Effectiveness of Biosecurity Measures in Preventing Badger Visits to Farm Buildings
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{"title"=>"Effectiveness of biosecurity measures in preventing badger visits to farm buildings", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Johanna", "last_name"=>"Judge", "scopus_author_id"=>"8928751600"}, {"first_name"=>"Robbie A.", "last_name"=>"McDonald", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401839573"}, {"first_name"=>"Neil", "last_name"=>"Walker", "scopus_author_id"=>"15847343200"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard J.", "last_name"=>"Delahay", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003609986"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84855283260", "sgr"=>"84855283260", "pui"=>"364024690", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22220199", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0028941"}, "id"=>"2deb9eee-026b-3fe7-a47e-23f8d83d4be5", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY: Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; \"Control\", \"Feed Storage\", \"Cattle Housing\" and \"Both\", whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm.\\n\\nRESULTS: Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effectiveness-biosecurity-measures-preventing-badger-visits-farm-buildings", "reader_count"=>141, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>34, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>34, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>13, "Student > Master"=>22, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>34, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>34, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>13, "Student > Master"=>22, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Environmental Science"=>28, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>87, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Computer Science"=>1, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>87}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>28}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>6, "United Arab Emirates"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "India"=>1, "Turkey"=>1, "Iran"=>1, "China"=>1, "Brazil"=>3, "France"=>1, "Peru"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698626"], "description"=>"<p>Examples of badger exclusion measures: solid aluminium sheeted gate (top left), aluminium sheeting installed on rail fence (bottom left), retractable electric fencing (middle), front and top opening aluminium feed bin (top right) and rail gate with adjustable galvanised aluminium panels (bottom right).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["badger", "exclusion", "aluminium", "sheeted", "sheeting", "installed", "retractable", "fencing", "bin", "adjustable", "galvanised", "panels"], "article_id"=>369000, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Johanna Judge", "Robbie A. McDonald", "Neil Walker", "Richard J. Delahay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028941.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_badger_exclusion_measures_solid_aluminium_sheeted_gate_top_left_aluminium_sheeting_installed_on_rail_fence_bottom_left_retractable_electric_fencing_middle_front_and_top_opening_aluminium_feed_bin_top_right_and_rail_gate_with_adjustable_galvan/369000", "title"=>"Examples of badger exclusion measures: solid aluminium sheeted gate (top left), aluminium sheeting installed on rail fence (bottom left), retractable electric fencing (middle), front and top opening aluminium feed bin (top right) and rail gate with adjustable galvanised aluminium panels (bottom right).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-12-29 02:30:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698833"], "description"=>"<p>This includes permanent, non-moveable measures, which will always be observed to be in use unless damaged.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nights", "exclusion", "measures", "observed", "adequately"], "article_id"=>369222, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Johanna Judge", "Robbie A. McDonald", "Neil Walker", "Richard J. Delahay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028941.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_distribution_showing_the_percentage_of_surveillance_nights_on_which_exclusion_measures_were_observed_to_be_adequately_employed_/369222", "title"=>"Frequency distribution showing the percentage of surveillance nights on which exclusion measures were observed to be adequately employed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-12-29 02:33:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698980"], "description"=>"<p>CH  =  Cattle Housing, FS  =  Feed Store, B  =  Both building types, C  =  Control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["glmm", "factors", "variations", "nights", "badger", "incursions", "buildings", "observations", "badgers", "farmyard", "entering"], "article_id"=>369364, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Johanna Judge", "Robbie A. McDonald", "Neil Walker", "Richard J. Delahay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028941.