential reproductive output of bird orders and mammal orders.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-12-14 00:45:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/702462"], "description"=>"<p>Potential reproductive output is measured as medians of clutch/litter sizes (A) and medians of annual offspring number (B) for species groups of different weight classes. Each weight class interval has a width of 0.444 (unit is kg) on a logarithmic scale. Birds of all weight classes had a higher median clutch/litter size than similar-sized mammals. Similar-sized birds had on average (median) more offspring per year than mammals in all weight classes. For the detailed results of the statistical analyses, refer to the text. Box plots show medians, quartiles, minima and maxima of clutch sizes and litter sizes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reproductive", "birds", "mammals"], "article_id"=>372843, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jan Werner", "Eva Maria Griebeler"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028442.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_the_potential_reproductive_output_of_birds_and_mammals_for_different_weight_classes_/372843", "title"=>"Comparison of the potential reproductive output of birds and mammals for different weight classes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-12-14 00:47:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/702595"], "description"=>"<p>(A) in birds, (B) in mammals. Presented are least square regressions (solid lines) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (dashed lines, in B only the upper limit of the confidence interval is drawn). Sauropod clutch sizes (open circles) fit well to those of birds or lay somewhat above the upper limit of the confidence interval (A), but do not fit to litter sizes of mammals (B). Carnivorous (open triangles) and other herbivorous dinosaurs (circles with crosses) also fit better to clutch sizes of birds (A) than to litter sizes of mammals (B). Clutch sizes and body masses of dinosaurs are summarized in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0028442#pone.0028442.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3</a>. For comparison, clutch sizes of crocodiles were also included (stars). Clutch sizes and body masses of crocodiles are derived from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0028442#pone.0028442-Thorbjarnarson1\" target=\"_blank\">[70]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>372978, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jan Werner", "Eva Maria Griebeler"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028442.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_clutch_litter_size_and_body_mass_/372978", "title"=>"Relationship between clutch/litter size and body mass.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-12-14 00:49:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/702724"], "description"=>"<p>S<sub>off</sub> is shown for different potential reproductive outputs (N<sub>off</sub>) and different juvenile mortalities (M<sub>off</sub>). Species D with the high reproductive output (N<sub>off</sub> = 10, black solid line or N<sub>off</sub> = 20, black scattered line) reacts more sensitively to changes in the juvenile mortality rate M<sub>off</sub> in terms of the number of surviving offspring (S<sub>off</sub>) than species M with the lower reproductive output (N<sub>off</sub> = 1, grey scattered line or N<sub>off</sub> = 2, grey solid line). The slopes for M<sub>off</sub> against S<sub>off</sub> are much shallower for species M than for species D. The circles mark the (M<sub>off</sub>,S<sub>off</sub>) pairs for which S<sub>off</sub> equals one surviving offspring (for details see text).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["surviving", "offspring"], "article_id"=>373106, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jan Werner", "Eva Maria Griebeler"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028442.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Numbers_of_surviving_offspring_S_off_of_species_M_mammal_like_and_D_dinosaur_like_/373106", "title"=>"Numbers of surviving offspring (S<sub>off</sub>) of species M (mammal-like) and D (dinosaur-like).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-12-14 00:51:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/702815"], "description"=>"<p>Significance levels: *<0.05, **<0.01, ***<0.001. Correlations are given for double log-transformed data using phylogenetic generalised least square regression (PGLS). 0 no correlation, +significant positive correlation, - significant negative correlation. N sample size.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reproductive", "characteristics", "birds"], "article_id"=>373189, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jan Werner", "Eva Maria Griebeler"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028442.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_between_body_mass_and_reproductive_characteristics_for_birds_and_mammals_/373189", "title"=>"Correlations between body mass and reproductive characteristics for birds and mammals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-12-14 00:53:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/702846"], "description"=>"<p>Significance levels:</p><p>*<0.05,</p><p>**<0.01,</p><p>***<0.001.</p><p>Correlations are given for double log-transformed data using phylogenetic generalised least square regression (PGLS). 0 no correlation, +significant positive correlation, - significant negative correlation. BM body mass. N sample size.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reproductive", "characteristics", "avian", "mammalian"], "article_id"=>373214, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jan Werner", "Eva Maria Griebeler"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028442.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_between_body_mass_and_reproductive_characteristics_for_different_avian_and_mammalian_orders_/373214", "title"=>"Correlations between body mass and reproductive characteristics for different avian and mammalian orders.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-12-14 00:53:34"}

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Relative Metric

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