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_a_GLMM_to_identify_factors_associated_with_variations_in_the_number_of_nights_with_any_badger_visits_including_both_incursions_into_buildings_and_observations_of_badgers_within_the_farmyard_but_not_entering_buildings_/369364", "title"=>"Results of a GLMM to identify factors associated with variations in the number of nights with any badger visits, including both incursions into buildings and observations of badgers within the farmyard (but not entering buildings).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-12-29 02:36:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698939"], "description"=>"<p>CH  =  Cattle Housing, FS  =  Feed Store, B  =  Both building types, C  =  Control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["glmm", "factors", "variations", "nights", "badger"], "article_id"=>369329, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Johanna Judge", "Robbie A. McDonald", "Neil Walker", "Richard J. Delahay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028941.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_a_GLMM_to_identify_factors_associated_with_variations_in_the_number_of_nights_with_badger_entry_into_buildings_/369329", "title"=>"Results of a GLMM to identify factors associated with variations in the number of nights with badger entry into buildings.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-12-29 02:35:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/354986", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/355040", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/355119"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Bovine tuberculosis caused by <em>Mycobacterium bovis</em> is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed.</p> <h3>Methodology</h3><p>Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; “Control”, “Feed Storage”, “Cattle Housing” and “Both”, whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm.</p> <h3>Results</h3><p>Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biosecurity", "measures", "preventing", "badger", "visits", "buildings"], "article_id"=>130154, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Johanna Judge", "Robbie A. McDonald", "Neil Walker", "Richard J. Delahay"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028941.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028941.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028941.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Effectiveness_of_Biosecurity_Measures_in_Preventing_Badger_Visits_to_Farm_Buildings/130154", "title"=>"Effectiveness of Biosecurity Measures in Preventing Badger Visits to Farm Buildings", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-12-29 00:02:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698735"], "description"=>"<p>Observations were made prior to any exclusion measures being installed on study farms.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nights", "badger", "visits", "farmyards", "buildings", "observed"], "article_id"=>369125, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Johanna Judge", "Robbie A. McDonald", "Neil Walker", "Richard J. Delahay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028941.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_nights_on_which_badger_visits_to_farmyards_and_farm_buildings_were_observed_during_surveillance_phase_1_/369125", "title"=>"Percentage of nights on which badger visits to farmyards and farm buildings were observed during surveillance phase 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-12-29 02:32:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/699021"], "description"=>"<p>The factorial design of the study, showing the exclusion measure combinations by treatment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["factorial", "exclusion", "combinations"], "article_id"=>369409, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Johanna Judge", "Robbie A. McDonald", "Neil Walker", "Richard J. Delahay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028941.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_factorial_design_of_the_study_showing_the_exclusion_measure_combinations_by_treatment_/369409", "title"=>"The factorial design of the study, showing the exclusion measure combinations by treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-12-29 02:36:49"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2011-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2011-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[303, 571, 709, 823, 937, 1038, 1133, 1216, 1298, 1370, 1447, 1518, 1588, 1656, 1725, 1790, 1856, 1926, 1992, 2054, 2118, 2182, 2242, 2301, 2363, 2425, 2484, 2544, 2602, 2662, 2716, 2776, 2841, 2901, 2960, 3016, 3071]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Infectious diseases", "average_usage"=>[335, 648, 777, 906, 1018, 1131, 1224, 1307, 1396, 1462, 1541, 1619, 1695, 1764, 1821, 1892, 1959, 2029, 2095, 2155, 2218, 2270, 2329, 2395, 2457, 2528, 2590, 2638, 2708, 2759, 2823, 2882, 2930, 2990, 3041, 3099, 3150]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[340, 584, 708, 809, 915, 1005, 1089, 1174, 1254, 1334, 1408, 1478, 1563, 1648, 1716, 1791, 1847, 1915, 1979, 2044, 2105, 2163, 2218, 2297, 2382, 2436, 2493, 2553, 2618, 2682, 2741, 2786, 2847, 2937, 2989, 3039, 3102]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Human geography", "average_usage"=>[316, 505, 637, 786, 848, 973, 1029, 1080, 1145, 1199, 1261, 1359, 1444, 1501, 1578, 1634, 1682, 1738, 1816, 1909, 1959, 2004, 2085, 2162, 2223, 2259, 2322, 2442, 2494, 2544, 2602, 2685, 2764, 2852, 2902, 2951, 2988]}]}
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